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UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
LIBRARY 






Book number 























PROCEEDINGS 


OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 


OF 


WASHINGTON r 


VOLUME 40 





Published by the Society 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 
1938 




ACTUAL DATE OF PUBLICATION OF VOLUME 40 


Number 1—pages 1-24 inclusive. January 31, 1938 

Number 2—pages 25-56 inclusive. February 24, 1938 

Number 3—pages 57-92 inclusive. March 22, 1938 

Number 4—pages 93-116 inclusive. April 30, 1938 

Number 5—pages 117-132 inclusive .. May 27, 1938 

Number 6—pages 133-174 inclusive. June 24, 1938 

Number 7—pages 176-208 inclusive. October 27, 1938 

Number 8—pages 209-252 inclusive. November 23, 1938 

Number 9—pages 253-290 inclusive. December 30,1938 


PRESS OF 

H. L. & J. B. McQueen, Inc. 
Washington, D. C. 












Aur FS 




TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOLUME 40 


Anderson, W. H.: Descriptions of the Larvae of Chaetocnema denticulata 
(Illiger) and Chaetocnema Pulicaria Malsh (Coloeoptera: Chrysomeli- 

dae) .161 

Babcock, O. G., and Ewing, H. E.: A new Genus and Species of Anopleura 

From the Peccary .197 

Banks, Nathan: Two New Genera of Myrmeleonidae.125 

— Some Psammocharidae from Singapore .236 

Barber, H. G.: A New Species of Cistalia (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: 

Lygaeidae) . 87 

— A New Genus and Species of the Subfamily Triatominae 

(Reduviidae-Hemiptera) .104 

Blackman, M. W.: New Species of Cactopinus Schwarz (Coleoptera: 

Scolytidae) .151 

-Ancyloderes, a New Genus of Scolytidae .204 

Blake, Doris H.: Eight New Species of West Indian Chrysomelidae 44 

Burnside, C. E.: Some Characteristics of Bacillus Larvae in Culture after 

Exposure to Lethal Agents .107 

Busck, August: Edward Meyrick, F. R. S.177 

Carpenter, F. M.: Mecoptera from China, with Descriptions of New 

Species.267 

Cerquiera, N. and Antunes, P. C. A.: Haemagogus tropicalis, a New 

Species from Para, Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae). 1 

Chapin, E. A. and Wade, J. S.: Obituary Notice: Maurice Crowther Hall 147 

Crawford, J. C.: Some New or Little Known Thysanoptera.35 

— A New Genus and Species of Thysanoptera from Greenhouses 109 

Donahoe, Heber C.: Nests of Leaf-Cutting Bees in Dried Figs. 15 

Ewing, H. E.: Report of Treasurer for Calendar Year 1937 . 22 

— Two New Genera and One New Species of Siphonoptera . 93 

-North American Mites of the Subfamily Myobiinae, New 

Subfamily (Arachnida).180 

Fisher, W. S.: A New Anobiid Beetle (Coleop.: Anobiidae) Injurious to 

Books . 43 

Gahan, A. B.: Notes on Some Genera and Species of Chalcidoidea 

(Hymenoptera) .209 

Gurney, Ashley B.: Synonymy in the Genus Panorpa (Mecoptera) . . 52 

-A synopsis of the Order Zoraptera, with Notes on the 

Biology of Zorotypus Hubbardi Caudell .57 

Hallock, Harding C.: New Sarcophaginae (Diptera) .95 

Heinrich, Carl: An Important Mulberry Insect .249 

Jacot, Arthur Paul: Some New Western North Carolina Moss Mites . . 10 


[Hi] 




























IV 


TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOLUME 40 


Komp, W. H. W.: Aedes Leucotaeniatus, A New Species of Aedes Allied 
to A. Leucocelaenus D. & S.; and Descriptions of the Male and Larva 

of A. Leucocelaenus D. & S. (Diptera: Culicidae. 

— and Kumm, H. W.: A New Species of Haemagogus, Meso- 
dentatus, from Costa Rica, and a Description of the Larva of Hae¬ 
magogus Anastasionis Dyar (Diptera: Culicidae). 

McIndoo, N. E.: The Senses of Insects Compared to Higher Animals 
Muesebeck, C. F.: Two Reared North American Species of the Genus 

Stantonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).. 

— New Species and Synonymy in the Genus Macrocentrus 

(Hymenoptera: Braconidae). 

— Three New Reared Species of Apantelos from California 

(Hymenoptera: Braconidae).. 

-The Genus Dendrosoter Wesmael in the United States 

(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) .. 

Nolan, W. J.: Sex Determination in the Honeybee . 

Oman, P. W. and Wheeler, Nancy H.: The North American Leafhoppers 

of the Asporsa Group (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). 

Ross, Herbert H.: The Nearctic Species of Pikonema, a Genus of 

Spruce Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). 

---Descriptions of New North American Trichoptera .... 

Saylor, Lawrence W.: Revision of the Subfamily Oncerinae with 

Description of a New Genus. * . 

-New Phyllophaga from Nevada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) 

Smith, Marion R.: Notes on the Legionary Ants (Eciton, Subgenus 

Acamatus) with a Record of New Specific Synonymy. 

Snodgrass, R. E.: The Loral Plate and Hypopharnyx of Hemiptera . . . 


260 

253 

25 

89 

170 

201 

281 

105 

133 

17 

117 

99 

129 

157 

228 



















YOL. 40 JANUARY, 1938 No. 1 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



Published Monthly Except July, August and September, 
by the 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-clas6 matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., undet- 
Act of August 24, 1912. 


Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum on the 
rirst Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p. m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1938. 


Honorary President .L. O. Howard 

President .. E. A. Back 

First Vice-President .. R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President . Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary .. Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary .D. J. Caffrey 

Treasurer ..H. E. Ewing 

Editor . W. R. Walton 

Executive Committee . . . B. A. Porter, S. B. Fracker, N. E. McIndoo 
Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences . C. F. W. Muesebeck 


PROCEEDINGS 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society at 
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 JANUARY, 1938 No. 1 


HAEMAGOGUS TROPICALIS, A NEW SPECIES FROM 
PARA, BRAZIL (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE). 1 

By N. Cerqueira and P. C. A. Antunes. 

In studying material collected in connection with the investi¬ 
gation of possible vectors of jungle yellow fever, a new species 
of the genus Haemagogus was found. The species is described 
below. 

Haemagogus tropicalis, n. sp. 

Male .—Proboscis dark brown with blue reflection, curved, long and slender. 
Palpi dark blue with violet reflection, long, about two-thirds the length of 
proboscis (Fig. 17). Antennae plumose, about as long as the palpi. Clypeus 
dark, shining, nude. Occiput clothed with metallic blue scales with green 
reflection; a small spot of silvery-white scales at vertex; some scales of this 
color along the margins of the eyes; others at the sides below, producing an 
inconspicuous silverv-white spot. 

Prothoracic lobes clothed with metallic blue scales, darker than those of the 
occiput; no white scales; dark bristles along the anterior margin. 

Mesonotum .—Integument black, covered with flat ovate metallic blue scales 
with green and coppery reflection. Scutellum clothed with broad flat metallic 
blue scales with green reflection. Pleurae and coxae blackish, clothed with 
flat silvery-white scales; the scaling on sterno-pleurae extends up to the border 
of mesonotum, beyond the root of wings. 

Abdomen covered with metallic blue scales with violet reflection. Dorsally, 
from third to seventh segment, small median basal white spots, formed by broad 
silvery-white scales. Laterally, from first to seventh segment, conspicuous 
silvery-white spots; on the first and second segments these spots extend from 
anterior to posterior border of the tergites; on the following five segments they 
are basal and run to about half the length of the tergites. Venter violet-blue 
scaled, with narrow segmental basal silvery-white bands. Eighth sternite (Fig. 
16) with stiff spine-like setae, some short, others long. 

Legs violet-blue. Fore and mid femora with a small silvery-white spot on 
inner side; hind femur silvery-white on inner side from base to about two-thirds 
of its length. Fifth fore tarsal (Fig. 15) with a short spine at base, arising from 
conspicuous tubercle; two other tubercles, not so much developed, at the union 

1 The studies and observations on which this paper is based were conducted 
with the support and under the auspices of the Cooperative Yellow Fever Service 
maintained by the Brazilian Government and the International Health Division 
of The Rockefeller Foundation. 







2 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 


of proximal third with the distal two-thirds, bearing a short delicate spine each. 

Wings dark, a little shorter than the abdomen; scales on costa, subcosta, and 
first vein have blue and violet reflection, chiefly on basal half. 

Claw formulas .—1 /l.i /I—1 /0.1 /0—0/0.0 /0. On fore tarsals, both claws of 
both legs are toothed; mid tarsi on each leg have one claw toothed, the other 
simple. Hind tarsal claws simple. 

Genitalia (Plate 3).—Side-piece conical, a little more than twice and a half 
as long as wide, with long setae all around, except at a long triangular area 
which occupies the whole length of internal surface. The basal half of this area 
has numerous short delicate bristles inserted in small tubercles. Basal lobe 
inconspicuous, well chitinized, bearing numerous long, narrow, flattened setae. 
The outer surface of side-piece, chiefly on basal half, has numerous long spatu- 
late scales. Along the internal border, on upper two-thirds, a row of scales of 
different shapes and lengths; some are long, narrow, lanceolate; others, about 
one-half to two-thirds the length of the preceding ones, broad, abruptly reduced 
at distal extremity to a short point; a third type is represented by broad and 
very short curved scales. 

Clasper slender, short, a little less than one-half the length of side-piece, with 
a long terminal spine about one-half as long as itself. A few very short hairs on 
basal third of clasper; in a stained specimen, a stiff hair arising from a small 
tubercle is present on distal third of one clasper’s branch. 

Claspette (Fig. 14) with rather slender, long, curved stem, sparsely hairy on 
basal two-thirds, chiefly on inner side; a single seta at the union of upper distal 
third with basal two-thirds; one or two setae near base. Filament of claspette 
conspicuous, about three-fourths the length of stem, broad, leaflike, with a notch 
which divides it into two leaves; one of them is in the direction of stem; the 
other is sharply pointed, and forms an angle with the first one. Tenth sternite 
long (Fig. 13), strongly chitinized, rounded at apex; inner surface shows near 
tip a transverse patch (rows) of denticles. Two moderate stiff hairs on ninth 
sternite. 

Mesosome (Fig. 12) broad, rounded at distal half, narrowing toward base, 
balloon-shaped in outline with a small point at apex; a median longitudinal line 
chitinized at distal half. Ninth tergite has no lobes; in some specimens there is 
a single curved seta on one side. 

Female .—Coloration as in the male. Palpi short, about one-seventh the length 
of proboscis. 

Claw formulas. —1/1.1/1—1/l.l/I—0/0.0 /0. Fore and mid tarsal claws 

toothed; simple on hind tarsi. 

Larva (Plate 1).—Head rounded. Antennae small, smooth, with shaft hair 
slightly beyond the middle. This hair is single in most of the specimens, but a 
few show a single hair in one side and a bifurcated one in the other side. Ante- 
antennal tuft with 4 to 6 elements. Lower head hairs double; somewhat closer 
than these to the median line, a pair of long delicate tufts. Upper head hairs 
long, single. Mental plate triangular, with a stout central tooth and 8 to 9 
teeth on each side, the two basal ones remote and angular; the outer, sometimes 
small and very remote. 

Skin glabrous. Lateral comb of eighth segment in a triangular patch of 
24 to 28 scales in irregular rows. These scales are thorn-shaped, fringed at tip 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 


3 


and sides with short fine spinules (Fig. 5). Dorsal and ventrally to the comb, 
a tufted hair of 3 to 5 branches; posteriorly, a tuft of 6 to 9 elements arises from 
a circular chitinization; two single hairs flank this tuft, arising somewhat closer 
to the comb. 

Air-tube a little less than twice and one half as long as wide. The pecten 
nearly reaches the middle, followed by a three-to-four-haired tuft; the number 
of teeth of pecten varies from 12 to 17, of which the 2 to 5 basals are rudimentary. 

Anal segment slightly longer than wide, with rugose dorsal plate reaching 
well down the sides; posterior edge of the plate with very short denticulate 
spines (Fig. 7); dorsal tuft a long hair and a brush on each side; lateral tuft 
moderate, three-haired; ventral brush with one or two tufts preceding the barred 
area and a chitinized plate on each side. 

Anal gills about the length of the segment, pointed, but not sharply, the lower 
pair shorter than the upper. 


Discussion. 

Two species of Haemagogus have been described, with long 
male palpi; equinus Theob., 1903, and panarchys Dyar, 1921; 
tropicalis is then the third. 

As we have no specimens of panarchys , the distinction was 
made comparing our specimens with Dyar’s descriptions and 
figure (1 and 2). The main difference we were able to see is in 
the morphology of the claspette, whose stem is notched on 
outer side and conspicuously hairy at tip in panarchys; this 
character cannot be seen in tropicalis. 

We examined a male specimen of equinus (Miraflores, 
Panama), from the collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 
Rio de Janeiro, through the kindness of Dr. Costa Lima. This 
species was easily separated from tropicalis by the male genitalia. 
More recently we were very pleased to receive from Mr. 
W. H. W. Komp, Panama, the dissected and stained male 
genitalia and the 8th sternite of a specimen of equinus from 
Summit, Canal Zone. 

This paper is based on the examination of 41 females, 18 
males, 7 larval skins, and 11 pupal cases. All collections were 
made from January to May, 1936, at Curralinho, Para, Brazil, 
by Dr. H. W. Kumm and A. Rabello. Most of the trees where 
the breeding places have been found were not mentioned by the 
collectors; three of them were identified as Euterpe cleracea 
Mart., Palmae (Assahyseiro); Carapa guyanensis Aubl., Melia- 
ceae (Andiroba); Tecoma sp., Bignoniaceae (Ipe). 

The following are the places in Curralinho where the material 
was collected: Rio Camucu; Rio Cupijo; Rio Cupijo-mirim, 
Boa Esperanga; Rio Maracuja-mirim, Ponta Grande; Rio 
Massaranduba; Curralinho. 

The chief differences between equinus and tropicalis are the 
following: 


4 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 


equinus tropicalis 


Larva: 

Comb of eighth 
segment 

Lower head hairs 

Male genitalia: 
Claspette 


Scaling of inner 
border 


Abdomen: 

Vestiture of pos¬ 
terior border of 
8th sternite in 
the male 


A row 


Single 


Stem stout, markedly 
swollen at apical half; 
filament as in fig. 14a. 

All scales of similar shape; 
narrow, lanceolate. 


A median group of 
strongly inserted narrow 
straight scales (fig. 16) 


A patch 


Double 


Stem slender, not swollen; 
filament as in fig. 14. 

Scales of different shapes; 
some narrow, lanceolate; 
many are broad, pointed 
at apex; others are short, 
broad, crooked. 

This group is formed by 
spinelike setae, (fig. 16). 


Male holotype, female allotype, larval skin, and pupal cases 
to be deposited in the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil. 

Male and female paratypes to be deposited in the Laboratory 
of the Yellow Fever Service at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; in the 
Section of Parasitology of the Instituto de Hygiene, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil; in the United States National Museum, Washington, 
D. C.; and in the Malaria Research Laboratory, Ancon, 
Canal Zone, Panama. 


Acknowledgments. 

We are very much indebted to Dr. H. W. Kumm, who 
furnished us with the precious material, including living larvae, 
larval skins, and male and female adults from Curralinho, 
Para, Brazil. 

The writers are also very grateful to Dr. A. da Costa Lima 
and Mr. W. H. W. Komp for their invaluable advice and for 
their assistance in supplying us with specimens for comparison 
with our material here reported. 

References. 

1. Dyar, H. G. 1921. The Genus Haemagogus Williston (Diptera, Culicidae). 

Ins. Ins. Mens., IX : 101-114. 

2. Dyar H. G. 1928. The Mosquitoes of the Americas. Carnegie Inst, of 

Washington, Publ. No. 387, 616 pp. 






PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 


5 


3. Edwards, F. W. 1932. Diptera, Fam. Culicidae. Genera Insectorum, 

258 pp. 

4. Howard, L. O., H. G. Dyar, and F. Knab. 1917. The Mosquitoes of North 

and Central America and the West Indies, IV : 871-875. 

5. Theobald, F. V. 1903. Two New Jamaican Culicidae. The Entomologist, 

XXXVI, p. 282. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate I —Haemagogus tropicalis , n. sp. Fourth stage larva. 

Fig. T. Head, ventral view; number of hairs on groups a, b and c , varies as 
follows: a)—from 2 to 4; b)—from 2 to 4; c)—2 or 3. 

Fig. 2: Head, dorsal view. 

Fig. 3: Mental plate. 

Fig. 4: Air tube; eighth and anal segments. 

Fig. 5: A scale of pecten of eighth segment. 

Fig. 6: A spine of pecten of air-tube. 

Fig. 7: Spines of posterior margin of the plate of anal segment. 

Plate 2 —Haemagogus tropicalis , n. sp. Pupa. 

Fig. 8: Cephalothorax 

Fig. 9: Abdomen, male, dorsal view. 

Fig. 10: Abdomen, female, dorsal view. 

Plate 3—Male genitalia. 

Fig. 11 : H. tropicalis , n. sp., male genitalia. 

Fig. 12: H. tropicalis , n. sp., mesosome. 

Fig. 13: H. tropicalis , n. sp., tenth sternite. 

Fig. 14: H. tropicalis , n. sp., claspette. 

Fig. 14a: H. equinus Theob., claspette. 

Plate 4. 

Fig. 15: H. tropicalis , n. sp., fifth tarsal segment and claws of forelegs of the 
male. 

Fig. 16: H. tropicalis , n. sp., eighth sternite, male. 

Fig. 16a: H. equinus , Theob., eighth sternite, male. 

Fig. 17: H. tropicalis , n. sp., male proboscis and palpus. 


PLATE 1 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 



16 ] 












PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 2 



[7] 
























PLATE 3 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 



[8] 









PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 4 





[ 9 ] 













10 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 

SOME NEW WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA MOSS-MITES. 

By Arthur Paul Jacot, 

Northeastern Forest Exp. Station , New Haven , Conn. 

The following species and subspecies of Oribatidae were 
procured while making a census of the fauna of the litter of 
hardwood forests chiefly in the Bent Creek watershed, Bun¬ 
combe County, in the mountains of North Carolina. The types 
are to be deposited at the United States National Museum. 

Camisia segnis amicus, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (9, p. 38, figs. 1A, IB) in that notogastral bristles B1 
(D2 of Grandjean) are on same transverse plane as B3 (D3), thus spacing Bl, 
B2 and Cl (El) subequally; middle bristle of parasterna I is close to center of 
plate instead of near posterior edge; pseudostigmatic organs are so short that 
only the head extends beyond lateral edge of pseudostigma; notogastral bristles 
F3 (Op2) extend at least to insertion of F2 (Opl), and bristles E3 (Kl) are 
relatively much longer, bearing at least a dozen barbs. 

Cotypes: Nine specimens from litter of thirty-year-old white 
pine plantation on Biltmore estate on Asheville-Brevard road, 
about eight miles from Asheville, N. Car.; taken October 8th, 
1934, slide 34 F9.2-15. 

Platynothrus bicarinatus, sp. nov. 

As P. peltifer but the two mesal carina of notogaster absent; notogastral 
bristles much longer; animal larger: total length of body 0.67 mm., greatest 
breadth 0.37 mm. 

Cotypes: Twenty-two specimens from litter of Poplar Cove, 
Bent Creek Exp. Forest, Buncombe Co., N. Car.; taken July 
1st, 1935, slide 35F5.1-15. 

Oribata tectopediosa, sp. nov. 

Differs from all other species of the genus in having tectopedia II strongly 
and elaborately sculptured by deep, closely crowded pock-marks. There are 
also weak, angular areolations on the cephaloprothorax midway between 
interlamellar and lamellar bristles and down the sides to rostral bristles. Pseudo¬ 
stigmatic organs setaceous, distal end flagellate, with two bends (forming an 
open shepherd’s crook). Anal and genital apertures well spaced; anterior end 
of anal covers strongly produced as a lobe; trochanters (coxae) I to III each 
with a long bristle. Total length of body of males 0.33 mm., of females 0.37 mm. 

Cotypes: Twenty-five specimens from oak litter of ridge 
above Poplar Cove, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, Buncombe Co., 
N. Car.; taken July 15th, 1935, slide No. 35F6.3-17. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 11 


Oppia minus simplex, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (12, p. 48, pi. 3, fig. 11) in the absence of the crescentic 
ridge anterior to interlamellar bristle spurs. I find twenty notogastral bristles. 
Paoli undoubtedly overlooked that on anterolateral edge of notogaster (directly 
posteriad of the pseudostigmata). The other two are at posterior end of abdo¬ 
men. Length of types 0.18 to 0.19 mm. 

Cotypes: Forty-two specimens from Andropogon sod of 
overgrazed pasture on Asheville-Brevard road, twelve miles 
from Asheville, N. Car.; taken October 23d, 1934, slide 
34F110p3. 

Oppia elongata, sp. nov. 

Notogastral bristles very fine; sculpturing of cephaloprothorax confined to 
basal portion; pseudostigmatic organs clavate, head fusiform, ciliate; tectopedia 
I developed as a conical lobe projecting laterad between insertions of legs I and 
II, not at all curved forward. This is the smallest tectopedia I I have yet 
seen in this genus and is immediately diagnostic. Interlamellar bristles short, 
fine, curved anteriad, distant from posterior edge of cephaloprothorax, in lateral 
aspect appearing to spring from distal end of a low ridge; total length of body 
0.3 mm. 

Cotypes: Ninety-seven specimens from litter of mixed 
hardwoods, Rocky Cove, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, Buncombe 
Co., N. Car.; taken September 8th, 1934, slide 34F1-14. 

Oppia quadricarinata ferrumequina subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (11, p. 393, pi. 7; 11a, p. 385, pi. 31, figs. 13-15) in 
that notogastral ridge continues backward and mesad, joining to form a horse¬ 
shoe. 

Cotypes: Forty specimens from Liriodendron-Fraxinus litter 
of a south cove, Shut-in-Ridge, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, N. 
Car.; taken June 17th, 1935, slide 35F4.2-7. 

Autogneta longilamellata amicus, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (11, p. 391; 11a, p. 392, pi. 28, figs. 13-15) in that 
interlamellar bristle ridges are reduced to slender, straight bars lying along 
posterior edge of prothorax. Both Michael and Paoli figure the European form 
as having these ridges shaped like an ? point with the interlamellar bristle 
insertion included by the ridge. 

Cotypes: Twenty-five specimens from fern litter (possibly 
Adiantum pedatum ), Poplar Cove, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, 
Buncombe Co., N. Car.; taken July 1st, 1935, slide 35F5.3-9. 

Eremobelba leporosus leporoides, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (10, p. 225, pi. 15, fig. 6) from South and Central 
America, in that notogaster is much more slender, and its bristles are differently 


12 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 


arranged; and from E.gracilior (3 p. 10; 3a, pi. 21, fig. 74) from “North America” 
(probably Columbia, Mo., possibly from Lake City, Fla.) in position of noto- 
gastral bristles, the stout burred interlamellar bristles, and in the notogastral 
sculpturing which is granular-tuberculate arranged to form a net-pattern. 
Total length of body 0.37 mm., total breadth 0.18 mm., length of notogaster 
0.24 mm. 

Cotypes: Fifty-two specimens from Andropogon sod, top of 
Shut-in-Ridge, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, N. Car.; taken May 
8th, 1935, slide 34F34-36. 

Eremobelba leporosus flagellaris, subsp. nov. 

Differs from genotype in having smooth pseudostigmatic organs and longer 
notogastral bristles, the posterior ones being crispate. Differs from E. gracilior 
in length, shape and position of notogastral bristles. Total length of body 0.43 
mm., total breadth 0.247 mm., length of notogaster 0.26 mm. 

Cotypes: Sixty-two specimens from “white” oak litter, old- 
growth stand, compartment 5, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, Bun¬ 
combe Co., N. Car.; taken June 11th, 1935, slide 35F3X-26. 

Suctobelba grandis obtusa, subsp. nov. 

Differs from species (12, p. 78, pi. 4, fig. 32) in that distal end of pseudostig¬ 
matic organs is blunt, obtuse, not pointed and not terminated by a curved 
bristle (flagelliferous). 

Cotypes: Fifteen specimens from litter of thirty-year-old 
white pine plantation on Biltmore estate on Asheville-Brevard 
road about eight miles from Asheville, N. Car.; taken October 
8th, 1934, slide 34F9.3-20. 

Dameolus laciniatus americanus, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (2, p. 236; 12, p. 82, pi. 5, figs. 35, 51) in that the 
pseudostigmatic organs are long, sinuous, head elongate fusiform, compressed , 
tapering to a point. Paoli figured the organ of the American form (4, p. 91, 
“Nota”). The interlamellar bristle ridge extends beyond the bristles to anterior 
edge of pseudostigmata, usually as a strongly developed ridge; rostrum broad; 
rostral and lamellar bristles longer, curved. 

The notogaster and the arrangement of its twenty-two bristles is identical 
to that of specimens from Regensburg (Bavaria). 

Cotypes: Thirty-seven specimens from dogwood (Cornus) 
litter of thirty year old-field woods, laboratory grounds, Bent 
Creek Exp. Forest, Buncombe Co., N. Car.; taken September 
20th, 1934, slide 34F4.3-33. 

By its mouth parts and the development of the rostral area, 
this genus is closely related to Suctobelba, perhaps more special¬ 
ized. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 13 


Metrioppia serrata atlantica, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (14, p. 185, figs. 4-6) in that bristles ad3 are on 
transverse plane of anterior edge of aperture; there are four to five minor 
camerostomal serrations in addition to the distal; abdomen relatively much 
shorter; notogastral bristles differently arranged. 

Cotypes: Thirty-nine specimens from litter of thirty-year- 
old white pine plantation on Biltmore estate, Asheville-Brevard 
road about eight miles from Asheville, N. Car.; taken October 
8th, 1934, slide 34F9.2-32. 

Carabodes gibbiceps clavata, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (5, p. 330) in that pseudostigmatic organs are clavate, 
copiously scabrate, the head slit so as to be cleft along one side. 

Cotypes: Twenty-five specimens from short-leaf pine litter 
of isolated old-field stand on Asheville-Brevard road, two miles 
south of Bent Creek, Buncombe Co., N. Car.; taken October 
15th, 1934, slide 34F10.3R4. 

Cepheus mirabiloides, sp. nov. 

Resembling C. mirabilis (1, p. 10) but notogastral bristles much shorter, those 
of posterior edge horizontal, more widely spaced; distal ends of lamellae not 
meeting, the bristles subapical; total length of body of males 0.53 mm., of 
females 0.6 mm. 

Cotypes: Eight specimens from “white” oak litter, old 
growth stand, compartment 5, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, Bun¬ 
combe Co., N. Car.; taken June 11th, 1935, slide 35F3X-14. 

Rostrozetes foveolatus appalachicola, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (13 p. 85, figs. 6, 7), in having twenty-two noto¬ 
gastral bristles and much coarser sculpturing on the genital and anal covers. 
The pseudostigmatic organ head is spiny, the spines being arranged in four 
longitudinal rows. 

Cotypes: One hundred six specimens from dogwood (Cornus) 
litter of thirty year old-field woodland, laboratory grounds, 
Bent Creek Exp. Forest, N. Car.; taken September 20th, 1934, 
slides 34F4.3-51 and -52. 

Anachipteria achipteroides australoides, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species in having pseudostigmatic organs of A. australis 
(7, p. 160, pi. 3, figs. 40, 41) which is regarded as a species. The lamellae are 
those of A. achipteroides (6, p. 119, pi. 8, fig. 16). 

Cotypes: Eighteen specimens from Liriodendron-Fraxinus 
litter, south cove, Shut-in-Ridge, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, 
N. Car.; taken June 17th, 1935, slide 35F4X-31. 


14 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 

Achipteria armatum spinosum, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (1, p. 9) in having no notogastral bristles; no antero- 
ventral angle on pteromorphae; a spine on tectopedia II; and different para¬ 
sternal bristles. The lamellae have a lateral cusp but it is invisible in true 
dorsal aspect. 

Cotypes: Ten specimens from soil sample, Rocky Cove, 
Bent Creek Exp. Forest, Buncombe Co., N. Car.; taken April 
25th, 1935, slide 34F33-29. 

Microzetes auxiliaris appalachicola, subsp. nov. 

Differs from the species (8) in having only two pairs of notogastral plicae, 
and the mesal edge of lamellae extending much further posteriad and laterad so 
that they join each other almost at anterior edge of notogaster. Arrangement of 
bristles of venter also differs. 

Cotypes: Forty-nine specimens from mossy interspaces of 
Andropogon sod, old-field, Case Place, Bent Creek Exp. Forest, 
N. Car.; taken February 6th, 1935, slide 34F24-3. 

In 1936 (May 30), p. 77 Grandjean showed that Notaspis 
humeralis is a Trichoribates, and renames the Humerobates 
humeralis of authors, entirely ignoring Banks’ Oribata arborea 
and my paper on this species. Thus Humerobates rostrolamel- 
latus Grandjean 1936 is a subspecies of Oribata arborea Banks 
1895. 

Sellnick made Notaspis humeralis Hermann the type of 
Humerobates. Since TV. humeralis Herman is not Oribata arborea 
Banks, the latter species remains without generic designation. 
I propose the name 

BANKSINUS, gen. nov. 

Type: Oribata arborea Banks 1895, p. 7 (see Jacot, A Common 
Arboreal Moss Mite, Occ. Papers Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, 
pp. 369-382, pi. 19). 

Literature Cited. 

1. Banks, Nathan, 1895, On the Oribatoidea of the United States. 

2. Berlese, Antonio, 1904b, Acari nuovi, Manipulus 1. 

3. - 1908, Elenco di Generi e Specie nuove di Acari. 

3a. - - 1910a (Feb. 9), Acari nuovi, Manipulus V and VI. 

4. -1913, Acari nuovi, Manipoli VII and VIII. 

5. -1916c (Dec. 31), Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. 

6. Ewing, H. E. 1913, New Acarina, Part I. 

7. -1917, New Acarina, Part II. 

8. Grandjean, F. 1936 (May 7), Microzetes auxiliaris n. sp. (Oribates), 
Bull. Mus. nat. d’Hist. nat. Paris, ser. 2, vol. 8, pp. 138-145. 4 figs. 

- 1936 (May 30), Les Oribates de Jean Frederic Hermann et de 

son P6re, Ann. Soc. ent. France, vol. 105, pp. 27-110, 14 figs. 


9 . 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 15 


10. Haller, Gottfried, 1884, Beschreibung einiger neuen Milben. 

11. Michael, A. D. 1885, New British Oribatidae. 

11a.- 1888, British Oribatidae, vol. 2. 

12. Paoli, Guido. 1908, Monografia del Genere Damecsoma Berl. e Generi 

Affini. 

13. Sellnick, Max. 1925a (May 30), Fauna Sumatrensis (Beitrag Nr. 6): 

Oribatidae (Acar.). 

14. -1931b, Mexikanische Milben 1. 

For further details see my Annotated Bibliography of the Moss Mites. 


NESTS OF LEAF-CUTTING BEES IN DRIED FIGS. 

By Heber C. Donohoe, 

Division of Fruit Insects , Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

During the fall of 1935 several inquiries about leaf-cutting 
bees in Calimyrna figs were received at the Dried Fruit Insect 
Laboratory, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, at 
Fresno, Calif. 

The bees construct cylindrical cases within the cavity of a fig 
by means of leaf segments carried in through the eye, provision 
these cases with pollen, and seal each tube with a circular cap of 
leaf segments. As this foreign material partially or entirely 
fills the fig cavities, the figs so provisioned are of cull grade. 

A grower in the Figarden district, near Fresno, directed the 
writer to the portion of his fig acreage from which several figs 
showing this injury had come. This part of the orchard lies 
on both the east and west sides of an irrigation canal. A search 
of the area October 1 and 3, revealed that the leaves used in nest 
construction were predominantly or entirely those of a species 
of Polygonum (knotweed) growing as scattered plants on the 
ditch banks close by the water’s edge. The edges of many 
leaves of these plants were riddled with smooth, cut-out areas 
typical of the work of leaf-cutting bees, while none of the other 
wide variety of wild vegetation along the ditch had been so 
injured. A single willow tree growing in a nearby field showed 
slight, but mainly irregular, cut-out sections, some of which may 
have been caused by bees. Since the leaves were being attacked 
by sphinx caterpillars it is more probable that they, or grass¬ 
hoppers, were responsible. 

The leaves of Polygonum and the segments from several nests 
were compared microscopically by C. H. Quibell, systematic 
botanist at Fresno State College, and the writer, and found 
to be identical. 

On October 1 and 3 no bees were found in the act of cutting 
segments or entering figs, but on the latter date two species of 
Megachilidae were present along the ditch banks in some 



16 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 

numbers. These bees were mainly frequenting the flowers of a 
hedge nettle, Stachys albens Gray, a species of wild Labiatae 
(mint family), which were producing an abundance of yellow 
pollen. One species proved too elusive to capture; specimens of 
the other were identified by Miss Grace Sandhouse of the Bureau 
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and by Dr. T. B. Mitchell 
of the University of North Carolina as Anthidium maculosum 
Cresson, a species which constructs its nests of plant fibers. On 
microscopic examination of the pollen in one of the nests, it 
appeared to consist of many types of pollen grains, differing 
from one another in size, shape, and reticulation, suggesting 
that several species of plants are visited in provisioning nests. 
Pollen from the pollen basket of one of the bees appeared identi¬ 
cal microscopically with one of the types from the nest. At¬ 
tempts to rear adults from the nests in the laboratory were 
unsuccessful. 

While time did not permit verification, these observations 
suggest that in this curious association of organisms the bees 
construct nests in fruits of Ficus (Moraceae) from leaf-segments 
of Polygonum sp. (Polygonaceae) and provision these nests with 
pollen from several other species of plants, including Stachys 
albens , of the family Labiatae. 

Since no bee activity was discovered in the orchard it is not 
known whether the nests are constructed in figs on the trees or 
on the ground, though the ground is the more probable location. 
Figs for drying ripen and fall and are harvested from the ground 
at intervals throughout the season. Several figs containing nests 
had such small eyes that it seems quite impossible for the bees 
to have entered during nest construction. As many as three 
cases were found within a single fig. 

Mr. G. H. Kaloostian, while a member of the fig testing staff 
of the Dried Fruit Association of California, during the exami¬ 
nation of many thousands of Calimyrna figs discovered two figs 
which contained another peculiar type of nest. In these the 
interior of the fruit was filled with a mass of plant fibers sur¬ 
rounding a tubular chamber which opened through the eye of 
the fig. It was not possible to trace the origin of the figs con¬ 
taining these nests back to the orchard. According to Dr. 
Mitchell they are evidently the work of Anthidium maculosum. 

Mr. Elroy Robinson, student curator in botany at Fresno 
State College, and the writer, attempted to determine the 
species of plant from which the fibers for these nests were 
obtained. Microscopic comparisons of the nest fibers with 
fibers from leaves and stems of a variety of plants indicated, 
with little doubt, that the nests were constructed of fibers from 
the hairy covering which envelops leaves, stems, and flowers of 
Stachys albens. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 17 


THE NEARCTIC SPECIES OF PIKONEMA, A GENUS OF SPRUCE 
SAWFLIES (HYMENOPTERA, TENTHREDINIDAE). 

By Herbert H. Ross, 

Illinois State Natural History Survey , Urbana , Illinois. 

During the last few years Mr. R. E. Balch and his co-workers, 
of the Dominion Entomological Branch of Canada, have reared 
from spruce many lots of sawfly larvae belonging to the Pachy- 
nematus ocreatus group, or “group I” of Marlatt. These reared 
series have established for the first time the correct association 
of the two sexes of the species and show that color is of little 
value in segregating the species. Since the names hitherto used 
are considerably jumbled, this effort is made to organize them 
with the recent advances in our knowledge of their larvae. 

PIKONEMA Ross. 

Pikonema Ross, Illinois Biological Monographs, 15 (2) : 86. 1937. 

This genus was erected for the “ocreatus” group hitherto placed in Pachy- 
nematus on the basis of the incised clypeus and small inner tooth of the tarsal 
claws. It differs from this genus, however, in the long, shining sheath of the 
female and the narrow, elevated procidentia of the male. The larvae and male 
genitalia resemble most closely some species of Amauronematus . The adults 
differ from those of Amauronematus in the non-flattened head and the small 
inner tooth of the tarsal claws. 

A study of some European species shows that there exist some, such as 
Pachynematus scutellatus , which resemble Pikonema closely in external charac¬ 
ters but on the basis of male genitalia are undoubtedly true Pachynematus. 

Characteristics.— Venation typical of the higher Nematinae. Clypeus 
emarginate. Antennae long and setaceous. Ocellar basin bounded by distinct 
walls, which are somewhat rounded. Fovea between antennal sockets variable 
in shape. Head and body surface shining, with only inconspicuous puncta- 
tion. Tarsal claws with a small inner tooth some distance below apex of outer 
one. Female sheath long, projecting considerably beyond cerci, figs. 9-11, 
more or less round at the end, with the lateral surface highly polished, and the 
apex with a fringe of fine setae.. Male with apical sternite long, tapering to a 
narrow, semi-truncate tip; procidentia of eighth tergite narrowed towards base, 
its apex projecting beyond *apex of segment. 

Larvae distinguished from allied forms by the following combination of 
characters: Body cylindrical, not markedly tapering at apex, fig. 17. Apical 
tergite round, without sharp lateral processes. Head variable in color but 
body always with longitudinal banding as in fig. 17, sometimes paler. The only 
differences I have found between the species are given in the key. 

Genotype.—Nematus dimmockii Cresson (original designation). 


18 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 1 , JAN., 1938 


Key to Adults. 

1. Apical sternite undivided (males).......4 

Apical sternites divided by a sheath (females)....„.2 

2. Apex of saw round, fig. 8......... dimmockii 

Apex of saw pointed, figs. 6, 7___________3 

3. Dorsal margin of sheath evenly convex, not notched at apex, fig. 11 

ruralis 

Dorsal margin of sheath notched at apex, fig. 10_ .1... _ alaskensis 

4. Apex of sagittae and volsellae of same height and fused, fig. 5.. ..dimmockii 

Apex of sagittae higher than volsellae, not fused, fig. 4.... alaskensis 

Key to Larvae 

1. Head green.________—.._ ..:L. __ dimmockii 

Head chestnut brown, sometimes with a mottling of dark brown over 
the chestnut, and sometimes almost black.....__ alaskensis 


Pikonema dimmockii (Cresson). 

Nematus dimmockii Cresson, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., vol. 8, 1880, p. 6, $. 

Type* at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Nematus ocreatus Harrington, Can. Ent., vol. 21, no. 5, May, 1889, p. 95, $. 
New synonymy . Type in the Canadian National Museum, Ottawa, Can. 

The female is readily distinguished by the long sheath and rounded saw, 
figs. 8, 9, 12. The abdomen varies in color from completely chestnut to almost 
entirely black, with all intergradations. 

Male. —Similar in general structure to the female. Length 8.0 mm. Color: 
head a mottling of cream color, chestnut and black; thorax mostly black with 
scattered marking of cream and chestnut; abdomen black. 

Genitalia distinctive. Sagittae and volsellae slender, rounded and fused 
together at apex, fig. 5. Penis valves with lateral flap studded at bulge with 
short spines, bearing at apex two teeth, a long, sharp, dorsal one and a short, 
blunter, ventral one, fig. 1. 

Allotype , male; Cascapedia River, Quebec, reared June 28, 1934, from Picea 
canadensis , M. L. Prebble. Deposited in the Canadian National Museum. 

Distribution. — Idaho —Moscow Mt.: July 11, 1 $ ; June 8, 1921, 1 $. Mani¬ 
toba —Aweme: June 2, 1922, 1 $ . New Brunswick— St. Johns: June 9, 1901, 
1$. New Hampshire —Mount Washington: 1$. Quebec —Grand Casca¬ 
pedia: reared d% $ from Picea canadensis and P. mariana. 

Mr. G. S. Walley of the Canadian National Museum has kindly compared the 
type of ocreatus with specimens and drawings. He reports that the characters 
of sheath and saw can be seen on the type and are as herein represented. 

Pikonema alaskensis (Rohwer), new combination. 
Pachynematus ocreatus auct., nec Harrington. 

Pachynematus -alaskensis Rohwer,' Proq. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 41, no. 1866, 
Oct. 14, 1911, p. 387, cf, $. Types* in the U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. 

* Types which have been studied by the author are marked with an asterisk. 












PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 19 


Pachynematus piceae Rohwer, ibid., cf, 9. New synonymy. Types* in the 
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

A series of 40 females indicates that the color of the abdomen is usually 
chestnut with occasional dark suffusions at the base, but varies to entirely black. 
The male seems to have the abdomen always banded with rufous. The narrow¬ 
ness of this band in some specimens may indicate that sometimes the abdomen 
is entirely black in this sex also. 

The male genitalia differ from those of dimmockii as follows: sagittae with 
apex tapering to a point, and projecting beyond apex of volsellae, fig. 4; penis 
valve with only a long, dorsal tooth at apex of lateral flap, figs. 2 and 3. The 
female sheath always has an incision on the dorsal corner of the apex, fig. 10. 
The saw resembles that o t ruralis, terminating in a point, figs. 7, 16. 

Distribution. — Alaska —Sitka: April 19, 1899, T. Kincaid, 3$. Alberta — 
Edmonton: June 9, 1932, E. H. S., 1 $ ; Gull L: June 20, 1929, E. H. S. 1 $. 
British Columbia —Vernon: May 10, 1934, reared from Picea engelmanni 
lcf, 39; Needles: May 29, 1934, 1 9- Idaho —Moscow: July 14, 1898, 1 9; 
Mt. Moscow: July 11, lcf. Manitoba —Winnipeg: 79; Aweme: June 8-15, 
1917, from spruce, N. Griddle; Transconia: May 28, 1926, lcf; Clear Lake, 
Riding Mt. Park: June 4, 1936, H. E. M., 19. Michigan —Grand Island: 
July 27, 1907, A. D. H., cf, 9 • New Brunswick —Frederickton: June 4, 1933, 
R. E. Balch, lcf, 29, reared from Picea canadensis. Quebec —Cascapedia: 
many reared series from spruce, Picea; Lake St. Anne: reared cf and 9 from 
Picea mariana; Berthierville: May 21, 1934, reared from Colorado Blue Spruce, 
2cf. Saskatchewan —Sutherland: June 6, 1928, reared from spruce, 19. 
Wyoming— Yellowstone N. P.: June 19, 1930, at the Thumb, 1 9 • 

Pikonema ruralis (Cresson), new combination. 

Nematus ruralis Cresson, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., vol. 8, 1880, p. 5. 9 . Type* 

at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The male and larva are unknown. The female sheath and saw are shown in 
figs. 6, 11, 13. I have seen only five females of this species and in these the 
abdomen has the dorsum dark brown except for the extreme apex, this and the 
sides straw color and the sternites varying from straw color to brown. 

Distribution. — Oregon —Crater Lake: July 19, 1922, 3 9; Mt. Hood: June 
24, 1925, 1 9. 


Plate 1— Parts of Pikonema Species. 

1 — 3 Penis valves 

4 — 5 Sagittae and volsellae 

6 — 8 Saws 

9 —11 Sheaths 

12, 13, 16 Apical portion of lancets 

14—15 Lateral and frontal views of larval heads 

17 Lateral view of entire larva 


PLATE 5 


PROC. ENT. SOC, WASH., VOL. 40 






[ 20 ] 



































PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 J 21 


REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR 1937 

The year 1937 has been a very unusual one in regard to 
increase in expenditures but even more unusual because of the 
increase in receipts, particularly in funds derived from the sale 
of back numbers and sets of our Proceedings. Receipts ob¬ 
tained from the collection of old debts amounted to $245.54, 
which is $26.96 less than collected from this source last year. 
Late in the year the closed District National Bank declared a 
third dividend which gave to our Society $45.82. Only fifteen 
percent of the obligation of this bank to the Society now re¬ 
mains unpaid. This obligation is not listed in this report as an 
asset. A tabular summary of receipts and expenditures for the 


calendar year 1937 is here given: 

Receipts 

Cash on hand (Jan. 1, 1937)____ $532.05 

From members, dues for 1937_________ 416.00 

dues paid in advance....... 9.00 

back dues__ 166.95 

initiation fees_ 6.00 

From subscribers, for subscriptions to Proceedings__ 530.52 

for entire cost of articles. 44.51 

From authors, for separates and author’s copies_ 120.23 

for entire cost of articles_____.. 66.39 

for illustrations_ 12.51 

From sale of back numbers of Proceedings_ 647.38 

exchange and donated literature. 33.83 

From dividend paid by District National Bank_ 45.82 


Net receipts________ $2,631.19 

Expenditures. 

To H. L. & J. B. McQueen, Inc., for printing Proceedings 

(No. 9 of Vol. 38 and Nos. 1-9 of Vol. 39) and separates_ $1,531.79 

To H. L. & J. B. McQueen, Inc., for printing programs of meetings.. 25.50 

To Southern Engraving Co. for engravings___ 186.17 

To Kirby Lithographic Co. for facsimile reprinting of 100 copies each 

of Vol. 31, No. 4 and Vol. 32, No. 8 of Proceedings.. ___ 50.60 

For stationery..... 33.66 

For stamps___________ 33.35 

For express and shipping charges, including packing expenses and 

second-class postage_________ 22.15 

For clerical help, Office of Corresponding Secretary.. 60.00 

For rent, 1937, of safe deposit box at The City Bank _ . 3.85 

For refreshments, June meeting. ......... .. 5.00 

For miscellaneous expenses.... 8.80 


Total expenditures for 1937_ . . . $1,960.87 





























22 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 1 , JAN., 1938 


Receipts from, sale of three complete sets of Proceedings transferred to 


publication fund __.____ 1 _ . 289.35 

Cash on hand {Jan. 1 , 1938 ) ........ 380.97 

Outstanding obligations .—...... none 


$2,631.19 


Publication Fund 

Schwarz donation, principal....... $1,000.00 

accumulated dividends 1927-1936_ 553.32 

Knab bequest (in savings account)_..____ 150.00 

covered by a five year personal, non-interest bearing 

note..._....... 1,250.00 

General unrestricted fund, principal_ 289.35 

interest for 1937_ 4.00 


Total in publication fund___ $3,246.67 

Respectfully submitted, 


H. E. Ewing, 

Treasurer. 

Audited and found correct. 

B. A. Porter, 

E. C. Cushing, 

Committee on Audit, January 5, 1938. 


MINUTES OF THE 487TH REGULAR MEETING OF THE ENTO¬ 
MOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 487th meeting of the Society was held at 8 p. m., Thursday, December 2, 
1937, in Room 43 of the National Museum, with forty-three members and 
twenty-eight visitors present, and the President in the chair. The minutes of 
the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Chairman of the Membership Committee presented the name of E. R. 
McGovran, of the Beltsville Entomological Laboratory, who, upon recommenda¬ 
tion of the Executive Committee, was unanimously elected to membership. 

The chair summarized, in brief fashion, the work of the Society for the year 
and thanked the officers for their cooperation. 

The Treasurer presented a partial report, covering the first ten months of 
1937. (See full report following minutes in this issue.) 

The Corresponding Secretary then gave his report for the year 1937, through 
November 30, which is summarized as follows: 


Copies of Proceedings on hand.......31,461 

Copies reprints on hand during 1937......13,987 

Total net value of sales_______—$639.95 

Number of members in 1937....210 

Number of subscribers in 1937.....120 


Mr. Snodgrass made a motion that these reports be accepted by the Society, 
and the motion was passed. 




















PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 1, JAN., 1938 23 


Austin H. Clark, Chairman of the Nominating Committee, on behalf of his 
committee, consisting of C. E. Burnside, Alan Stone, J. S. Wade and W. B. 
Wood, submitted the following list of nominations for the offices of the Society 
for 1938: 

President __ E. A. Back 

First Vice-President _ R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President ___ Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary . .. . ..Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary. _ D. J. Caffrey 

Treasurer _ H. E. Ewing 

Editor..... . W. R. Walton 

Members , Executive Committee _ B. A. Porter, S. B. Fracker, 

N. E. McIndoo 

Vice President , 

Washington Academy of Sciences . C. F. W. Muesebeck 


F. M. Wadley moved that the Secretary be instructed to cast a unanimous 
ballot for the election of these officers. The motion was carried. 

The first paper on the regular program, entitled “Evolution of the Prosoma 
of Arachnida,” was given by R. E. Snodgrass. 

This paper was discussed by Cushman and Ewing. 

Mr. R. E. Snodgrass gave a brief discussion, illustrated with lantern slides, 
of the comparative structure of the trilobite head and the prosoma of Xipho- 
surida and Arachnida, showing that there can be little doubt of a direct rela¬ 
tionship of the Chelicerata with the Trilobita. (Author’s abstract.) 

Miss Mabel Colcord presented the second paper, entitled “New Books of 
Interest,” in which she made interesting comments on current literature. 

The third paper was given by H. S. McConnell, and entitled “Additional 
Notes on Oocenteter tomostethae .” 


[Oocenteter tomostethae Cushman was recently described as a new genus 
and new species. It apparently belongs to the tribe Tryponini of the 
family Ichneumonidae. The species is of interest because of its biology 
and some anatomical features of the first stage larva. Oocenteter tomostethae 
is one of the small number of Ichneumonidae that oviposits in the egg of the 
host, but does not destroy the host until the host larva is fully grown. 

[The parasite and host, Tomostethus multicinctus (Rohw.), appears as 
adults during the last few days of April in the vicinity of the University of 
Maryland. As soon as the leaf buds of white ash (Fraxinus americana) 
begin to unfold, Tomostethus starts to oviposit in the margins of the unfold¬ 
ing leaflets, and by the end of the first week of May practically all its eggs 
have been laid and a majority have hatched. Oocenteter begins to ovi¬ 
posit in the eggs of Tomostethus as soon as they are available. The incuba¬ 
tion period of the host is from 6 to 8 days, and that of the parasite about 
5 days. The parasite eggs are placed in the yolk cells of the host egg, and 
thus the parasite egg or young larva becomes enveloped in the mesenteron 
of the host. About the time the host eggs hatch, the parasite larva mi¬ 
grates from the mesenteron and takes up a position in the thoracic segments 
ventral to the digestive tract, but above the fat body. The head of the 
parasite larva is almost invariably toward the head of the host larva. The 
parasite larva maintains this position during the entire feeding period of 
the host, which is approximately two weeks. 

[The Tomostethus larvae become full grown between the 14th and 18th of 












24 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 1 , JAN., 1938 


May; while the parasite larvae do not molt during the feeding period of the 
host, they increase greatly in size. A rather unusual feature of the first 
stage larva is the anal vesicle. After the first molt, the vesicle invaginates 
to its normal position. When the host larvae finish feeding they enter the 
soil beneath the tree, form earthen cells, and change to prepupae; in this 
condition they pass the winter and pupate about the middle of April. 

[The length of the first instar of the parasite is about the same as that of 
the other four instars combined. The first molt occurs when the host has 
finished feeding and is ready to enter the ground. After the host has 
entered the ground, the parasite larva develops rapidly, and becomes full 
grown about June 1. It spins its cocoon in the earthen cell of the host. 
The larva spends a quiescent period of about three and a half months, and 
begins pupating September 15. Pupation is completed by October 15, 
and a few have emerged within the cocoons. By November 15 all have 
emerged within the cocoons. The adults spend the entire winter in their 
cocoons with the tip of their abdomens imbedded in the liquid meconial 
mass.] (Author’s abstract.) 

E. C. Cushing stated that special rates for transportation to the December 
meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science were 
available and that information concerning them might be secured from Mr. 
Hyslop. 

Upon invitation from the chair, the following visitors introduced themselves: 
Dr. Grace H. Griswold, Ithaca, N. Y., and L. G. Baumhofer and Randall Latta, 
both recently transferred to Washington. 

A sound movie of the Periodical Cicada, which could not be shown at the 
June meeting because of inclement weather, was presented by J. A. Hyslop. 
Following this, one of the operators gave a brief explanation of the method of 
recording and reproducing the sound. 

Mr. Hyslop announced the election of R. E. Snodgrass as an Honorary Fellow 
of the Royal Entomological Society of London, and in response to the applause 
greeting this announcement, Mr. Snodgrass made a few remarks. 

Adjournment followed at 10:15 p. m. Catherine Ford, 

Recording Secretary. 


Actual date of 'publication , January 31 , 1938. 




ANNOUNCEMENT 


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CONTENTS 

CERQUIERA, N. AND ANTUNES, P. C. A.—HAEMOGOGUS TROPICALIS, A NEW 

SPECIES FROM PARA, BRAZIL (DIPTERA CULICIDAe) . 1 

DONOHOE, HEBER C.-NESTS OF LEAF-CUTTING BEES IN DRIED FIGS . . 15 

EWING, H. E.-REPORT OF TREASURER FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1937 ... 22 

JACOT, ARTHUR PAUL—SOME NEW WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA MOSS MITES . 10 

ROSS, HERBERT H.—THE NEARCTIC SPECIES OF PIKONEMA, A GENUS OF 

spruce sawflies (hymenoptera : tenthredinidae) .17 






VOL. 40 FEBRUARY, 1938 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

OGICAL 

OF WASHINGTON 


Published Monthly Except July, August and September 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., under 
Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum on the 
nrst Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p. m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
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precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1938. 


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President .E. A. Back 

First Vice-President . R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President . Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary .. . . ..Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary . D. J. Caffrey 

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Editor . W. R. Walton 

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Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences .C. F. W. Muesebeck 


PROCEEDINGS 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 FEBRUARY, 1938 No. 2 


THE SENSES OF INSECTS COMPARED TO THOSE OF 
HIGHER ANIMALS.' 

By N. E. McIndoo, 

Senior Entomologist Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

For decades there has been a controversy as to whether 
insects have senses similar to those of the higher animals. If 
they do, then should the sense organs of insects and vertebrates 
be similar in structure? A few writers say that we should not 
try to compare the senses of insects with those of the higher 
animals, because the anatomical organization of the former is 
quite different from that of the latter. Regardless of whether 
we are justified in making this comparison, it is commonly done, 
and, even if there is a controversy about the fundamentals of the 
subject, much nevertheless has been accomplished economically 
during the past decade by using attractants, baits, repellents, 
and various kinds of light traps. 

In this brief paper the economic aspects of the subject will be 
only mentioned here and there. The literature on the senses 
of insects and the higher animals is very extensive, but, since 
most of it does not treat the subject in a comparative way, very 
little of it can be used in this connection, and only a few of the 
references can be cited here. 

THE SENSE OF SIGHT. 

In regard to sight, the highest attainments pertain to the 
perception of form and color. Man and some of the higher 
animals perceive the shape and color of objects and so do 
insects, but the latter not exactly as we do. 

Perception of form .—According to a reviewer ( 6 ) 1 2 Von Frisch 
(12) demonstrated that honeybees can be trained to distinguish 
forms of objects. Food was given to them in a closed box, into 
which they were obliged to crawl through a hole. Around this 
hole was glued the picture of a flower, while around a hole in 
another box, which was empty and which was put beside the 

1 Address delivered by the retiring President of the Society at the January, 
1938, meeting. 

2 Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 34. 







26 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 

first, was glued the picture of another flower. After food had 
been given thus for several days, the boxes, which could be 
distinguished only by the difference in the pictures of the 
flowers, were put before the bees empty. A much greater 
number of visits were paid to the box which had previously 
contained food. Bees, therefore, are able to distinguish between 
two flowers according to their shape. Similar tests were also 
made by use of simple geometrical figures. 

Perception of color .—During the time of Darwin the lower 
animals were supposed to have a color sense. Hess said that all 
invertebrates and fishes were totally color blind and that only 
the highest forms—mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians— 
were able to see colors. Later researches have shown that 
cuttlefishes, insects, and the higher Crustacea do possess a sense 
of color (6). 

All animals that possess a certain amount of intelligence can 
be trained to distinguish colors. Von Frisch was the first to 
attempt this, with bees. He used the “chess-board” method. 
On a square board were fixed a large number of pieces of card¬ 
board of all shades of gray, from the lightest white-gray to the 
darkest black-gray. Among these was placed a piece of card¬ 
board of the color on which the bees had been trained (blue). 
The results showed that the bees had a color sense. The 
trained bees, having been accustomed to find their food on a 
blue background, flew to the blue pieces of cardboard only and 
paid no attention to any of the others (6). 

The color sense of bees has been further studied by Kuhn. 
Bees perceive all wave lengths between 650 and 313 millimi¬ 
crons (mp). Within this range they distinguish four different 
colors. The first comprises wave lengths from 650 to about 500 
mp and includes our red of shorter wave length, and also yellow 
and green. All these appear to them as one color. The red 
of longer wave length, which we use in our photographic dark 
rooms, is not distinguished by bees at all; they confuse it with 
black. The second comprises wave lengths from 500 to 480 mp 
and corresponds to our blue-green, and the third lies between 
480 and 400 mp (our blue and violet). Lastly, bees perceive a 
fourth visual region in the ultra-violet which is beyond our 
perception. It lies between 400 and 310 mp. Bees may, there¬ 
fore, be trained to distinguish ultra-violet just as well as blue 
or yellow (6). 

It can be proved that animals, including man, respond 
differently to light and its color, according to conditions under 
which they find themselves. If they are tested with Schlieper’s 
optomotor they sometimes act as if they were color blind, even 
those definitely known to have a color sense. Butterflies and 
moths when tested in this apparatus reacted sometimes as if 
perceiving colors, at other times as if color blind (6). 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 27 


In tests in which Hering’s colored papers were used, the 
relative brightness values of green, yellow, blue, and red were 
slightly higher for bees than for man (dark adapted) but were 
considerably lower than those for man (light adapted) ( 6 ). 

Lutz (17) used colored filters as windows in a box and deter¬ 
mined that insects (particularly Lepidoptera) can readily 
distinguish ultra-violet waves. In every case in which an 
insect reacted to any illumination, either clear or colored, it 
definitely reacted to ultra-violet. Flower-visiting insects did 
not see red to green as well as they did blue to ultra-violet. 
They appeared to see ultra-violet better than they did colors 
that seem bright to us. Some flowers reflected ultra-violet 
waves, others did not, while still others had an ultra-violet 
pattern. He concluded that ultra-violet flowers are no more 
popular with insects than are flowers reflecting only the colors 
that are visible to man. 

Bertholf (3) states that Von Frisch and Kuhn concluded that 
bees distinguish only enormous differences in brightness while 
Hess believed that bees are practically as acute as man in this 
ability. Bertholf concludes that neither statement is correct, 
for bees begin to distinguish between two illuminated areas 
when the intensity of one is reduced to at least 70 percent of the 
intensity of the other, whereas human beings distinguish be¬ 
tween them equally well when the intensity of the one is reduced 
to only 90 percent of that of the other. The upper limit of the 
spectrum for the honeybee extends to at least wave length 677 
m/x in the red, and not only to 650 mix found by Kuhn. TJie 
point of maximum stimulative efficiency for the bee is in the 
yellow-green at about 553 mix , which corresponds closely with 
that of man. From this point the efficiency decreases more 
rapidly for bees than for man toward the longer wave lengths, 
but more slowly than for man toward the shorter wave lengths, 
being at 431 mu still fully 10 percent of the maximum. Man is 
considerably more acute than bees in ability to distinguish 
differences in brightness. 

Bertholf (4) continued his work on the honeybee and says 
that the efficiency is highest at wave length 365 mix and that the 
spectrum extends ac least down to wave length 297 mix but not 
to 280 mix. When the curve representing the distribution of 
efficiency in the ultra-violet spectrum is joined to that for the 
so-called visible spectrum, there are shown to be two maxima, 
one in the yellow-green at wave length 553 mix, and the other in 
the ultra-violet at 365 mix , the latter being about 4^2 times as 
great as the former. Bertholf (5) continued his work by using 
Drosophila (Diptera). The curve starts to rise at 575 mix and 
reaches a maximum in the visible spectrum at 487 mix, then 
descends to 425 mix, again rises quickly and attains a maximum 
at 365 mix, then descends to 250 mix. 


28 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 

Light traps .—Artificial light as a control measure was probably 
first used in 1787 for attracting vine moths in Europe. Since 
that date light traps have been gradually developed and im¬ 
proved until to-day there are many types and varieties of 
gasoline, kerosene, acetyline, and electric lamps used for this 
purpose. Most of these have been devised primarily for 
catching Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera. It seems that 
none, however, has given complete satisfaction as a control 
measure (19, 20). The light traps devised for mosquitoes are 
not used as a means of control, but merely to catch as many 
species as possible in order to study the distribution of species 
in a given place. 


THE SENSE OF SMELL. 

The olfactory organ .—This organ in the higher animals consists 
chiefly of supporting cells and olfactory cells. The distal ends 
of the latter project slightly beyond the level of the mucous 
membrane, where they and their cilia are usually protected by 
a copious supply of mucus secreted by the supporting cells (31). 
The cilia, which are the true receptors of smell, vary in number, 
there being from one to twelve or more per ceil. In man, 
according to Parker, each cell has six to eight cilia; in the pig, 
five to eight; in the frog, five or six very long cilia; and in a fish 
each cell has only one, but it is still longer, being twice the length 
of the cell, and consequently extends through and beyond the 
slime covering the ends of these cells. Hopkins (IS) says that 
the cilia of amphibians and turtles pass through the mucus and 
come in contact with air in the olfactory chambers. In bony 
fishes the cilia pass through the mucus and are supported by 
water. Thus in the water-inhabiting forms the cilia pass 
through the mucus and are supported by water. In the semi- 
aquatic forms the cilia pass through the mucus and may or may 
not be supported by water, but in the totally land-inhabiting 
forms the cilia seem not to pass through the mucus which sup¬ 
ports them. Hopkins states that the histological reagents 
used have a destructive effect on the delicate cilia, reducing 
them to only a fraction of their normal lengths. In view of this 
statement the olfactory cilia of man and other higher animals 
may really pass through the mucus into the air. 

Nearly all who have studied the so-called olfactory organs of 
insects claim that certain innervated hairs and pore plates on 
the antennae are the olfactory receptors. Since these structures 
are covered with chitin, the writer has argued that odorous air 
can not reach their nerves. He claims that only the “olfactory 
pores” receive odorous stimuli. These structures were called 
Hicks’ vesicles in his first manuscript on the subject, but the 
reviewer changed the name to “olfactory pores.” Other 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 29 

students have failed to see the sense fiber pass through the thin 
membrane covering the porelike organ. The writer has repeat¬ 
edly said that it can be seen only in the thinnest sections of the 
very largest organs. If the sense fiber really passes through 
this membrane and comes in contact with the air, then this 
organ somewhat resembles that in fishes. If it does not pass 
through this membrane, it is yet more suitable as an olfactory 
organ than most of the innervated hairs described as olfactory 
receptors. 

Acuteness of smell .—As examples of higher animals under 
this heading, blind people, dogs, and aborigines may be cited. 
A boy, James Mitchell, was born blind, deaf, and dumb, and 
depended chiefly on smell for keeping himself in touch with the 
outside world. He readily observed the presence of a stranger 
in the room and formed his opinions of persons apparently from 
their characteristic smells (23). 

It is well known that dogs can trail men and animals merely 
by smell. To prove this scientifically Buytendijk (7) had a boy 
to walk on a level sandy place. After the boy had finished his 
trip, a police dog was led to where the boy had started and was 
allowed to smell the boy’s cap. The dog then followed the trail 
almost perfectly. Darwin (P) cites the observations of Hum¬ 
boldt, who reported that certain Peruvian Indians could follow 
a trail by scent as reliably as a dog. 

To match the preceding with what insects can do by the use 
of smell, we know that ants and termites can follow their tracks 
and that they and honeybees communicate largely by smell, 
and this is done supposedly by means of the individual, family, 
and hive or nest odors. Von Frisch (13) has gone so far as to 
call smell the “language” of honeybees, and states that it is 
used for communication in food getting. Bees returning to the 
hive with nectar announce the fact by the round dance, while 
those returning with pollen do likewise by the tail-wagging 
dance. The dance in each instance excites the attendant bees 
to leave the hive, but now they must find the nectar or pollen 
and this is accomplished by two means. Von Frisch believes 
that the bees remember the odor of the food wanted and when 
they are near the source of this food they smell the body odor 
left by other bees collecting it. 

Of all the aromatics tested by various investigators, artificial 
musk has been found the most stimulating and it thus stands at 
the head of all olfactory stimuli perceived by man. The most 
active mercaptan tested by Allison and Katz ( 2 ) was perceived 
by them at a concentration of 0.006 milligram per liter of air, 
which is equal to 6/1,000,000 of a milligram per cubic centi¬ 
meter. In regard to insects we have no figures to compare with 
these. 

In a study of light reactions we have apparatus to measure 


30 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 2 , FEB., 1938 

accurately the intensity and wave length of light, but in regard 
to the chemical senses we must depend on the olfactory and 
gustatory organs, which vary widely in function in individual 
animals. We need a mechanical nose so that odors could be 
classified and standardized on the basis of their intensity and 
quality. The proper procedure on classification was started by 
Crocker and Henderson (8), who divided the elementary odor 
sensations into four components, called fragrant, acid, burnt, 
and caprylic. They assigned four-digit numbers to the odors 
characterized. The individual figures indicate intensity on a 
scale of 8. For example, the number 6523 represents the smell 
of geraniol; the 6 indicates a strong fragrant or sweet sensation; 
the 5, a strong acid or fruity sensation; the 2, a very weak burnt 
sensation; and the 3, a weak caprylic or goaty sensation. With 
a fairly good nose it might be possible to characterize 6,561 
different odors. With the aid of a set of standards, consisting 
of 32 pure chemicals and essential oils, it is possible to classify 
most of the odors being investigated. 

Olfactometers .—-To overcome our handicap as much as possible 
we have developed olfactometers. The olfactometer used by 
physiologists was perfected by Zwaademaker in 1895. Barrows 
in 1907 devised an apparatus with which he determined that 
Drosophila reacts to the odors from fruit juices. The writer in 
1926 made an apparatus, called an insect olfactometer, and 
determined for the first time that insects actually respond to 
odors from their host plants {18). Ripley and Hepburn {28) 
devised a very complicated olfactometer in which they success¬ 
fully tested the responses of the Natal fruit fly to odors from 
various sources. Folsom (//) made a chemotropometer in 
which he tested the responses of the cotton boll weevil. Eyer 
(10) used an olfactometer in tests with codling moths. The 
writer (21) devised a simple olfactometer in which he easily 
obtained the responses of blowflies to the odors from various 
kinds of foods and related substances. Hoskins and Craig (16) 
constructed a complicated olfactometer to test the responses of 
blowflies, and Marshall (24) tested honeybees in an olfactometer. 

Other writers have recently made and used various kinds of 
insect olfactometers, but they have published little or nothing 
about them. Savory (29) has even made an olfactometer with 
which he determined that spiders smelled one another, and that 
the scent from a female caused the male being tested to perform 
the courtship actions. It is thus evident that different types of 
olfactometers must be used for different species of insects and 
spiders. With the aid of them we can carefully study for the 
first time the responses, and this greatly helps us when we are 
searching for attractants and repellents to be used in control 
measures. 

Attractants and repellents .—The literature under this heading 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 2 , FEB., 1938 31 


was partly reviewed under the subjects of chemotaxis, baits, 
and repellents (19, 20). 

THE SENSE OF TASTE. 

The gustatory organ .—In man this organ is a group of sense 
cells whose free ends project into a pore which opens on the 
surface of the tongue. Materials to be tasted are mixed with or 
dissolved by saliva in the mouth, and this liquid comes in direct 
contact with the free ends of the gustatory cells. In insects 
there is no such arrangement. Their so-called taste organs are 
various kinds of innervated hairs whose nerves are covered with 
chitin. The writer has therefore argued that insects do not have 
a true gustatory sense, because (1) they do not have suitable 
taste organs, and (2) no one has ever eliminated smell or satis¬ 
factorily controlled it while obtaining the supposed gustatory 
reactions of insects. 

If it were not for this criticism, manv investigators have given 
sufficient proof that insects can really taste. Snodgrass (JO, 
p. 63) says “that the experimenter who claims a sense of taste 
for insects must demonstrate it with tests that will clearly 
avoid a confusion between taste and smell.” Von Frisch and 
Minnich are perhaps the strongest advocates of a gustatory 
sense in insects, yet they have not complied with Snodgrass’ 
criticism. 

Gustatory experiments .—Minnich (26), in a review of this 
subject, says that Von Frisch (14) trained bees to feed on sugar 
solutions without and with the addition of other substances. 
For saccharose solution alone the threshold was about eight 
times more concentrated than the human threshhold. Fructose 
tastes twice as sweet as glucose to us, but less sweet to bees. 
Lactose appeared to be completely tasteless to bees. Certain 
other substances which are sweet to us appeared to be almost 
or totally tasteless to bees. In regard to sour and salty tastes, 
the gustatory perception in man and bees was about the same, 
but in regard to bitter tastes this sense was much higher in bees 
than in man. 

Minnich first observed that when the tarsi of certain insects 
were touched with water or sugar water the proboscides were 
immediately extended. He and his students have written 
several papers on the contact chemoreceptors of butterflies, 
blowflies, and honeybees. They have concluded, merely from 
experimental results, that the tarsi bear taste organs. The 
present writer has objected to this conclusion for two reasons: 
(1) The sense of smell was neither eliminated nor satisfactorily 
controlled while the supposed gustatory sense was being tested; 
and (2) the supposed taste organs on the tarsi have never been 
found and described. Minnich (25) states that the tarsal 


32 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49 , NO. 2 , FEB., 1938 

sensitivity of a butterfly (Pyrameis atlanta L.) to saccharose 
solution may be as much as 256 times that of the human tongue. 
In a more comprehensive paper (27) he determined that the 
tarsal chemoreceptors of blowflies were able to distinguish various 
sugar solutions from distilled water. They were from 100 to 200 
times more sensitive to saccharose than the human tongue. 

The present writer (22) used Minnich’s technic and showed 
that it is not necessary to assume that the tarsi bear taste 
organs, for three reasons: (1) A tarsus bears no sense organs 
except nine olfactory pores; (2) it is almost impossible to wet the 
tarsi with water or sugar water; and (3) when the blowflies were 
in the proper nutritive condition and the liquids were about 
3 mm. from the tarsi, the insects were induced by a special 
method to exhibit the proboscis response. It was further clearly 
demonstrated that the tarsi can easily distinguish between 
chemically pure saccharose water and distilled water when 
these liquids are about 3 mm. from the tarsi. The responses 
obtained are caused by two stimuli, one mechanical and the 
other olfactory. The act of touching the feet produces the 
initial stimulus and brings the liquids almost in contact with the 
olfactory pores on the tarsi. 

Abbott (/), in a brief review of the gustatory sense of insects, 
discusses Minnich’s conclusions and then remarks that “A more 
interesting conclusion is that of Mclndoo, who claims that the 
tarsal organs are olfactory. He points out that, because of the 
presence of hairs, it is very difficult to wet the feet of flies, and 
that experiment demonstrates that they react to sugar solutions 
when these are yet some distance (2 or 3 mm.) from the tarsi.” 

The human nose ordinarily can not distinguish sugar water 
from distilled water, nevertheless Buytendijk (7) makes the 
remarkable statement that more than one person has been 
known to be able to smell sugar in tea and salt in soup, and that 
a police dog smelled common table salt and quinine in solutions 
at a concentration of 1 to 10,000. 

THE SENSES OF TOUCH AND HEARING. 

These two physical senses are more or less related, but 
perhaps much more so in insects than in the higher animals. 
In insects the only known tactile organs are innervated hairs, 
but in mammals there are tactile corpuscles and tactile hairs, 
the latter being well represented by the so-called whiskers or 
vibrissae of cats. In man the tips of the tongue and fingers 
are most sensitive, while in the honeybee the tips of the antennae 
and mandibles are probably the most sensitive. This sense is 
highly developed in each, but, after considering the work done 
by bees, it is probably more highly developed in them than in 
man. The sense of touch in spiders is perhaps the most highly 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 2 , FEB., 1938 33 

developed of all. The female orb-weaver at the center of her 
web can tell friend from foe, male from female of her species, 
and an insect suitable for food from one not suitable. 

The common belief that insects can hear is based on three 
facts: (1) Many have special sound-producing organs; (2) some 
have so-called auditory organs; and (3) many of the experimental 
results obtained indicate that insects can hear, although 
certainly not as we do. Their hearing may be on no higher plane 
than that advocated by Forel, who compared this perception in 
them to that in deaf-mutes who feel the rolling of a carriage at a 
distance. The auditory sense has recently been discussed by 
Abbott (/) and the writer {19). 

SUMMARY. 

Man is considerably more acute than the honeybee in ability 
to distinguish differences in brightness. Bees are able to dis¬ 
tinguish between two flowers merely by their shapes. The 
spectrum to man has seven colors, while bees perceive only 
four colors in a slightly different spectrum. Bees do not see our 
red of longer wave length, but they do perceive ultra-violet, 
which we can not see. The first color perceived by bees includes 
our red of shorter wave length, our yellow, and our green. Their 
• second color corresponds to our blue-green; their third, to our 
blue and violet; and their fourth includes the ultra-violet, 
which is beyond our perception. Lepidoptera also perceive 
ultra-violet. In our spectrum there is only one point of maximum 
stimulative efficiency, but in the spectrum of bees and Droso¬ 
phila there are two points, one in the yellow-green and one in 
the ultra-violet. The first closely corresponds to that of man, 
but the second is four and a half or five times as great as that 
of the first. 

The olfactory organs of vertebrates and insects are dissimilar 
in structure but more or less similar in function. Civilized man 
smells poorly in comparison to the extreme acuteness of smell 
in dogs and bees. 

Most writers claim that insects can really taste, but the 
present writer denies this.- In fact their olfactory sense is so 
acute that they do not need a sense of taste. 

The sense of touch in insects and the same sense in vertebrates 
seem to be similar, but in regard to hearing there is no com¬ 
parison. 

In conclusion, man lives chiefly in a world of sights and 
sounds, while dogs and bees live mostly in worlds of odors. 


34 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 2 , FEB., 1938 


LITERATURE CITED. 

(1) Abbott, C. E. 1937. The physiology of insect senses. Ent. Americana 

16 : 225-280. 

(2) Allison, V. C., and Katz, S. H. 1919. An investigation of stenches and 

odors for industrial purposes. Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem. 11 : 336-338, 

2 figs. 

(3) Bertholf, L. M. 1931. Reactions of the honeybee to light. Jour. Agr. 

Research 42 : 379-419, 13 figs. 

(4) -1931. The distribution of stimulative efficiency in the ultra¬ 

violet spectrum for the honeybee. Ibid. 43 : 703-713, 3 figs. 

(5) - 1932. The extent of, the spectrum for Drosophila and the 

distribution of stimulative efficiency in it. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 
18 : 32-64, 12 figs. 

(6) Buddenbrock, W. v. 1929. Sense of sight. Encyc. Britannica, 14th 

ed. 20 : 628-635, 19 figs. 

(7) Buytendijk, F. J. J. 1921. L’odorat du chien. Arch. Neerl. Physiol. 

5 : 434-457, 6 figs. 

(8) Crocker, E. C., and Henderson, L. F. 1927. Analysis and classification 

of odors. Amer. Perfumer & Essential Oil Review 22 (6) : 325-327, 356, 

3 figs. 

(9) Darwin, Charles. 1898. The descent of man, and selection in relation 

to sex. 2d ed., revised. New York. 

(10) [Eyer, J.] 1933. Codling moth investigations. New Mex. Agr. Expt. 

Sta. Ann. Rpt. 44 : 36-40, 2 figs. 

(11) Folsom, J. W. 1931. A chemotropometer. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24 : 827- 

833, 2 figs. 

(12) Frisch, K. v. 1914. Der Farbensinn und Formensinn der Biene. Zool. 

Jahrb., Abt. Allg. Zool. u. Physiol. Tiere 35 : 1-182, 12 figs., 5 pis. 

(13) - 1923. Uber die “Sprache” der Bienen. Zool. Jahrb., Zool. 

u. Physiol. 40 : 1-186, 25 figs., 2 pis. 

(14) - 1927. Versuche liber den Geschmackssinn der Bienen. 

Naturwissenschaften 15 : 321-327 (1-20 of reprint). 

(15) Hopkins, A. E. 1926. The olfactory receptors in vertebrates. Jour. 

Comp. Neur. 41 : 253-289, 4 figs. 

(16) Hoskins, W. M., and Craig, R. 1934. The olfactory responses of flies 

in a new type of insect olfactometer. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27 : 1029-1036, 
2 figs. 

(17) Lutz, F. E. 1924. Apparently non-selective characters and combinations 

of characters, including a study of ultraviolet in relation to the flower- 
visiting habits of insects. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 29 : 181-283, 48 figs., 
7 pis. 

(18) McIndoo, N. E. 1927. Smell and taste and their applications. Sci. 

Monthly 25 : 481-503, 14 figs. 

(19) —— - 1929. Tropisms and sense organs of Lepidoptera. Smithsn. 

Misc. Coll. 81 (10) : 1-59, 16 figs. 

(20) - 1931. Tropisms and sense organs of Coleoptera. Ibid. 82 

(18) : 1-70, 19 figs., 2 pis. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 2, FEB., 1938 35 


(21) - 1933. Olfactory responses of blowflies, with and without 

antennae, in a wooden olfactometer. Jour. Agr. Research 46 : 607-625, 
4 figs. 

(22) - 1934. Chemoreceptors of blowflies. Jour. Morph. 56 : 445- 

475, 10 figs. 

(23) McKendrick, J. G. 1911. Smell. Encyc. Britannica, 11th ed. 25 : 251— 

253- 

(24) Marshall, J. 1935. The location of olfactory receptors in insects: A 

review of experimental evidence. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 83 
(1) : 49-72. 

(25) Minnich, D. E. 1922. A quantitative study of tarsal sensitivity to 

solutions of saccharose, in the red admiral butterfly, Pyrameis atlanta 
Linn. Jour. Exp. Zool. 36 : 445-457, 1 fig. 

(26) - 1929. The chemical senses of insects. Quart. Review Biol. 

4 : 100-112. 

(27) -- - 1929. The chemical sensitivity of the legs of the blow-fly, 

Calliphora vomitoria Linn., to various sugars. Ztschr. vergl. Physiol., 
Abt. C, 11 : 1-55, 11 figs. 

(28) Ripley, L. B., and Hepburn, G. A. 1929. A new olfactometer success¬ 

fully used with fruit-flies. Union So. Africa Dept. Agr. Ent. Mem. 
6 : 55-74, 7 figs. 

(29) Savory, T. H. 1934. Experiments on the tropisms of spiders. Jour. 

Quekett Micr. Club. (ser. 3) 1(1) : 13-24 (1-12 of reprint), 1 pi. 

(30) Snodgrass, R. E. 1925. Anatomy and physiology of the honeybee. 

327 pp., 108 figs. New York. 

(31) Van der Stricht, O. 1909. Le neuro-epithelium olfactif et sa membrane 

limitante interne. Mem. Acad. Roy. Med. de Belgique 20 : 1-45, 2 pis. 


SOME NEW OR LITTLE KNOWN THYSANOPTERA. 

By J. C. Crawford. 

In this paper there are described four new species of thrips, 
one of which is of considerable economic importance. I am 
indebted to various persons for specimens, and credit is given to 
them in citing material; also to Dr. H. Priesner, Cairo, Egypt, 
for making comparisons. The types have all been deposited in 
the United States National Museum, paratypes are in the 
collection of Dr. Priesner, while other paratypes have been 
retained in my collection. Studies were made with a compound 
binocular microscope and measurements with an eyepiece 
micrometer. 


Family Aeolothripidae. 

Aeolothrips versicolor Uzel. 

This European species, which was determined for me by 
Dr. Priesner, is added to our fauna from one specimen taken at 



36 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


Morganville, N. J., on privet or syringa, June 4, 1936 (E. 
Kostal); one at Demarest, N. J., on linden, July 11, 1936 
(J. C. C. and W. S. Fields); many at Alpine, N. J., on leaves of a 
red oak, May 16, 1937 (J. C. C.), and several, with nymphs, on 
Mount Hamilton, D. C., on Rhus glabra, June 17, 1836 (J. E. 
Walter). All specimens taken are form similis Priesner. 

Family Thripidae. 

Anaphothrips orehidii Moulton. 

Added to the New York fauna from material taken during 
December, 1936, and January, 1937, in greenhouses in New 
York City, on leaves of Pharbitis . cathartic a and Passiflora sp. 

Scirtothrips longipennis Bagnall. 

Taken at the same time as the preceding species on leaves of 
Pharbitis cathartica and Ipomoea batatoides. 

Sericothrips interruptus Hood. 

Many specimens taken on birch and hickory leaves, Mont- 
ville, N. J., July 28, 1935, extend the known distribution and 
give new records of food plants. The species was previously 
known from the type material of three specimens from Mary¬ 
land, one taken on a red oak and two taken in hibernation. 

Sericothrips walteri, new species. 

Female (macropterous).—Length about 1 mm. Color, by reflected light, light 
yellow with brown markings on thorax and abdomen; head almost white; by 
transmitted light, light yellow with brown markings, pterothorax brown with a 
slightly reddish tinge, abdomen with a slight brownish tinge more distinct 
apically, antennal segment 1 white, 2 tinged with brown, segments beyond 
increasingly brownish. 

Head retracted in prothorax, apparently about 120 mix long, about 144 mix 
broad, along front and sides tinged with brown; eyes protruding, cheeks slightly, 
evenly curved; ocellar pigment bright rust red; anteocellar bristles 32 mix long, 
interocellars short, on each side of rear margin of front ocellus; inner pair of 
postoculars 32 mix long, almost back of lateral ocelli; mouth cone about reaching 
base of prosternum; antennae with segments 3 to 5 pedicellate, 6 only slightly 
narrowed basally; segment 1 white, 2 tinged with brown, 3 light brown with 
yellow pedicel, 4 and 5 successively darker brown with basal portion lighter, 
6 to 8 darker with base of 6 lighter. 

Antennae, Segment No. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

(mix) 40 46 40 40 48 11 13 

Prothorax with concave anterior margin of brown blotch well defined, blotch 
well marked medially and laterally, leaving 2 irregular lighter spots on disk; 
transverse anastomosing lines in blotch only rather close and outside of blotch 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 37 


much farther apart; bristles at posterior angles colorless, 48 m/x long; wings 
light brownish-gray, darker in second fifth, no accessory bristles in line back of 
fore vein. Legs yellowish white, with slight brownish tinge laterally on femora 
and tibiae. 

Abdomen with a very broadly interrupted dark-brown line on each side of bases 
of segments 2 to 6 and a fainter one on segment 7, back of these lines a lighter 
brown spot, segments 7 to 10 faintly brownish all over; all major setae almost 
colorless. 

Male (macropterous).—Length about 0.8 mm. Very similar to female, in 
color somewhat more brownish. 

Antennae, Segment No--3 4 5 6 7 8 

(mu)... .40 38 36 41 9 12 

Type locality .—Along Potomac channel opposite Washington 
airport, January 9, 1937. 

Described from 21 females and 12 males taken under bark of 
dead elderberry sticks by Mr. John E. Walter, from whom I 
received the material and in whose honor I take great pleasure 
in naming this species. Mr. Walter writes that he has taken it 
throughout the year and in summer in all stages. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52230. 

So far as I know this is the first species in this genus, as well 
as in the family Thripidae, living under dead bark, and in spite 
of this anomalous habit the species is a normal Sericothrips and 
very closely related to the species living on green leaves. 

Of the species of the United States which have dark abdominal 
markings and no bristles back of fore vein, pedicellatus Hd. has 
the sixth antennal segment pedicellate; apicalis Hd. has the 
anastomosing lines in pronotal blotch very closely spaced and 
only slightly more widely spaced outside it, antennal segment 3 
much longer than 2, segment 6 shorter than 3, about equalling 
4; dark line at bases of segments 2 to 7 not interrupted, etc. 


Thrips walteri, new species. 

Female .—Length about 1.1 mm. Dark chestnut brown, with red hypodermal 
pigment in thorax and abdomen; antennal segments 1 and 2 concolorous with 
body, 3 to 5 yellow, darkened apically, 6 to 8 lighter brown than segments 1 and 
2, with basal half of 6 brownish yellow; wings deep brown, with hyaline bases 
and subhyaline apices; femora and bases of tibiae brown, rest of legs yellow; 
body bristles dark brown. 

Head (from in front of eyes) 104 mu long, 160 m/i wide, with transverse 
anastomosing lines; cheeks slightly curved; ocelli in an equilateral triangle, 
lateral ones remote from eyes, the anterior one about at middle of eyes, so that 
the inner pair of postocular bristles (22 m/x long) are close to and back of middle 
of postocelli; ocellar pigment bright red; interocellar bristles about on a line 
tangent to rear margin of anterior ocellus, 24 mix long; anteriad of them and 
farther apart, a weaker, shorter (16 m/x ) pair; eyes not protruding, pilose, with 




38 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


large facets; mouth cone reaching almost across prosternum; antennal segments 
1 and 2 dark brown, 2 lighter apically, 3 to 5 pedicellate, yellow, with 4 tinged 
with brown in apical one-fourth and 5 slightly darker in apical half, 6 and 7 
darker but lighter than 1 and 2, with 6 yellowish in basal two-fifths; segments 
3 and 4 slightly vasiform at apices, 5 somewhat narrowed apically, 6 with a broad 
base. 

Antennae, Segment No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

{mu) 24 40 54 50 40 56 20 

Prothorax 116 m/x long, 196 mix wide, sides almost straight and subparallel; 
bristles at posterior angles, outer 80 mu, inner 82 mix long; postmargin with 3 
pairs of bristles between postangulars, the inner pair about half as long as 
postangulars, and twice as long as and much stronger than the 2 outer pairs; a 
short bristle between each pair of postangulars; disk of prothorax with scattered 
bristles of which 4 pairs are along front margin; just back (10 m/x) of them 2 
pairs of larger and stronger (32 m/x) bristles, inserted about midway between the 
outer pair and the second pair from side margin; another pair of similar large 
bristles (37 m/x) along lateral margins, about 48 m/x anteriad of postangulars; 
pterothorax somewhat lighter in color than prothorax and abdomen; wings 
hyaline in basal one-fourth, deep brown in median one-half, deepest basad and 
fading out apicad so that apical one-fourth is only very faintly tinged with 
brown; costal fringe sparse, costal bristles 19 to 21, fore vein with 6 to 7 basal 
and 2 to 3 (usually 3) apical bristles (1+2); when only 2 bristles apically, the 
basal one is omitted; hind vein with 9 to 11 bristles; bristles on fore vein brown, 
except basal 4 which are in hyaline area; the 3 outer basal bristles (2 when there 
are only 6 basals) in brown area; the outer 2 apical bristles in light apical area. 

Abdomen at sides of segments 2-8 with a few transverse anastomosing lines, 
becoming increasingly diagonal from segment 4 apicad; segment 8 with a short 
complete comb; bristles on segment 9, inner 100 m/x, outer 110 m/x long; on 10th 
segment 100 m/x; segment 10 split open above; no accessory ventral bristles. 

Male. —Unknown. 

Type locality. —Mount Hamilton, D. C. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52229. 

Host. —Leaves of Joe Pye weed ( Eupatorium purpureum L.). 
Described from 19 specimens, taken June 17, 1936, by Mr. 
John E. Walter. 

Mr. Walter, to whom this species is gratefully dedicated, 
writes that he has collected this species at other times, always on 
the leaves of species of Eupatorium , to which it seems to be 
confined. 

Thrips pallicornis Hd., which has light antennae, has them 
lighter in color, the antennal formula quite different, with 
joint 6 distinctly shorter than 3, basal bristles of fore vein nearly 
confined to hyaline area, legs concolorous with body, wings not 
hyaline at apices, etc.; helianthi Morgan has the wings light 
brown except basal one-fifth and apical one-fourth, which are 
light gray, hind vein with 19 to 20 bristles, etc. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 39 


Family Phlaeothrifidae. 

Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Franklin. 

Discovered in the greenhouses of the New York Botanical 
Gardens, where it is abundant, by Mr. G. J. Rau, who first 
collected specimens on palms among hemispherical and diaspine 
scales, April 20, 1936. 

Gnophothrips piniphilus, new species. 

Holotype female (brachypterous).—Length (distended) about 2 mm.; color 
brownish black, including legs, with tarsi slightly lighter; antennae beyond seg¬ 
ment 2 ochraceous, with segment 2 slightly dusky at tip and succeeding Segments 
somewhat darker. 

Head almost 1.5 times as long as greatest width, broadest near middle, sides 
evenly curved from eyes to base of head; vertex slightly produced, with anterior 
ocellus directed forward; eyes about one-fourth as long as head, not protruding, 
separated by slightly more than the diameter of an eye; ocelli in an equilateral 
triangle, posterior ocelli close to eye margin; head with transverse anastomosing 
lines. Antennae about 1.4 times as long as head; segments 1 and 2 concolorous 
with head, with segment 2 lighter at apex; segments 3 to 6 ochraceous, with 
segment 3 slightly dusky at apex, segment 4 brownish in apical fourth, segment 
5 brownish in apical two-fifths, 6 brownish in more than apical half, segments 
7 and 8 brown with segment 7 lighter just beyond extreme base; segments 3 to 6 
pedicellate, segment 7 with a broad pedicel, segment 8 distinctly narrower at 
base than segment 7 and not closely joined to it; sense cones small, formula: 
3, 0-1, 4, 1-2, 5, 1-1+ 1 , 6, 1-1 + 1 , 7 with 1 on dorsum. Postocular bristles 
brown, 52 mu long, with slightly dilated colorless tips. Mouth cone reaching 
almost to prosternum. 

Prothorax about 0.67 as long as head and (exclusive of coxae) about one and 
one-half times as wide as head at point of greatest width, distinctly widened 
behind, all major bristles present, brown, with slightly dilated hyaline tips; 
anterior angulars, anterior marginals, mid-laterals, and coxals 24 m/x long, 
outer postangulars 42 m/x long, inner 32 m/x long; the anterior angulars and 
marginals rather slender, the others heavy. Pterothorax about as broad as 
prothorax, including coxae, sides parallel. Wings hyaline, about as long as 
head (occasional specimens with wings partially developed, with fringed 
margin and reaching almost to fourth segment of abdomen). Fore tarsi un¬ 
armed. 

Abdomen, in undistended specimens, somewhat wider than prothorax, in 
fully distended specimens not distinctly so; 2 pairs of wing-retaining bristles on 
segments 2 to 6, the anterior pair short and slightly curved, the posterior pair 
on segments 3 to 6 heavy, doubly arcuate; major lateral bristles brown, mostly 
blunt. Tube about 0.62 length of head, its basal width 0.42 its length; width at 
tip about one-half basal width; terminal bristles about 0.8 length of tube. 

Antennae, Segment No. 12345678 
(mu) 58 56 76 68 62 64 51 32 


40 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 

Allotype male (brachypterous).—Length (distended) about 1.75 mm. Similar 
to female, color somewhat more brownish than in female, brown markings on 
distal antennal segments somewhat darker; wings about one and one-half times 
as long as head; tarsi unarmed. 

Antennae, Segment No. 12345678 
(mu) 48 58 72 68 60 64 56 36 

Female (macropterous).—Length (distended) about 2 mm. Wings not 
narrowed medially, entirely hyaline, reaching, in distended specimens, about to 
seventh abdominal segment, no double fringe hairs. 

Antennae, Segment No. 12345678 
(mu) 48 64 86 84 68 66 56 32 

Male (macropterous).—Length about 1.32 mm. Wings reaching almost to 
apex of eighth abdominal segment. 

Antennae, Segment No. 12345678 
(mu) 48 58 72 68 60 64 56 32 

Type locality .—Near Patchogue, Long Island, N. Y., July 19, 
1937 (types), collected by the author and Messrs. Clement, 
Tank, and Morgan; July 13, 1937 (type forma macroptera male 
and paratypes collected by J. R. Tank). 

Additional locality. —Peacedale, R. I., June 1, 1935, J. A. 
Thompson collector (1 male, 1 female, brachypterous). 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52231. 

Described from a great number of specimens, mostly brachyp¬ 
terous, taken on Pinus sp. (probably niger variety). 

Differs from the description of Gnophothrips megaceps Hd. in 
the slightly darker antennae with longer segments, in having 
the head about one and one-half times as long as broad, in 
having major setae of head and thorax dilated at apices, in 
antennal segments 7 and 8 not being closely united, in having 
the tube very distinctly more than half as long as head, and in 
having the prothorax very distinctly broadened posteriorly. 

This species was first received through the Division of Insect 
Identification, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
which sent the specimens from Rhode Island for determination. 
This year Mr. J. R. Tank of the New York State Department of 
Agriculture brought in material from nursery stock near 
Patchogue collected on July 13, 1937; and on July 19, through 
the kindness of Messrs. R. L. Clement, J. R. Tank, and R. P. 
Morgan, all of the New York State Department of Agriculture, 
I was taken to see these nurseries and obtained additional 
material. 

The species is doing a great amount of damage to what 
different nurserymen call Austrian, black, or Japanese black 
pine, most of the trees in a large block of these pines having all 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 41 


of the needles on this year’s growth stunted to about 1 to 
inches in length or those near the base of this year’s growth 
entirely absent. From the growing tips of a single branch as 
many as 25 to 30 adults could be shaken in addition to very 
many nymphs and pupae. At one point native scrub pine 
adjoining the infested pines showed no signs of injury nor could 
any of these thrips be found on them. 

Haplothrips (Xylaplothrips) subterraneus, new species. 

Female (macropterous).—Dark brown or blackish brown, antennae concolor- 
ous, with pedicel of joint 3 yellow and joints 3 to 6 lightened at base; tube lighter 
at apex; legs concolorous, fore femora in apical 3d, bases and apices of mid and 
hind tibiae, and all tarsi yellow or slightly tinged with brown, fore tibiae yellow¬ 
ish, medially tinged with brown; fore wings basally deep brown, rest of fore 
wings and hind wings slightly tinged with brown; hind wings in basal half with 
a dark streak. 

Length (distended) 2 mm. General color dark brown, including legs, but with 
fore femora at apices and all tibiae at bases and apices yellowish; fore tibiae 
only lightly darkened medially. Head: Length 232 mu, width 187 mix, length 
from front of eyes 197 mu, eye length 87 m/x. Antennal segments 1 and 2 
concolorous with head, remaining segments lighter brown, with bases 
of segments 2 to 6 yellowish; head with anastomosing transverse lines; 
fore ocellus directed anteriorly; a pair of short (15 mix) postocellar 
bristles, another similar pair in front of lateral ocelli, and a shorter pair 
close to and on a line with posterior margin of anterior ocellus; lateral ocelli 
18 mu in diameter; postoculars knobbed, 94 m/x long; sides of head very slightly 
convex and slightly narrower behind and very slightly necklike; mouth cone 
broadly rounded, very short, reaching about one-third across prosternum. 
Antennal segment 1 very broad, tapering to tip, where it is about as broad as 
greatest width of segment 2; segment 3 obconical, symmetrical; 4 and 5 with 
sides almost evenly rounded, 6 slightly obconical, 7 cylindrical, 8 acute, with 
base slightly narrowed; segments 3 to 7 pedicellate; antennal sense cone formula: 
3, 1-2, 4, 2-2+ J , 5, 1-1 + x , 6,1-1 + x , 7,1 dorsally; accessory sense cone on fourth 
segment situated about midway of segment on outer side, curved; accessory 
sense cones of segments 5 and 6 in normal position; outer sense cone of segment 
6 only slightly thicker than antennal bristles. 

Antennae, Segment No. 1 2-34567 8 

(mu) 36 51 60 64 57 47 43 36 

Total length of antennae (distended) 404 mix. 

Prothorax 120 mix long, width, including coxae, 330 mix ; anterior marginals 
minute; coxal bristles pointed, other major bristles slightly dilated at tips; pro- 
thoracic bristles: anterior angulars, 72.5 mix, midlaterals, 90 m/x; postangulars, 
outer, 166 mu, inner, 94 mix-, coxal, 44 m/x; wings only slightly narrowed medially, 
with 5 to 8 accessory fringe hairs, usually 6 or 7. Front femora with numerous 
short bristles, those within at base shorter and darkened, spinelike; fore tarsi 
with small tooth. 


42 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 

Abdomen with segments 2 to 7 with 2 pairs of wing-retaining bristles, the 
posterior pair strongly doubly arcuate, 62 mix long, the anterior pair shorter and 
not so strongly doubly arcuate. Segments with transverse anastomosing lines, 
almost reticulate; major spines pointed; tube: length 152 m/x, basal width 73 
m/x, apical width 36 m/x. Abdominal bristles: on ninth segment, inner 163 m/x, 
outer, 181 m/x; on apex of tenth segment, 145 m/x. 

Male (macropterous).—So similar to female as to require no special descrip¬ 
tion; fore tarsal tooth only slightly larger than in female. 

Antennae, Segment No. 12345678 
(mix) 36 48 60 64 56 48 42 38 

Type locality. —England. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52228. 

Host. —Lily bulbs. 

Described from many specimens taken at New York, N. Y., 
Oct. 6, 14, and 26, 1936, by Inspectors R. Shemin, R. W. 
Woodbury, and M. A. Me Master of the Bureau of Entomology 
and Plant Quarantine. 

This species was taken in company with many Liothrips 
vaneeckei but was usually found in more decayed sections of the 
bulbs. 

Of the species in Dr. Priesner’s Revision of the Indo-Malayan 
Haplothrips 1 this species comes nearest sororculus Schmutz, 
pictipes Bagn., and inquinatus Karny. 

H. pictipes Bagn. (said probably to be identical with sororculus 
Sch.) is smaller (1.2-1.3 mm.) with yellow tibiae, more or less 
shaded gray-brown; antennal segment 3 yellow touched with 
gray-brown in distal half, with 2 sense cones, head about as 
broad as long; apical bristles longer than tube, those on seg¬ 
ment 9 0.6 tube length; inquinatus Ky. is smaller, with head 
length 156 (173) m/j,, width 138 m/x , eye length 67 mix , antennae 
295 mix long, prothoracic postangulars 45-48 mix ; bristles on 
9th segment 85-90 mix , at apex of 10th 140 mix ; tube 100 mix 
long. 

The European fuliginosus Schille has antennal segments 3 
and 4 with only 2 sense cones. 

I am indebted to Dr. Priesner for giving me the generic 
assignment of this species and stating that it was new; paratypes 
have been placed in his collection. 

Liothrips umbripennis Hood. 

Added to the New York list from one specimen taken at 
Sunken Meadows, Long Island, N. Y., on oak leaves, October 
11, 1935 (J. C. C.) and to the New Jersey list from two specimens 
taken at Alpine on oak and pine by the author and many speci- 

1 Rec. Indian Mus., Vol. 35, p. 365 et seq. 1933. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 43 


mens taken at Denville, July 14, 1937, on chestnut oak by 
Mr. M. H. Sartor, who states that they were so numerous as to 
curl the leaves. 


Rhynchothrips debilis Hood. 

The food plant of this species is sweet fern (Comptonia pere- 
grina ) and this thrips has been taken commonly at Gibson, 
Long Island, N. Y., by the author from May 30 to August 1, 
only in the macropterous form. 

Symphyothrips punctatus Hood and Williams. 

Also established in the New York Botanical Gardens green¬ 
houses, where it was first collected by Mr. G. J. Rau. 


A NEW ANOBIID BEETLE (COLEOP : ANOBIIDAE) INJURIOUS 

TO BOOKS. 

By W. S. Fisher, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Specimens of an unknown anobiid beetle infesting books in 
Florida were submitted by E. A. Back for identification. It 
appears necessary to propose new names, both generic and 
specific, by which this species may be known. 

NEOGASTRALLUS, new genus. 

Body oblong, moderately convex. Head not visible from above, received in 
an excavation of the prothorax; front obliquely carinate above the antennae; 
beneath deeply excavated behind the mentum. Eyes small, widely separated. 
Antenna 9-segmented; first segment elongate oval; second similar but smaller; 
third, fourth, and fifth very narrow, subequal in width and length, the sides of 
the third and fourth parallel, the fifth slightly triangular; sixth very small, 
quadrate, one-half as long as and distinctly narrower than the fifth; seventh 
and eighth triangular, each as wide as long; ninth oblong, slightly longer than 
the eighth. Pronotum with lateral margins entire. Anterior and middle coxae 
widely separated. Prosternal process deeply depressed between the coxae, 
with the sides parallel. Posterior coxae grooved for the reception of the femora. 
First and second visible abdominal sternites connate, the first longer than the 
second at middle but shorter than it at the sides; third, fourth, and fifth sternites 
shorter, the third and fourth subequal in length, the fifth longer. Legs slender; 
anterior tibiae unarmed externally; tarsi nearly three-fourths as long as the 
tibiae. 

Genotype.—Neogastrallus librinocens, new species. 

This genus belongs to the tribe Anobiini, and is related to 
Gastrallus Jacquelin du Val, but it differs from that genus in 



44 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


having the anterior margin of the thorax entire between the 
anterior coxae, the underside of the head deeply excavated 
behind the mentum, and the lateral, margins of the pronotum 
entire. 

Neogastrallus librinocens, new species. 

Uniformly dark reddish brown (legs and antennae slightly paler), moderately 
shiny, sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, grayish pubescence. Head 
deeply sunk within the prothorax, the eyes partially covered in repose; front 
slightly convex, finely, densely granulose. Pronotum wider than long, narrower 
at apex than at base, widest near base; sides arcuately rounded when viewed 
from above; disk strongly, uniformly convex; surface rather densely granulose, 
the granules distinctly separated. Elytra twice as long as wide, subequal in 
width to thorax at base; sides nearly parallel anteriorly, slightly expanded 
behind the middle; apices separately broadly rounded; disk strongly convex; 
surface finely, uniformly, confluently ocellate-punctate; each elytron with a 
distinct stria along lateral margin, the stria obsolete toward apex. Body 
beneath finely, densely granulose, the sternum more or less ocellate-punctate. 
Length, 2.4 mm.; width, 1.2 mm. 

Type locality .—Saint Leo, Pasco County, Fla. 

Type and paratypes. —No. 52607, United States National 
Museum. 

Described from nine specimens (one type). The adults 
together with live larvae were found in numbers infesting books 
received from the Saint Leo College on November 15, 1937. 


EIGHT NEW SPECIES OF WEST INDIAN CHRYSOMELIDAE. 

By Doris H. Blake. 

Five of the species here described were collected by P. J. 
Darlington during the summer of 1936, in the mountains of 
Oriente Province, Cuba. Two others from the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology collection were taken by W. M. Mann 
in Haiti, and the last is a species from the United States National 
Museum collection labelled as new by E. A. Schwarz some years 
ago. 

Chalcosicya rotunda, n. sp. 

Fig. 7. 

About 2 mm. long, broadly ovate, shining with a coppery lustre, sparsely 
and not regularly sprinkled with whitish scalelike hairs. 

Head inserted well into the prothorax, with rounded occiput and front 
unbroken to the labrum except for a slight median depression on vertex; coarsely 
punctured, the intervals alutaceous, each puncture with a coarse whitish hair. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 45 


almost squamulose. Mouthparts reddish yellow. Antennal sockets large. 
Antennae about half the body length, two basal joints yellowish, rest yellowish 
or reddish brown; 1st and 2d joints longer and stouter than 3d-6th joints, 
3d-6th joints slender and about equal in length, 7th—11 th joints much stouter. 
Prothorax about twice as wide as long with arcuate sides and narrow margin; 
alutaceous but shining with a coppery lustre, distinctly but not very densely 
punctate, each puncture bearing a long white scalelike hair. Scutellum small, 
rounded and polished. Elytra with prominent humeri, moderately convex and 
smoothly rounded, without depressions, coarsely but not densely punctate, the 
punctures particularly near the suture and at apices suggestive of striation, the 
punctures below the humeri larger and deeper; pubescence consisting of rather 
scanty coarse white erectish hairs forming a pattern on elytra, the hairs not 
present on area between the humeri and suture and in the middle of the elytra; 
surface shining with coppery, often rosy lustre, not alutaceous. Body beneath 
dark, alutaceous but somewhat shining, with coarse white not very dense pubes¬ 
cence; mesosternum broad, very polished, without hairs, space between the 
anterior coxae broad and with coarse punctures and hairs; no emargination of 
episternum below head. Legs deep reddish brown with coppery glints on femora, 
conspicuously but not densely covered with white hairs. Femora not toothed, 
claws with a small inner tooth. Length 2-2.8 mm., width 1.3-1.8 mm. 

Type .—male and 9 paratypes, U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 52307. 
Twelve paratypes in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Type No. 23153. 

Type locality.— Pico Turquino, Oriente Province, Cuba, alt. 
3000-5000 ft., collected July 20, 1922, by S. C. Bruner and 
C. H. Ballou, and in June, 1936, by P. J. Darlington. 

Remarks. — C. rotunda is about the size of C. nana but much 
less densely covered with hairs and with less dense elytral 
punctation. The pubescence also differs in not being closely 
appressed but rather erectish. 

Chalcosicya costata, n. sp. 

Fig. 9. 

Oblong oval, about 2.5 mm. long, of shining coppery color, covered with white, 
closely appressed coarse pubescence, each hair proceeding from a puncture, 
punctures much coarser on elytra than on head or prothorax, traces of two 
median ridges on elytra. 

Head entirely brown, shining beneath the short white hairs; finely and not 
densely punctate. Front with a faint median depression, otherwise smooth. 
Antennal sockets large, antennae reddish brown and about half the length of 
body, first two and last five joints stouter than intermediate ones, 2d joint much 
longer than 3d, 3d-6th joints very slender and about equal. Prothorax a little 
over times A s wide as long, with narrow margin and arcuate sides, moderately 
densely and distinctly punctate with a short, closely appressed white hair from 
each puncture. Scutellum punctate and with one or two hairs. Elytra with 
well marked humeri and much coarser punctures than prothorax, punctures 


46 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


confused; hairs short, appressed and not concealing the coppery lustre. Traces 
of two irregular median ridges more marked near base and not extending beyond 
apical narrowing. Body beneath and legs entirely deep reddish brown, coarsely 
punctate and with white, closely appressed pubescence. Anterior femora with a 
tiny tooth. Length 2.4-2.7 mm., width 1.5-1.7 mm. 

Type. —male and 1 paratype U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 52308. 

Type locality.- —Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, collected by 
G. Lenk, May 31, 1912. 

Remarks. —This species differs from C. rotunda , nana and 
maestrensis by having a small tooth on the anterior femora. 
Some species of Metachroma have a similar tooth. The faint 
irregular elytral ridging well distinguishes this species. 

Chalcosicya ditrichota, n. sp. 

Fig. 10. 

Oblong oval, about 3 mm. long, shining with a coppery, aeneous, or even 
bluish lustre and with a conspicuous but not dense coarse white pubescence 
intermixed on the upper surface with a finer and inconspicuous erectish dark 
pubescence; densely punctate. 

Head lustrous beneath the coarse white pubescence that covers the upper 
part except the front, the front bare, showing dense, coarse punctation; upper 
part of head without grooves or prominences, a slight median vertical depres¬ 
sion; mouth-parts reddish or yellowish brown. Antennal sockets large, antennae 
extending below humeri; first two and last five joints stouter than 3d-6th joints, 
which are slender and approximately equal; first two or three joints and 7th and 
sometimes 8th paler. Prothorax not quite twice as wide as long, with narrow 
margin and arcuate sides; surface shining, densely punctate and covered with 
coarse white hairs and finer dark hairs. Scutellum with a few punctures and 
sometimes a few hairs. Elytra with prominent humeri, lustrous, densely and 
more coarsely punctate than prothorax, not densely covered with an irregular 
coarse white pubescence forming a pattern and with an inconspicuous finer, 
longer and more erect dark pubescence. Body beneath and legs with dense 
white pubescence. Body dark, legs a little paler; sometimes yellowish; anterior 
femora with a tiny tooth. Length 2.2-3.4 mm., width 1.4-2 mm. 

Type. —male and 8 paratypes in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Type No. 23154. 

Type locality. —Buenos Aires, Trinidad Mts., 2500-3500 ft., 
Cuba, collected May 8-14, 1936, by P. J. Darlington. Two 
other specimens were collected by Darlington, one at San Bias 
and vicinity, Trinidad Mts., alt. 1000-3000 ft., on May 9, 1936, 
the other on Pico Turquino at 5000-6000 ft, in June, 1936. 

Remarks. — C. ditrichota is larger and more oval than C. 
rotunda or nana and is smaller and with longer pubescence than 
C. maestrensis. As in C. costata , the anterior femora are toothed. 
The presence of two kinds of pubescence is its most striking 
character. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 6 





9. Ghalcosicya costata 


lO.Chalcosicya clitrichota 


8. faratri k 


aralrmona ovaia 


7 a alcosicya rotunda 


| 47 ] 






















48 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


Galerucella immaculata, n. sp. 

Fig. 1. 

Oblong oval, about 5 mm. long, pale yellow brown without trace of elytral 
markings, feet and last six antennal joints and apices of all but the basal dark 
brown. 

Head pale with dark mouthparts and a dark median line down front; densely 
covered with pale appressed pubescence. Antennae not extending to the middle 
of the elytra, 2d joint half the length of 3d, which is the longest, joints 4-8 very 
gradually diminishing in length, all of them lightly pubescent; basal joint pale, 
joints 2-6 pale with dark brown apices, joints 7-11 dark. Prothorax twice as 
wide as long, widest a little before the middle, thence deeply incurved, a nodule 
at anterior and posterior angle; disk widely depressed on sides and with a smaller 
median depression; entirely pale, coarsely and shallowly punctate and covered 
with short, fine pubes.cence. Elytra much wider than prothorax, with prominent 
humeri, a faint transverse depression before middle and before apical narrowing; 
densely and rather coarsely punctate and covered with a very fine short pubes¬ 
cence; two median ridges more or less apparent from base to apical narrowing. 
Body beneath pale and finely pubescent. Legs pale with apices of femora, tibiae, 
and tarsi deeper brown. Length 5-5.3 mm., width 2.4-2.7 mm. 

Type .—male and one paratype in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Type No. 23155. 

Type locality .—Mountains north of Imias, eastern Oriente 
Province, Cuba, alt. 3000-4000 ft., collected July 25-28, 1936, 
by P. J. Darlington. 

Remarks .—Of all the species of Galerucella described from the 
West Indies this appears to be the only one without dark elytral 
markings. 

Blepharida haitiensis, n. sp. 

Fig. 4. 

Oblong oval, 5 mm. long, 2.8 mm. wide, shining, pale yellow brown with 
dark sutural and semi-vittate lateral markings and 10 broken rows of striate 
punctation on elytra. 

Head pale except for deep brown tips of mandibles, smooth, shining, without 
interantennal prominences or distinctly marked frontal tubercles; a shallow 
groove running upward from antennal base to eye; interocular space over half as 
wide as head. Antennae extending not quite to the middle of the elytra, deepen¬ 
ing to darker brown from 4th to apical joints, 3d shorter than 4th joint. Pro¬ 
thorax approximately twice as wide as long, a little convex, arcuate at the sides, 
smooth, polished, nearly impunctate except for a short row of fine punctures on 
either side near the anterior margin below the eye; entirely pale yellow brown. 
Scutellum pale. Elytra with well defined humeri and a slight swelling behind 
each humerus near the lateral margin; parts of 10 rows of striate punctures 
none of which is entire, the punctures being particularly deep and distinct near 
the suture; intervals between not costate; pale yellow brown with a broad sutural 
vitta not reaching the apex and widening and curving upwards in basal half, 
also three lateral vittae of different lengths on apical half of each elytron. Body 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 49 


beneath shining and pale except for the sides of the breast, which are deep brown. 
Legs pale with darker brown joints, all tibiae with a small spur; claws toothed. 

Type. —Female in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Type 
No. 23156. 

Type locality. —Cape Haitien, Haiti, collected by W. M. 
Mann. 

Remarks. —So far, only two species of Blepharida are known to 
occur in the West Indies, B. irrorata Chev. from Cuba, and B. 
haitiensis, of which only a single specimen has been examined 
by the writer. The striate punctation usual in the genus is in 
this species represented only by the broken rows of punctures. 
There is likewise only a fine row of punctures visible on the 
prothorax behind the eyes. 

Blepharida irrorata Chevrolat. 

Figs. 5 and 6. 

Revue et Magazin de Zoologie, ser. 2, vol. 16, 1864, p. 182. 

Chevrolat described Blepharida irrorata as yellow with black 
antennae and black tibiae and tarsi and with fuscous elytra 
thickly spotted with white. There appears to be considerable 
variation in size and coloring in this Cuban species, and some 
specimens are so unlike the typical as to lead to confusion. The 
aedeagi in all specimens examined, however, are indistinguish¬ 
able. 

P. J. Darlington has collected a series at Soledad in April, 
1936, many of which correspond with the original descriptin in 
every way but size. Some of his specimens are barely 5 mm. 
long in contrast with 10 mm. of Chevrolat’s description. The 
antennae in some of the Soledad specimens are pale yellow, in 
one yellow with a dark apical joint, in others the antennae vary 
from light brown to black. The elytra likewise vary from pale 
yellow to deep brown with pale spots. In the darker specimens 
the breast is deep brown. Specimens collected at Central Jar- 
onu, Tobabo and Baragua are somewhat larger, 6 or 7 mm. 
long, and have black elytra spotted with white, black breast 
and pale antennae with a dark apical joint. In a series of 14 in 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, at Philadelphia, taken 60 
miles west of Santiago by H. M. Hiller, 9 have entirely black 
unspotted elytra, the remainder are finely speckled with yellow. 
All have pale antennae with a black apical joint and the breast 
is black. They range from 4.5 to 5.5 mm. long. 

Blepharida multimaculata Jacoby. 

Described from Atlixco, Tepetlapa, Mexico, and represented 
by two specimens in the Bowditch collection from Tepetlapa. 
It is similar in size and markings to the West Indian species, 


50 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


but the Mexican species has very deep striate punctation and 
the punctures are in a single and not double line as in B. irrorata. 

Disonycha darlingtoni, n. sp. 

Fig. 2. 

Oblong oval, 5 mm. long, shining, pale lemon yellow with entirely black 
antennae, black tibiae and tarsi and partly black femora, the basal half being 
pale. 

Head shining, smooth, very finely and not thickly punctate, a fovea on either 
side of vertex near eye; frontal tubercles distinctly marked, interantennal area 
blunt and little produced; pale yellow except the mandibles, which are piceous. 
Antennae long, extending half way down elytra, entirely black, 3d joint a little 
shorter than 4th, which is the longest, remainder nearly equal in length. Pro¬ 
thorax nearly iy£ times as wide as long with arcuate sides'; entirely pale, pol¬ 
ished, without punctation. Elytra with well-marked humeri, shining, pale, 
very finely punctate. Body beneath pale, Very faintly pubescent; basal half of 
all the femora pale, the rest of the legs black. Length 5 mm., width 2.5 mm. 

Type. —male in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Type 
No. 23157. 

Type locality. —The south side of Pico Turquino, Oriente Prov¬ 
ince, Cuba, 3000-5000 ft., collected in June, 1936, by P. J. 
Darlington. 

Remarks. —The description of Galleruca pallens from the island 
of Guadeloupe by Fabricius in 1792 applies in nearly all points 
to the present species, but Fabricius’ species has the antennae 
pale at the base and has pale femora. D. antennata Jac., which 
occurs in Central America and at the tip of Florida, differs from 
the Fabrician species in not having black tibiae. D. darlingtoni 
is related to D. antennata Jac., but is smaller and more slender 
than that species and has entirely black antennae, which are 
noticeably longer, and differently colored legs. The aedeagus is 
also different. 

Hemilactica fasciata, n. sp. 

Fig. 3. 

Oblong oval, about 2.5 mm. long, shining, reddish brown with a dark blue 
basal spot on elytra spreading from the lateral margin nearly to the suture and a 
transverse band across lower half. Elytra costate. 

Head shining reddish brown with yellow labrum and brown mandibles; front 
and occiput coarsely punctate. Antennae extending fully halfway down elytra, 
3d joint shorter than 4th, 4th-8th joints long and diminishing slightly in length; 
basal joint pale yellow brown, rest dark brown. Prothorax \}4 times wider 
than long with sides nearly straight; traces of an obsolete transverse basal sulcus 
marked by a depression on either side and one in the middle, also a fovea on 
either side anterior to the middle; surface finely and sparsely punctate, shining 
reddish brown. Scutellum reddish brown. Elytra shining, a broad basal spot of 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., .VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 51 


deep blue extending transversely from the margin nearly to the suture and down 
about a quarter of the length of the elytra, and a fascia of the same color just 
below the middle covering all but the extreme apex, a costa extending from 
humerus to apical narrowing and 4 others more or less distinct but not so long 
on each elytron; between these median costae a trace of obsolete striate punc- 
tation. Body beneath reddish brown, legs the same color with the tibiae and 
tarsi a little deeper brown like the antennae. Length 2.4 mm.; width 1.2 mm. 

Type .—male in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Type 
No. 23158. 

Type locality .—Upper Ovando R., eastern Oriente Province, 
Cuba, alt. 1000-2000 ft., collected July 17-20, 1936, by P. J. 
Darlington. 

Remarks.—Hamilactica fasciata resembles the other species 
of Hemilactica in its reddish brown color and in the general 
style of its elytral markings. In this case, the spots take the 
form of two dark bands, one basal, the other covering all but 
the tip of the apical half. There is a trace of a sulcus at the 
base of the prothorax and the costation of the elytra is even 
more marked than in the species already described. The pro¬ 
thorax is longer than in the other species. The aedeagus is 
somewhat like that of H. pulchella. 

Paratrikona ovata, n. sp. 

Fig. 8. 

Ovate and widest a little below elytral humeri, 7 mm. long, above yellowish 
with large irregularly placed, chestnut brown elytral punctures; head, body and 
femora deep brown to piceous, tibiae and tarsi golden brown, antennae pale with 
apical joint dark; a double hump on elytra. 

Head not visible from above, black, front declivous, deeply inserted in pro¬ 
thorax, with a deep emargination on the prosternum opposite the eye, thereby 
forming a sharp tooth on lower side of eye. Antennae pale yellow to penulti¬ 
mate joint, 10th joint slightly darker, apical joint deep brown, 3d joint much 
thinner and about the length of 2d, 4th long, 5th shorter than 4th or 6th, joints 
6—11 thicker but not longer than 4th and covered with short dense hairs. Pro¬ 
thorax not emarginate over head, widest before the middle, basal margin 
sinuate; disk irregularly bumpy and not very convex, with an explanate hyaline 
margin in front and on sides. Surface with coarse dense punctures; yellowish 
or reddish brown, somewhat deeper in coloration than the impunctate portions 
of the elytra. Scutellum triangular, reddish brown. Elytra with a strongly 
produced double hump, not lengthened at all into a spine; elytra widest slightly 
below the shoulder with a forwardly prolonged hyaline margin that extends to 
the widest part of the prothorax, this margin becoming widest before the middle 
of the elytra, then gradually narrowing to apex; at shoulder and in the middle of 
the lateral margin a thickening running into the margin; below the middle, 
smaller thickenings that extend into margin; punctures very large, deep and 
except for a sutural row along either side of the suture, very irregularly placed; 


52 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


the basal color of the elytra pale yellow but the punctures a deep chestnut brown, 
often with a brownish area about them. Body beneath and femora shining 
piceous with scanty pubescence; tibiae and tarsi pale golden yellow; claws not 
divergent. Length 7 mm., width 5.6 mm. 

Type. —In the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Type No. 
23159. 

Type locality. —Grande Riviere, Haiti, collected by W. M. 
Mann. 

Remarks. —This species agrees with Paratrikona , as defined 
by Spaeth, in the shorter apical joints of the antennae, the fact 
that the head is invisible from above, the tooth on the pro¬ 
sternum, the way in which the produced hyaline margin is not 
greatly narrowed at the shoulders, and in the not divergent 
claws. It differs, however, in its shape. Paratrikona , according 
to Spaeth, is subtriangular and Trikona, ovate. P. ovata is 
midway in shape between Paratrikona turrijera (Boh.) and 
Trikona humeralis (Oliv.). It most closely resembles P. 
turrifera (Boh.) but has no spine on the elytra and has less 
regular and less dense elytral punctation. 


SYNONYMY IN THE GENUS PANORPA (MECOPTERA). 

By Ashley B. Gurney, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The author (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 39, No. 8, pp. 222- 
227, figs. 1-7, 1937) has recently described Panorpa utahensis , 
based upon six specimens the locality labels of which represent 
three localities in northeastern Utah. P. venosa Westwood was 
also recorded. Because of the unusual nature of a Utah record 
for the genus Panorpa , Dr. F. M. Carpenter requested para- 
types of utahensis for study and has found that the species 
must be placed in synonymy. The male of utahensis represents 
suhmaculosa Carpenter and the female maculosa Hagen. The 
author had assumed that the two sexes were of one species and 
had misinterpreted the published figures of the genitalia of 
suhmaculosa and maculosa. After a comparison of material 
the above synonymy is clear. 

Dr. Carpenter writes that he is skeptical of the accuracy of 
the records, but Mr. F. C. Harmston, the collector, has reported 
that he does not believe any error in locality records has oc¬ 
curred. Thus, it may still be possible that three eastern species 
of Panorpa occur in Utah. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 53 


RECENT ADVANCES IN ENTOMOLOGY, Second Edition , A. D. 

Imms., 431 pages, 94 illustrations, J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1937. 

The text of the second edition of this most useful book adds 57 pages to that 
of the first edition (1931), and includes 28 new illustrations, 18 of which replace 
figures of the original edition. The same chapter headings and subdivisions 
have been retained, and the new matter is inserted at its pertinent place in the 
body of the text. The principal revisions or additions occur in the chapters on 
Aspects of Morphology, Sense Organs and Reflex Behaviour, and Practical 
Applications of Ecology, while the Index of Authors increases from about 280 
names in the first edition to 358. The book is more generous in its content than 
in its title, since each subject begins far enough back in the past to give the 
reader an intelligible background. For this reason, together with the breadth 
of the field covered, including such diverse subjects as morphology, meta¬ 
morphosis, palaeontology, sense organs and reflex behaviour, coloration, ecology, 
parasitism, and biological control, the book serves as an excellent text on the 
broader phases of entomology both for the student and for the general reader, 
who is usually a specialist. Furthermore, while the subject matter is discussed 
;n a purely scientific manner, with no concession to “popularization,” the style 
of writing is clear and explicit throughout, giving concisely the information 
that the reader is most likely to want on each subject. In short, Recent Ad¬ 
vances in Entomology is also a welcome advance in the style of entomological 
texts. — r. e. s. 


A TEXTBOOK OF PLANT VIRUS DISEASES, By Kenneth M. Smith. 
8 vo., cloth, 614 pp., 101 figs., Philadelphia, Pa. P. Blakiston’s Son ana 
Company. 1937. $5.00. 

This book is of value to the entomologist because of its very full discussion of 
the relation of insects to the transmission of plant virus diseases. The scope of 
the work as a whole consists of general treatment of the plant virus, its proper¬ 
ties, its mode of transmission and the like. This is followed by similar treatment 
of the diseases caused thereby and these are arranged according to host plant 
families, such as Delphinium, Gossypium, Ficus, Nicotiana, and Solanum. 

A generous portion of the work (chapter 8) is taken up with detailed treatment 
of some 39 insects, including such, matters as food plants, life history, habits 
and ecology, where concerned in such transmission. Among these are such 
important forms as Franklinielia insularis Fr., Thrips tabaci Lind., Lygus pra- 
tensis Linn., Piesma ( Zosmenus ) quadrata Fieb., Cicadula divisa (sexnotata 
Fall.) Uhl., Cicadulina mbila Naude, Euscelis striatulus Fallen, Eutettix tenellus 
Baker, Macropsis trimaculata Fitch, Nephotettix apicalis Motsch., var. cincti- 
ceps Uhl., and Peregrinus maidis Ashm. A feature which adds greatly to ready 
reference use of the book is an appendix in which all the more common virus 
disease symptoms are listed together with the virus which causes them, and 
page reference is appended in each case so that further information is easily 
accessible. No account is given of the technique and methods of study of the 



54 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


plant viruses because these matters already have been discussed in another 
recent book by the same author. “It is hoped,” says the author in his Preface, 
“that the book will lessen the confusion now existing in regard to study of 
plant diseases, and it will help to give the subject its rightful status as a distinct 
science.” —j. s. w. 


A GLOSSARY OF ENTOMOLOGY, by J. R. de la Torre-Bueno, 8 vo. 
cloth, 336 pp., 9 plates, 28 Clubway, Hartsdale, N. Y., Brooklyn Ento¬ 
mological Society, 1937. $5.00. 

The second edition of this work, prepared by John B. Smith in 1906, contained 
154 octavo pages, 3 pages of black and white line drawings dealing with struc¬ 
tural details, and one plate in color showing the nomenclature of 40 Windsor 
and Newton water colors. While the second edition contained some 4,300 
terms, the present third edition completely revised and rewritten contains 
nearly 12,000 definitions; and since, in many cases, numerous terms with slightly 
different spellings have the same definition, nearly 10,000 terms are given. 
These include not only those strictly within the field of entomology but likewise 
sciences into which it enters, as embryology, cytology, physiology, morphology, 
development, genetics, and ecology;, and also certain terms in chemistry, 
physics, botany, medicine and the like, and there are also given a selection from 
the terminology of medical entomology and from the field of mathematics. 
Definitions and terms have been freely revised where necessary and most 
frequently are defined as employed by individual authors, often in their own 
words, the author’s name being given in parenthesis immediately following such 
use. The modern usage of words as well as their original acceptation is indi¬ 
cated. Plurals are shown, at least in the root term, or as indicated by the 
originator of the term. The two appendices comprise a list of Latin abbrevi¬ 
ations and a list and alphabetical register of arbitrary signs and symbols used 
in entomology. The bibliography comprises 34 titles ranging in date from 1827 
to 1936. Plates 1, 2, and 9 appeared in the second edition, while plates 3 to 8, 
inclusive, also dealing with structural details, are new. The color plate of the 
second edition has not been included. —j. s. w. 


PRACTICAL BACTERIOLOGY, HAEMATOLOGY AND ANIMAL 
PARASITOLOGY, by E. R. Stitt, P. W. and M. C. Clough. 9th ed. 
revised and enlarged, 8 vo., cloth, 961 pp., 208 illus., part in color. Phila¬ 
delphia, P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., 1938. $7.00. 

This work, well known and widely used in its previous editions, and now just 
issued in its ninth revised and enlarged edition, is a comprehensive textbook of 
modern bacteriology and guide to laboratory methods, and is of particular 
ihterest to workers in entomology, not only because of its treatment of 
topics directly within the field of entomological investigation, but also because 
of its down-to-date discussion of mites, ticks and other nearly related forms. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 55 


Obviously, the scope of this notice must be limited to those sections of the book 
likely to be of usefulness to students in entomology and in nearly related fields, 
since it would not be feasible here to give a sufficiently extended general review 
to be appropriate for a work of such comprehensiveness. In this new ninth 
edition the portions of the book (chapters XVI to XXV, pp. 533 to 584 inclu¬ 
sive), dealing with insects includes discussion of 49 species and varieties within 
41 insect genera. Of these, 3 species are within the Anoplura, 4 within the 
Hemiptera, 8 within the Siphonaptera and 34 within the Diptera, practically 
all of these being disease carriers or otherwise directly injurious to man or to 
the lower animals under varying conditions in various parts of the world. Con¬ 
siderable attention has been given to those intermediary in human infection, 
and, specifically, those by which it appears possible to transmit yellow fever, 
malaria, filariasis and dengue. The authors have tried to bear in mind the needs 
of the research worker in tropical or remote locations where access may not be 
had to well equipped libraries, particularly as related to the epidemiological 
importance of species determination and of applicable control measures. Of 
usefulness also to entomological workers are the sections (appendix, pp. 809 to 
875, inclusive), concerning latest apparatus, as microscopes, sterilizers, filters, 
incubators and the like, as well as those pertaining to culture media, staining 
methods, the preservation of tissues for examination in microscopic sections, 
and the mounting and preservations of various kinds of biological material. 
Mention also should be made that the very considerable portions of the volume 
dealing with toxic plant products and on communicable diseases have been 
greatly extended over previous editions, while that on filterable viruses (chapter 
IX, pp. 167 to 201, inclusive), is almost entirely new. —j. s. w. 



56 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 2, FEB., 1938 


MINUTES OF THE 488TH REGULAR MEETING OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 488th meeting of the Society was held at 8 p. m., Thursday, January 6, 
1938, in Room 43 of the National Museum, with thirty-nine members and eight 
visitors present, and President Back presiding. The minutes of the previous 
meeting were read and approved. 

The President announced the appointment of D. G. Hall, E. C. Cushing and 
H. H. Richardson to the Program Committee, and F. W. Poos, Alan Stone and 
H. S. McConnell to the Membership Committee. 

The following members outlined the important features of the various sessions 
of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists 
held at Indianapolis: 

General Session .F. C. Bishopp 

Apiculture.. . .S. B. Fracker 

Quarantine .E. R. Sasscer 

Extension.M. P. Jones 

Dr. Bishopp spoke in place of J. A. Hyslop, who was unable to be present. 
E. C. Cushing had originally intended to discuss the General Session, but was 
unable to do so. Brief notes on the Annual Meeting of the Entomological 
Society of America were given by A. B. Gurney, speaking in place of R. E. 
Snodgrass. 

The main part of the program was devoted to the address of the retiring 
President, N. E. Mclndoo, entitled “Sense organs of insects compared to those 
of higher animals.” Dr. Mclndoo’s address, which will appear in published 
form, was commented upon by W. H. Anderson. 

Adjournment at 10.10 p. m. 

Ashley B. Gurney, 
Recording Secretary. 


Actual date of -publication , February 24 , 1938, 







ANNOUNCEMENT 


Prices for back volumes and single numbers of the Proceedings of the Ento¬ 
mological Society of Washington are as follows, until further notice: 

Vols. 1-19, per volume. $2.00 

per number._. .50 

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per number.-. 50 

Complete sets, Vols. 1-39 (1884-1937) Inclusive .. $109.00 

Double numbers:.(per double no.) .50 

These include Nos. 2-3 of Vol. 7; Nos. 1-2 and 3-4 of Vol. 8; 

Nos. 1-2 and 3-4 of Vol. 10; Nos. 7-8 of Vol. 24; Nos. 5-6 and 
7-8 of Vol. 25 and Nos. 8-9 of Vol. 36. 

Note: Nos. 1-4 of Vol. 9 and Nos. 1-4 of Vol. 19 (each of 
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as complete volumes. Per volume_ 2.00 


A 20 PERCENT DISCOUNT WILL BE MADE TO MEMBERS 
AND SUBSCRIBERS ON ORDERS OF $10.00 OR OVER. 


Domestic shipments prepaid, foreign shipments f. o. b. Washington. 


(Make checks , drafts, etc. payable to the Entomological Society of Washington .) 


D. J. CAFFREY, 

Corresponding Secretary, 

Address: Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , 
Washington , D. C. 













CONTENTS 


BLAKE, DORIS H.—EIGHT NEW SPECIES OF WEST INDIAN CHRYSOMELIDAE . . 

CRAWFORD, J. C.—SOME NEW OR LITTLE KNOWN THYSANOPTERA . . . . 

FISHER, W. S.—A NEW ANOBIID BEETLE (COLE0P : ANOBIIDAe) INJURIOUS 

TO BOOKS . ... 

GURNEY, ASHLEY B.—SYNONYMY IN THE GENUS PANORPA (MECOPTERA) . . 

MC INDOO, N. E.—THE SENSES OF INSECTS COMPARED TO HIGHER ANIMALS . 




No. 3 


VOL. 



MARCH, 1938 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



Published Monthly Except July, August and September 

BY THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., under 
Act of August 24, 1912. 


Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum on the 
rirst Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p. m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them, is given 
precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1938. 


Honorary President - .. L. O. Howard 

President . . . . . . . . . ... .... . . . . ..... E. A. Back 

First Vice-President .. R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President . Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary . . ... . . .Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary .. . . .. D. J. Caffrey 

Treasurer . . . .. H. E. Ewing 

Editor .... W. R. Walton 

Executive Committee . . . B. A. Porter, S. B. Fracker, N. E. McIndoo 


Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences . . . . . C. F. W. Muesebeck 


PROCEEDINGS 

' ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society at 
Washington, D. C. Terms of subscription: Domestic, $4.00 per annum; 
foreign, $4.25 per annum; recent single numbers, 50 cents, foreign postage 
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Authors will be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in which their 
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 MARCH, 1938 No. 3 


A SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDER ZORAPTERA, WITH NOTES ON 
THE BIOLOGY OF ZOROTYPUS HUBBARDI CAUDELL. 

By Ashley Buell Gurney, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture . 

One of the most interesting orders of insects, both from the 
standpoint of the biologies of the species and from the nature of 
their morphological structures, is the Zoraptera. Although 
Zoraptera occur in four continents, including both Old and New 
Worlds, only 16 species are known, of which 4 are here described 
as new. The writer has recently had opportunity to study the 
biology of the species common about Washington, D. C., 
Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, and certain additions to the previ¬ 
ous knowledge of the life history have resulted. Very little has 
been recorded concerning the internal anatomy and male 
genitalia; and since these are of great interest, the latter being 
especially valuable for purposes of identification, it seems desir¬ 
able to bring together in one report the important facts regarding 
this group of insects. 

The writer is especially grateful to R. E. Snodgrass for assist¬ 
ance with the morphological work, but for any interpretations 
which may later prove to be incorrect the author is to be held 
solely responsible. H. S. Barber, J. C. Bridwell, and H. E. 
Ewing have contributed many helpful suggestions, and the 
notes and other materials assembled by the late A. N. Caudell 
have been of great value. 

No species have been available for study except those 
described by Caudell and those described in this paper, but 
since these comprise 9 of the 16 known species, and other species 
are known from only a very few specimens, a more complete 
representation could hardly be found at present. 

Only a single genus, Zorotypus Silvestri, of the family Zoro- 
tvpidae, is known. The genus Menonia George appears to 
have been incorrectly assigned to the Zoraptera and is discussed 
in the latter part of this paper. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS OF THE ZORAPTERA. 

The characters defining the group have required little modi¬ 
fication since Silvestri’s original work (1913) except for a pro¬ 
vision for a winged form. They are briefly as follows: 






58 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

Head capsule and mouthparts orthopteroid; maxillary palpi 
five-segmented; labial palpi three-segmented. Antenna monili- 
form, nine-segmented. Paired compound eyes and three ocelli 
present or absent. Prothorax well developed. Wings present 
or absent; when present, venation poorly developed; capable of 
being shed by means of indefinite basal sutures. Legs adapted 
for running. Hind femur often with heavy spines on ventral 
margin. Tarsus two-segmented, second segment much longer 
than the first. Paired curved claws on apical segment of tarsus. 
Abdomen simple; posterior segments of male often with special¬ 
ized structures. Male genitalia either symmetrical or asym¬ 
metrical. Cerci present. Paurometabolous. 

Apparently there are but two fundamental types of individu¬ 
als as follows,: 

1. Winged individuals, including sexually functional males 
and females, which usually shed their wings within a few days 
after becoming mature. The shedding occurs without help from 
other members of the colony and there is no evidence of a social 
life. The body is darkly pigmented and there are compound 
eyes and three ocelli. The antennae are nine-segmented. The 
nymphs which develop into this form have small compound 
eyes and ocelli; the latter may not be visible in the early instars. 
The antennae are eight-segmented. Later the ocelli become 
conspicuous, the eyes more prominent, the wing pads become 
elongate, and the antennae nine-segmented. The egg is similar 
in external appearance to that of an apterous female. 

2. Wingless individuals, functional in both sexes, which 
never have ocelli. Traces of degenerate compound eyes are 
visible in occasional individuals, as reported by Caudell (1920, 
p. 88) and also noted by the writer. The body is distinctly 
sclerotized, but is not nearly so deeply pigmented as in the 
winged form. The antennae are nine-segmented and the male 
genitalia do not differ from those of winged males. Nymphs 
have eight-segmented antennae and lack eyes, ocelli, and wing 
pads. In the later instars nine antennal segments are present. 
No true social life is evident. Much more numerous than 
winged form. 

What determines which of the two forms will develop from a 
given egg and many other details of the life history are still 
unknown. 

The Genus ZOROTYPUS Silvestri. 

Zorotypus , Silvestri, Boll. Lab. Zool., Portici, Vol. 7, pp. 196-205, 1913. (Geno¬ 
type, Z. guineensis Silvestri, original designation.) 

The following key to the species is purely artificial and the 
species neotropicus Silvestri (Costa Rica) and buxtoni Karny 
(Samoa) are omitted because of insufficient data. They are 
discussed in the systematic treatment, however. The most 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 59 


reliable characters for the recognition of species are found in 
the male genitalia, but it has been possible to utilize these 
features to only a limited extent because the male genitalia of 
but five species are known. In both species of which fair-sized 
series are available, hubbardi and snyderi , variation is exhibited 
by the spines on the posterior ventral margin of the hind femur. 
This character is sufficiently distinctive, however, to aid in 
separating the species. 

Key to the Species of Zorotypus. 

1. Cercus very elongate, shaped as in fig. 26 (Jamaica) 

longicercatus Caudell 

Cercus roughly oval in outline, of the type illustrated in fig. 7, some¬ 
times prolonged apically into a sharp spine-like process___2 

2. Two or three spines among those on the posterior ventral margin of 

hind femur noticeably longer and stronger than the others (figs. 5, 

23, 30 and 34)...........3 

Spines on hind femur sub-uniform in size or more than three or only 

one are noticeably longer and stronger than the others (figs. 28, 42, 55)....7 

3. Ventral margin of hind femur with two prominent spines at middle 

(fig. 5); apex of male abdomen either as in fig. 7 or as in fig. 45___ .4 

Hind femur not as in fig. 5; apex of male abdomen, where known, 

not as in figs. 7 or 45.......5 

4. Male abdomen specialized as in fig. 7; genitalia as in fig. 2 (Eastern 

and Southern U. S.)____ hubbardi Caudell 

Male abdomen specialized as in figs. 45 and 47; genitalia as in fig. 44 
(Matto Grosso, Brazil) ..... shannoni , new species 

5. Hind femur with two enormously developed spines (fig. 34); terminal 

abdominal structures and genitalia of male as illustrated (figs. 

35-39) (Cocos Island)____ barberi , new species 

Hind femur not so heavily armed (figs. 23, 30); male specialization, 

where known, not as in figs. 35-39.....6 

6. Hind femur as in fig. 23, varying as in figs. 17-21 (terminal abdominal 

structures and genitalia of male as in figs. 11,12, and 22) (Florida 

and Jamaica)............... snyderi Caudell 

Hind femur as in fig. 30 (West Africa)_ guineensis Silvestri 

7. Hind femur as in fig. 28; apex of male abdomen as in fig. 27 (Southern 

Sumatra)... caudelli Karny 

Spines of hind femur not as in fig. 28; apex of male abdomen, where 

known, not as in fig. 27...-8 

8. Hind femur as in fig. 46; terminal abdominal structures and genitalia 

of male as in figs. 44-45 or figs. 2, 6, and 7______..9 

Hind femur not as in fig. 46; male specialization, where known, not 

as above.....10 

9. Apex of male abdomen as in fig. 45 (Matto Grosso, Brazil). 

shannoni , new species 

Apex of male abdomen as in fig. 7 (Eastern and Southern U. S.). 

hubbardi Caudell 


















60 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 


10. Hind femur as in fig. 50 (Apex of male abdomen as in fig. 54) (Guate¬ 

mala)........ cramptoni , new species 

Hind femur not as in fig. 50....._.........11 

11. Hind femur rather strongly armed, spines definitely of contrasting 

sizes (fig. 42) (Hawaii)..... ..swezeyi Caudell 

Hind femur less heavily armed (fig. 55) or with spines less contrasting 

(fig. 25)..............12 

12. Second segment of antenna subequal to the first; hind femur as in 

fig. 25 (Mentawei Island, East Indies).... silvestrii Karny 

Second segment of antenna very noticeably shorter than the first; 

hind femur with armature different from that in fig. 25........13 

13. Hind femur with several weakly developed spines along basal half 

of ventral margin (fig. 55) (Philippine Islands)........ 

philippinensis , new species 

Spines arming hind femur not noticeably weaker along basal half..._...14 

14. Cercus prolonged into a sharp spine-like process, with a trace of 

annulation at its junction with main body of cercus (Java)__ 

javanicus Silvestri 

Cercus not prolonged into a spine-like process, terminating in the 

usual seta, no trace of annulation._______15 

15. Cercus with two strong lateral setae at apex, in addition to terminal 

seta (Bolivia)....... manni Caudell 

Cercus with only a prominent terminal seta (Ceylon).__ 

ceylonicus Silvestri 


Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell. 

(PI. I, figs. 1-10.) 

Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, Canad. Ent., Vol. 50, pp. 375-381, 1918. 

Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 22, pp. 84-97, figs. 

1-4, 1920. 

With the exception of Zorotypus snyderi Caudell, from Florida, 
this is the only species of Zoraptera known to occur in the 
United States and is readily identified by the characters illus¬ 
trated, especially the specializations of the male. The two 
principal spines arming the hind femur are usually trustworthy 
characters for identification, but even specimens collected at 
the same time and place are sometimes variable. In all femora 
examined the proximal one of the two large spines is conspicu¬ 
ously developed, but in a few instances the distal one is scarcely 
larger than the small spines distad of it. For this reason the 
species is keyed out in two places. The number of small spines 
between the two large ones varies from one to three in the series 
studied, sometimes on opposite sides of the same specimen. 

In addition to many records within a 25-mile radius of 
Washington, D. C., both in Maryland and Virginia, the follow¬ 
ing are unpublished records of material which has been ex- 













PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 61 

amined: Corrigan, Tex., Mar. 14, 1937, J. H. Gayden; Houston, 
Tex., Oct. 9. 1921, H. E. Ewing; Magnolia, Livingston Parish, 
La., Feb. 23, 1934, in moist decaying logs, F. E. Lyman; Dur¬ 
ham, N. C., May 30, 1937, sawdust pile in Duke Forest, A. S. 
Pearse and A. B. Gurney. The first collections in the vicinity 
of Washington, D. C., were from under the dead bark of a 
chestnut tree at Falls Church, Va., March 4, 1921, by E. A. 
Chapin. Judging from its present abundance near the District 
of Columbia and the records from North Carolina, Florida, 
Louisiana and Texas, the species is probably abundant in the 
Southern States. 

On March 1, 1938, two small collections of hubbardi were 
received from Miss Olive Falls of Chicago. One group of 
individuals was from a lot taken at Crossette, Ark., April 20, 
1937, associated with termites. The termites in which the 
second lot was found were collected at Evanston, Ill., but the 
Zoraptera were not discovered until two months later. The 
Arkansas record is reasonable to expect, considering that the 
species occurs in Texas and Louisiana. Miss Falls writes that 
contamination may possibly have occurred in the case of the 
Illinois material, due to the presence in her laboratory of 
colonies from other sources, so that Illinois can not be listed at 
present as a definitely known habitat of hubbardi. 

Termites are often found with Zorotypus, because of the 
frequent similarity of their habitats. Collections by the writer 
and others, however, indicate that the association of the two 
groups of insects is only incidental. Thus, Zoraptera are not 
true inquilines, as they were thought to be at one time (see 
Caudell, 1918; 1920, pp. 95-97). 

When examined with a binocular microscope, males may be 
distinguished from females by the presence of processes on the 
eighth and ninth tergites (figs. 6 and 7) and by a dark transverse 
area of deeper color at the base of the apical sternite. The 
genitalia are normally concealed, but are sometimes extruded 
as in fig. 6. There are two principal clasping organs (fig. 2), 
one simple, the other very much hooked at the apex. There are 
two well defined and articulated supporting sclerites as well as 
several smaller and indefinite sclerites. 

Notes on internal anatomy. 

The male reproductive system is shown in fig. 8. The testes 
are white bilobed organs from which the double vasa deferentia 
lead to a common seminal vesicle. A long tube from the latter 
extends far posteriorly in the abdomen, where it is held by 
membrane in close contact with the endophallic structures and 
ejaculatory duct. The accessory glands comprise two white, 
elongate, conical organs situated at the base of the ejaculatory 
duct. Ventrally they are partially concealed by a pouch of 


62 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

similar shape which receives the tube coming from the seminal 
vesicle. The exact homologies of the endophallic structures 
and the location of the gonopore have not been determined. 
Snodgrass (1937, p. 19) has described the very elongate filaments 
which are arranged in bundles within the testes and seminal 
vesicles of many males. They have also been found in the 
seminal receptacle of females and apparently are the sperma¬ 
tozoa. Some specimens show the spermatozoa more perfectly 
developed than others and one testis is usually more advanced 
than the other. Fresh material is rather necessary for satis¬ 
factory dissections, and in such material the accessory glands 
may often be seen through the ventral body wall located in the 
region of the fourth and fifth sternites. The testes and seminal 
vesicle are normally located dorsally. 

The female reproductive system (fig. 1) consists of two groups 
of ovarioles, united by lateral oviducts to a common oviduct. 
The ovarioles are normally four to six in number and contain 
small eggs in various stages of development. Small masses of 
fat body are almost always present at the extremities of the 
ovarioles. The spermatheca or seminal receptacle is connected 
to the region of the genital chamber by a long slender duct. The 
wall of the spermatheca is very delicate and usually there are 
one or more loops of the duct within it. The spermathecae of 
about half of more than a dozen females examined contained 
spermatozoa. Dealate females have a reproductive system that 
is essentially the same as in apterous ones and spermatozoa 
have been observed in their spermathecae. 

The alimentary canal (fig. 4) is of very simple structure. The 
oesophagus leads directly into the crop and the crop and 
ventriculus are distended in varying proportions in different 
specimens, depending upon the contents. The Malpighian 
tubules are six in number, attached separately at the junction 
of the mesenteron and proctodaeum, and are long and slender. 
No definite valves constricting the alimentary canal were 
observed except at the latter junction. Six raised and con¬ 
spicuous, white “rectal glands” are present. 

Description of egg. 

The eggs secured by rearing experiments fully confirm the observations of 
Caudell (1920, pp. 94-95). The egg (fig. 10) is oblong in shape, broadly rounded, 
at each end, and average dimensions are 0.61 mm. in length by 0.32 mm. in 
width. It is practically colorless when laid but assumes a cream-colored, 
chalky appearance a few days before hatching. The surface of the chorion is 
not sculptured, but the outlines of cells are visible and the surface is finely 
granular and minutely spiculate. The egg has no cap or operculum and is 
simply deposited without supporting structures of any kind. The fine threads 
in figs. 9 and 10 are of fungous mycelium. At least three days before hatching 
a dark line can be seen within the shell. This represents the egg burster, and 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 63 


after hatching the cast embryo skin always appears as in fig. 9, with a shriveled 
mass projecting from the slit in the shell and a shield-shaped apical portion 
which bears the egg burster along a median line. The burster is sharp, angulate 
at the apex, and blade-like. The break in the eggshell is very uniform in all 
eggs examined. 

Weber (1933, pp. 556-558) has outlined the principal methods 
of emergence from insect eggs and described some types of 
bursters. Smith (1922) has described the burster in three species 
of Neuroptera. 

Description of nymphs. 

Newly hatched nymph: Antenna eight-segmented; apical segment much longer 
than the preceding one; subapical segments nearly globose, as broad as long; 
basal segment about equal to second and third together. No wing pads visible. 
Body white, setae present. Cercus rather elongate, triangular, terminated by a 
strong seta. Length of body 1.12 mm., of antenna 0.66 mm. 


The number of nymphal stages preceding either the alate or 
the apterous form is not known. The instar directly preceding 
the winged adult is characterized by nine-segmented antennae, 
distinct compound eyes and ocelli, and wing pads extending 
nearly three-fourths the length of the abdomen. Nymphs have 
been collected with wing pads scarcely overlapping the abdomen, 
eight-segmented antennae, no visible ocelli, and eyes repre¬ 
sented only by brown spots. 

It has been suggested (see Caudell, 1920, p. 88) that nymphs 
with wing pads may represent brachypterous adults, but the 
rearing demonstrates that some transform into the winged 
stage, and it is probable that these nymphs are comparable to 
the nymphs of other paurometabolous insects. 

Observations Regarding the Biology of Zorotypus Hubbardi Caudell. 

During the seasons of 1936 and 1937 the writer has had 
opportunity to observe hubbardi under natural conditions in the 
vicinity of Washington, D. C. The surest method of locating 
a colony is to search a fairly large pile of sawdust, usually on an 
old mill site, which has lain for several years or until the wood 
takes on a dark color, decay is well under way, and warmth is 
generated at a depth of 2 feet or more. During the summer 
months hubbardi may often be found in a few minutes by 
turning over slabs or large chips of wood which are partially 
buried by the sawdust. It is much easier to collect material in 
this way than by aimless digging in the sawdust, although they 
do occur in the loose sawdust. When the weather becomes 
cold in the fall, it is usually necessary to dig until a region is 
reached which is warmed by fermentation of the sawdust. It is 
not known how many years a given sawdust pile will remain 


64 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

suitable for hubbardi, but one at Priest Bridge, Md., which is 
the source of material collected by H. S. Barber in 1932, has 
yielded very few specimens during 1937. The wood has ap¬ 
parently decomposed too far to suit the insects. 

Under very favorable conditions a slab of 3 or 4 square feet 
in area may have as many as 100 individuals upon it, or beneath 
it, when the sawdust covering is removed, although about 25 
is more usual. Both apterous adults and nymphs of the apterous 
form are almost always present. Winged adults are unusual, but 
dealate adults are not rare. At Hunter, Va., Sept. 20, 1937, the 
writer found six dealate females and four winged females in 
about three hours of collecting, during which time apterous 
specimens were seen in abundance. This represents the writer’s 
largest single catch of winged and dealate material; usually 
about three dealate specimens and, if one is fortunate, one 
winged specimen are taken in such a period. One dealate male 
was collected, the first male hubbardi of this form; all others 
were females. 

There are two views regarding the presence of hubbardi in the 
Washington area; one is that the species is a comparatively 
recent introduction from more southern States and is able to 
live at this latitude only by taking advantage of the artificial 
conditions of sawdust piles. The other view is that they can 
maintain themselves under bark and in rotting logs, but very 
few northern colonies have been found in such locations, and 
whether the species is capable of maintaining itself about 
Washington by such means alone is not known. 

An observation cell was made by taking a glass jar about 4 
inches in height and 2 inches in diameter, lining it with thin 
flat strips of decaying wood, and loosely filling the interior with 
decaying sawdust. Specimens placed in two such cells, estab¬ 
lished July 31 and August 8, 1937, respectively, and kept at 
room temperatures, lived until mid-November, and a few 
specimens, or their progeny, were still alive January 9, 1938. 
A few drops of water were added at intervals of several days. 
The jars were tightly closed except for small holes, as a con¬ 
stant, high humidity appears to be essential. If the jar is kept 
in darkness, individuals will move actively about between the 
glass and the outer surface of the wood lining, but when exposed 
to light they gradually move to the darker side of the jar or 
through the lining to the inside of the cell. 

There is little social behavior among these insects. Individuals 
often approach each other, cross their antennae for a moment, 
and then move hurriedly away. No care of young has been 
observed. Mating has twice been observed, but unfortunately 
the respective positions of the two sexes were not determined in 
either instance. On August 5 one apterous adult was seen to 
climb upon the dorsal surface of another facing in the same 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 65 

direction. Then their genitalia were united and the one that 
had been above scrambled to the surface of the wood and slowly 
advanced, dragging its mate behind. The latter was on its 
back during this procedure, made only slight movements, and 
the pair remained in copula about one and one-half minutes, 
during which time about 1 inch of surface was traversed. Then 
they suddenly separated and each hurried away. The second 
mating was observed August 9. Two apterous individuals 
were end to end when first noticed, one advancing slowly and 
the other, with its legs in the air, being dragged over the wood 
on its back. This procedure was as seen in the first observation, 
and after about one minute the two separated. 

The principal food of Zorotypus hubbardi can not be stated 
definitely. Individuals move about, frequently stopping to 
clean their antennae and tarsi and occasionally nibbling at 
particles of wood, but no regular feeding upon the wood has 
been noticed. One individual was seen to attack a small mite, 
but finally left it unharmed. Another was observed carrying 
the head capsule of one of its own species in its mandibles. In 
connection with experiments to secure eggs, to be discussed 
later, groups of six apterous females each were placed in separate 
vials. In several cases, after one or more individuals had died 
and the bodies had been allowed to remain, only the head capsule 
and fragments of legs and body were left after a few days had 
elapsed, indicating that hubbardi may act as a scavenger on 
dead arthropods. Upon dissecting one of the remaining females, 
in one such instance, apparent fragments of hubbardi were 
found in the alimentary canal. Specimens that have been 
treated with caustic potash, rendering them largely transparent 
when mounted on slides, show that fungous spores are almost 
invariably present in the food contents. H. E. Ewing has 
identified the following fragments of mites from the alimentary 
tract of specimens of hubbardi: From an apterous female, 
Magnolia, Livingston Parish, La., Feb. 23, 1934, leg fragments 
of a tyroglyphid mite of the genus Rhizoglyphus; from apterous 
male, Priest Bridge, Md., July 31, 1937, 7 legs of a tyroglyphid 
mite; apterous male, Priest Bridge, Md., Aug. 15, 1937, two 
legs of an oribatoid mite.' These data, in conjunction with 
Silvestri’s (1913) observations that remains of arthropods, 
especially Acarina, occur in the stomach contents of Zorotypus , 
suggest rather definitely that animal matter constitutes a 
normal food of Zoraptera. 

In order to secure eggs, individual vials were used, each of 
which contained only a small piece of decayed wood. The vials 
were placed in a moist chamber in which a handful of decaying 
sawdust was placed to conserve moisture. Each vial was closed 
by a cloth stopper and numbered. Data were taken daily and 
water occasionally applied to the piece of wood with a pipette. 


66 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 


Dealate females were isolated but apterous females were 
handled in groups of six to each vial. From 18 apterous females 
collected at Priest Bridge, Md., Aug. 15, 1937, 4 eggs were 
secured Aug. 17, and 1 Aug. 22. All were laid upon the piece 
of wood except one which was attached lightly to the surface 
of the glass. One egg was broken when found. Of these eggs, 
two hatched Sept. 7, one Sept. 8, and the fourth Sept. 10. 

A dealate female collected at Priest Bridge, August 15, de¬ 
posited an egg Aug. 17. This hatched Sept. 7. No other eggs 
were secured, although isolations were made of 6 dealate females 
and 12 apterous females collected Sept. 20 and 4 dealate and 
24 apterous females collected Oct. 3, at Hunter, Va. Of the 
group taken Sept. 20, three apterous specimens were active at 
this writing (Nov. 9) as well as two dealate and six apterous 
females from those collected Oct. 3. A large percentage of 
females taken during June, July, and August, contain single 
large eggs, but no large eggs have been found in females collected 
during October and early in November. This suggests that 
eggs are not laid during the fall. 

None of the nymphs hatching from eggs was reared success¬ 
fully. One nymph lived six days isolated in a small vial of 
woody debris. 

In order to secure winged adults, nymphs with wing pads, 
compound eyes, and ocelli were isolated. Only one, a female, 
was reared successfully. The nymph was collected at Priest 
Bridge Aug. 15, and matured Aug. 22. Six additional nymphs 
were isolated and a darkening of the wing pads preparatory to 
the final moult was noticed in several, but none matured, though 
one lived until Sept. 8. The entire period of nymphal and 
adult life probably occupies several months, judging from several 
adults that have lived as long as 75 days. One teneral winged 
female, collected Sept. 12, shed its wings Sept. 17, but died 
Oct. 15, without ovipositing. 

Zorotypus shannoni, new species. 

(PI. IV, figs. 44-48.) 

Winged male .—Size medium to small for the genus; readily recognizable by 
the form of the tenth tergite, as well as by the features of the eleventh tergite, 
subgenital plate, and genitalia. 

Antenna as in fig. 48; second and third segments much smaller than others; 
second curved at base, third straight. Wings lacking except usual bases of 
dealate form and basal third of left front wing, venation of the latter as in hub- 
bardi. 

Hind leg as in fig. 46; femur armed with one light to moderately heavy spine 
near basal third of posterior ventral margin; there is an indication of a second 
spine having been present immediately distad; six shorter spines along apical 
half; two strong setae basad of the basal spine and three weak setae apicad of it. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 67 


Subgenital plate as in fig. 47; sparsely covered with short setae of uniform 
length; apex emarginate, its lateral extremities prolonged into curved flaps 
which are flattened and not spine-like. The flaps and the portion of the plate 
proper distad of the dotted line shown in fig. 47 bear a sclerotized internal lining. 

Tenth tergite in dorsal view as in fig. 45; roughly a broad triangle in outline, 
with its base extending ventro-anteriorly beneath the ninth tergite; apical margin 
more heavily sclerotized than remainder of sclerite; conspicuously armed with 
caudally extending spines; greatly strengthened ventro-anteriorly so that a 
definite central supporting rod is formed; appearing as in fig. 44 in caudal view, 
the posterior surface bearing numerous setae, regularly placed as illustrated. 

Eleventh tergite broadly emarginate at apex (fig. 44); a median finger-like 
process somewhat broadened toward its apex, curves dorso-anteriorly in close 
contact with posterior surface of tenth tergite. 

Genitalia composed of several conspicuous sclerites and several of less definite 
form embedded in chitinized membrane, appearing as in fig. 44 in caudal view 
after potash treatment; a chitinized spherical pouch is associated with the 
sclerites. 

Coloration .—General color deep brown; basi-tarsus, apical third of second 
tarsal segment and claws pale; caudal spines and median supporting rod of tenth 
tergite black; apex of subgenital plate, distad of dotted line in fig. 47, a darker 
shade of brown than remainder of plate due to presence of internal lining. 

Measurements .—Length of body 1.5 mm., of pronotum .3 mm., of hind femur 
.6 mm. 


Type locality .—West Border of Matto Grosso, Brazil, South 
America. 

Type. —No. 52272, U. S. National Museum. 

A single alate male collected by R. C. Shannon, May, 1931. 
The specimen has been treated with caustic potash and the 
apical segments of the abdomen removed for study; all are now 
preserved in alcohol. The species most likely to be confused 
with shannoni is manni Caudell, described from Bolivia; the 
male of manni is unknown, but the two species may be dis¬ 
tinguished by the differences in the armature of the hind femur. 

The species is named in honor of its collector, Mr. Raymond 
C. Shannon. 


Zorotypus snyderi Caudell. 

(PI. II, figs. 11-24.) 

Zorotypus snyderi Caudell, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 22, pp. 90-97, fig. 5, 1920. 


The femoral spines distinguish the present species from 
hubbardi , although there is considerable variation in the spines 
as shown in figs. 17-21 and 23. The specialized structures of 
the male are the best features for the recognition of the species. 

No previously unrecorded material from the United States 
is available, but a most interesting collection of 11 apterous 


68 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

females, 7 apterous males, and 2 nymphs of the apterous form 
was made by E. A. Chapin and R. E. Blackwelder at Gordon 
Town, Jamaica, Feb. 4, 1937, “in rotting banana stems.” 
Study of the male genitalia indicates that the Jamaican material 
is conspecific with that described from Florida as snyderi. The 
nymphs are subequal in size to the two original specimens of 
longicercatus Caudell, described from Jamaica, but the cerci 
show that two species are involved. 

There are close affinities between the land faunas of Cuba and 
Florida, as a result of natural agents of dissemination, but the 
faunas of Jamaica and Florida are not so closely related. It is 
possible, therefore, that commercial transportation of plant 
materials, rather than natural causes, is responsible for the 
presence of snyderi in both Florida and Jamaica. 


The apical sternite of snyderi (fig. 12) is emarginate at the apex and has a 
broad mesal depression. The apical tergite (fig. 22) is heavily sclerotized and 
bears a median process at a level somewhat ventrad of the lateral lobes. 

The genitalia are of the same general type as in cramptoni , but very distinct 
from the latter in details. On the floor of the abdomen is a horseshoe-shaped 
basal plate (fig. 11) which is composed of two arms that are united anteriorly 
and are joined by a cross bar at their bases. The protrusile parts are hinged at 
the base of the basal plate, their relative positions being as in fig. 11 when seen 
in ventro-lateral view. When in a retracted condition the clasping organs are 
folded back and lie dorsad of the basal plate (fig. 24). The clasping organs are 
enclosed in a mass of membrane and muscle, and when studied in a caustic 
potash preparation (figs. 11, 14, 24) are seen to be composed of the following 
elements: A long filament, bearing spine-like projections which may be extended 
as illustrated or closely appressed to one another and rendered inconspicuous, 
which takes the form of a coiled spiral; paired dorsal lobes which are scoop-like 
at their apices; paired, lateral, hood-like lobes that partly conceal the median 
coiled filament when seen in lateral view. A slender filament is borne by each 
lateral lobe. As in cramptoni , the homologies of these parts are not fully under¬ 
stood at present. 

The “apterous adults” of Caudell (1920, pp. 92-93) are 
certainly only ordinary apterous adults. A study of the original 
material, including the “apterous pigmented male” collected 
at Miami Beach, Fla., Feb. 28, 1919, shows that no forms or 
“castes” different from the two found in hubbardi occur. 
According to H. S. Barber, who has observed both species in 
life, apterous adults of snyderi appear somewhat more darkly 
pigmented than those of hubbardi and run more actively. This 
apparently led to Caudell’s misunderstanding and to the 
confused statement by Snyder (1924, p. 3) that apterous 
reproductive forms are darkly Colored and have ocelli in snyderi 
but are colorless and without ocelli in hubbardi. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 69 


Zorotypus cramptoni, new species. 

(PI. IV, figs. 49-54.) 

Apterous male. —Size medium to large for the genus; distinctive in the armature 
of the apical tergites (fig. 54), the form of the genitalia (fig. 51), and the armature 
of the hind femur (fig. 50). The species most likely to be confused with the 
present one is neotropicus Silvestri, described from Costa Rica. According to the 
description of the latter, it differs from cramptoni in the proportions of the second 
and third antennal segments, in the armature of the hind femur, and in its 
considerably smaller size. The size, however, is subject to variation and may 
depend upon the manner in which specimens are preserved. 

Only basal four segments of each antenna present, agreeing with fig. 53 of 
female antenna in other respects; second segment two-thirds the length of third. 
Hind femur as in fig. 50. Hind tibia without subapical spines, unlike shannoni 
(fig. 46). 

Subgenital plate and eighth sternite as illustrated (fig. 49), thus differing in a 
striking manner from the Floridian and Jamaican snyderi. Apical tergites as in 
fig. 54, the ninth tergite broadly extending mesally at its base (this portion 
normally covered by apex of eighth tergite, its lateral extensions near bases of 
cerci not completely shown in figure); tenth tergite with seven strong, regularly 
spaced, curved spines on each side of disk; apparent eleventh tergite fused with 
tenth, with a dense group of slender setae borne on each side apically, and an 
apical process which curves dorsally in the form of a hook, much as in caudelli 
(fig. 27). 

Genitalia of same general type as in snyderi (fig. 51), A basal plate (fig. 52) 
attached to the subgenital plate by a basal fork normally extending anteriorly 
in abdomen across eighth sternite and nearly to base of seventh sternite, its 
outline dimly seen through ventral body wall in specimens not treated with 
caustic potash. Extended portion of genitalia in lateral view as in fig. 51: com¬ 
posed of the following elements: A mesal tapering filament which takes the form 
of a spiral; a pouch-like structure at the base of the filament; a paired hood-like 
structure partially surrounding the spiral, less developed than a similar structure 
in snyderi; two paired dorsal lobes, corresponding to the dorsal scoop-like struc¬ 
tures of snyderi; several non-sclerotized membranes surrounding the dorsal 
lobes, which are of rather indefinite form, indicated by the stippled areas in fig. 
51. 

Coloration. —General color pale brown; ventral region of thorax, and tibiae 
and tarsi, light amber. 

Measurements. —Length of body' 2.4 mm., of pronotum 0.51 mm., of hind 
femur 0.93 mm. 

Apterous female. —General form as in apterous male. Antenna as illustrated 
(fig. 53). Hind femur like that of male. Caudal margin of seventh tergite bearing 
14 setae, of which the third from the mesal line on each side is decidedly more 
conspicuous than the others. Caudal margin of eighth tergite with 16 setae, of 
which the second and third from the mesal line on each side are more strongly 
developed than the others. (This is essentially as in the apterous males, but the 
dorsal setae of the latter specimens are not well preserved.) Ninth and tenth 
tergites simple, subequal in length, each armed on each side of mesal line with a 
seta which is about one-half length of third lateral spine of eighth tergite. 




70 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 


Coloration. —Like that of male; apical two antennal segments pale. 

Measurements. —Length of body 2.58 mm., of pronotum 0.48 mm., of hind 
femur 0.81 mm. 

Nymph of wingedform. —Apparently in stage immediately preceding maturity; 
general form as in hubbardi , robust. 

Ocelli and compound eyes well developed. Antenna nine-segmented, the 
second segment noticeably shorter and smaller than the third. Armature of 
hind femur as in adult, but not so heavily developed. Wing pad of front wing 
extending nearly to apex of third abdominal tergite; of hind wing one-half the 
length of fourth tergite. Abdominal segments unspecialized; setae of same 
arrangement as in adult. 

Coloration. —General color yellow-cream; eyes black; ocelli, spines, and setae 
brown. 

Measurements. —Length of body 2.04 mm., of pronotum 0.42 mm., of hind 
femur 0.57 mm. 

Type locality. —Mixco, Guatemala. 

Type. —-No. 52274, U. S. National Museum. 

Holotype .—Apterous male collected by W. M. Mann in 
May, 1924. 

Allotype .—Apterous female, with same data as holotype. 

Paratypes .—One apterous male, one apterous female, and one 
nymph of winged form with same data as holotype. 

The holotype and male paratype were originally mounted on 
a slide and the appendages have largely become detached from 
the body during the removal which was necessary for a study 
of the genitalia. The appendages are now mounted on two 
separate slides; the bodies, as those of the remaining specimens, 
are preserved in separate micro-vials. The females and nymph 
are in excellent condition. 

The writer is particularly glad to name this species in honor 
of his friend and former teacher, Dr. G. C. Crampton, of the 
Massachusetts State College, whose work has been intimately 
associated with the morphology and phylogeny of primitive 
insects for nearly a third of a century. 

Zorotypus barberi, new species. 

(PI. Ill, figs. 32-39.) 

Apterous male. —General form robust, medium to large for the genus. A very 
striking species not to be confused with any other on account of the heavily 
developed spines on hind femur (fig. 34) as well as distinctive male features. 

Antenna as in fig. 33; second segment somewhat shorter than third; apical 
six segments subequal in length. Hind coxa bearing a prominent apical spine at 
latero-posterior angle; a pair of strong curved apical spines borne laterally just 
anterior to the articulation of the trochanter. Hind leg as in fig. 34. 

Apex of abdomen as in fig. 35 in dorsal aspect. Apical tergite weakly sclero- 
tized mesally at its base, appearing as triangularly emarginate; a dorsally 
curved process borne apically. Ninth tergite with small apical process; two 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 71 


paired mesal processes, each apparently resulting from the fusion of strong setae 
arranged in a row. In lateral view (fig. 32) these paired processes are much 
thinner than in frontal aspect. 

Ventral view of apex of abdomen as in fig. 36. Ventral plate of genitalia and 
supporting rods visible along floor of abdomen; attachments on subgenital 
plate. Genitalia (figs. 37-39) composed of the following elements: A weakly 
sclerotized ventral plate attached to subgenital plate; moderately sclerotized, 
paired dorsal lobes or pouches, the mesal pair bearing membranous flaps at their 
apices; a hood-like posterior portion which bears heavily sclerotized pointed 
processes anteriorly; a sclerotized spine-like organ within the central mass of 
the genitalia and extending within “hood”; paired sclerites, each of which, is 
folded, lying laterally just dorsad of the ventral plate; a mesal plate, broadly 
emarginate apically, borne on the ventral plate; a mesal lobe, located anteriorly 
which bears a heavily sclerotized, tapering rod; paired rods extending anter¬ 
iorly from the central mass of the genitalia; an unsclerotized membrane uniting 
the basal rods. 

Coloration. —General color light amber; thoracic notum light brown; spines 
of posterior ventral margin of hind femur dark brown. 

Measurements. —Length of body 2.22 mm., of pronoturn 0.42 mm., of hind 
femur 0.66 mm. 

Type locality .—Cocos Island, west coast of Central America. 
Type. —No. 52273, U. S. National Museum. 

A single apterous male collected by W. Schmidt, Mar. 1, 
1933, “under . . . debris back of beach.” The specimen has 
been treated with caustic potash, figs. 35 and 36 having been 
made before the treatment. The genitalia were then removed 
without detaching any of the abdominal segments from the 
remainder of the body; the body and genitalia are preserved in 
separate micro-vials. 

This remarkable insect is named in honor of the writer’s 
friend and colleague, Mr. Herbert S. Barber. 

Zorotypus longicercatus Caudell. 

(PI. II, fig. 26.) 

Zorotypus longicercatus Caudell, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 

144-145, 2 figs., 1927. 

No information is available regarding this species in addition 
to that given in the original description, which was based upon 
two wingless nymphs. This is the second of the two species 
found in Jamaica, snyderi having been recorded in this paper for 
the first time. 


Zorotypus manni Caudell. 

(PI. Ill, figs. 40-41.) 

Zoraptera (error for Zorotypus ) manni Caudell, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 25, 
No. 3, pp. 60-62, 1923. 







72 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

The holotype, a dealate female, is the only known specimen. 
Judging from the armature of the hind femur, manni is distinct 
from shannoni, here described, although known from Bolivia 
not far from the Matto Grosso Region of Brazil. 

Zorotypus neotropicus Silvestri. 

Zorotypus neotropicus Silvestri, Boll. Lab. Zool., Portici, Vol. 10, p. 120, 1916. 

This species was described from adult and immature speci¬ 
mens collected at San Jose, Costa Rica. The hind margin of the 
posterior femur is said to bear eight short, scarcely robust 
setae. A single, broken, dealate female in the National Museum 
with the following data may possibly represent neotropicus: 
Farm Hamburg, Costa Rica, Sept. 9, 1926, under loose bark, 
Ferd. Nevermann. 


Zorotypus swezeyi Caudell. 

(PI. Ill, figs. 42-43.) 

Zorotypus swezeyi Caudell, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. 48, pp. 133-135, 1922. 

Waipio Ridge, Oahua, Hawaii, alt. 1,500 feet, Aug. 11, 1929, 
in decayed log of Acacia koa in forest, O. H. Swezey, two apter¬ 
ous adult females (U. S. National Museum Collection). 

The above material is previously unrecorded. Fullaway 
(1924) reported and exhibited a winged specimen collected in a 
rotten log at Kokee, Kauai. The species was originally described 
from five apterous females collected at Kokee. 

Zorotypus philippinensis, new species. 

(PI. IV, figs. 55-56.) 

Dealate female. —Size small for the genus. Antenna as in fig. 56; basal segment 
nearly twice the length of second segment; second segment decidedly shorter 
than third. Hind leg as in fig. 55; ventral margin of femur weakly armed toward 
base; subapical ventral spine of hind tibia distinct but small, no conspicuous 
spines along margins of tibia; two strong setae on ventral margin of basitarsus 
as well as several minute setae. 

Subgenital plate broadly rounded, unspecialized at apex; setae sparse and 
slender. Apical tergites of usual female type, unspecialized. Cercus roughly 
oval in dorsal aspect; a terminal seta nearly twice length of cercus; one lateral 
seta on each side of terminal one, arising near its base and extending diagonally 
from it on each side, slightly longer than cercus; cercus without trace of annu- 
lation. 

Coloration. —General color medium brown; tarsi and apical two segments of 
antenna pale. 

Measurements. —Length of body 1.98 mm., of pronotum 0.36 mm., of hind 
femur 0.6 mm. 

Type locality. —Saravia, Occidental Negros, Philippine 
Islands. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 73 


Type. —No. 52275, U. S. National Museum. 

A single dealate female collected “in forest,” April 12, 1929, 
by W. D. Pierce. 

The present species may be readily distinguished from swezeyi 
and caudelli by differences in femoral armature. The basal 
antennal segment of silvestrii is subequal in length to the second 
segment, thus differing from philippinensis. The cerci in 
javanicus and buxtoni are prolonged in a spine-like process and 
show a trace of annulation, while the cercus of ceylonicus is 
more broadly rounded apically than in the present species and 
lacks distinct lateral setae extending from near the base of the 
terminal seta. 


Zorotypus javanicus Silvestri. 

(PI. II, fig- 29.) 

Zorotypus javanicus Silvestri, Boll. Lab. Zool., Portici, Vol. 7, pp. 208-209, 
figs. 12, 13, 1913. 

Zorotypus javanicus Silvestri, Karny, Treubia, Vol. 9, pp. 1-5, figs 1-3, pi. 1, 
1926. 

This species was originally described from an immature 
female taken at Samarang, Java. Karny has since reported 
apterous adults o {javanicus from Tjibodas, Java. 

Zorotypus buxtoni Karny. 

Zorotypus buxtoni Karny, Insects of Samoa, Pt. 7, fasc. 4, pp. 117-119, fig. 1, 
1932. 

Described from a single broken specimen taken in rotten 
wood on the island of Upolu, Samoa. Karny was not sure 
whether the specimen was adult or immature, and no mention 
was made of the hind legs. The cercus is elongate, conical, and 
terminates in a thick seta at the base of which is an annulation 
as \n javanicus. 


Zorotypus silvestrii Karny. 

(PI. II, fig. 25.) 

Zorotypus silvestrii Karny, Treubia, Vol. 9, pp. 1-5, figs. 1-3, pi. 1, 1926. 

The original material included three apterous adults and four 
immature specimens collected at Sabirut, Mentawei Island, 
East Indies, under the decayed bark of a dead log. 

Zorotypus caudelli Karny. 

(PI. II, figs. 27-28.) 

Zorotypus sp., Karny, Treubia, Vol. 3, pp. 14-29, figs. 1-7, 1922. 

Zorotypus caudelli Karny, Treubia, Vol. 9, pp. 1-5, fig. 1, pi. 1, 1926. 




74 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

Winged, wingless, and immature material of caudelli is known. 
The species is distinctive both with respect to the spines on the 
hind femur and the specialization of the apical abdominal 
tergites of the male. The species was described from the 
Lampong District of Sumatra. 

Zorotypus guineensis Silvestri. 

(PI. II, fig. 30.) 

Zorotypus guineensis Silvestri, Boll. Lab. Zool., Portici, Vol, 7, pp. 205-206, 
figs. 1-7, 1913. 

The cercus of this species, the genotype, is similar to that of 
jauanicus and armed with a robust terminal seta. Z. guineensis 
Silvestri was collected at Aburi, Gold Coast, West Africa. 

Zorotypus ceylonicus Silvestri. 

(PI. II, fig. 31.) 

Zorotypus ceylonicus Silvestri, Boll. Lab. Zool., Portici, Vol. 7, pp. 207-208, 
figs. 8-11, 1913. 

The species was taken at Pundaluvya, Ceylon. 

OTHER SPECIES OF ZORAPTERA. 

In 1927 a mass of debris from Cuba containing insect remains 
was intercepted in quarantine and a single front wing of a 
zorapteron was included. No other record from Cuba is known. 

Denis (1933) reported the collection of a single immature 
specimen of Zoraptera in January, 1931, at Dalat, Indo-China. 
It had eight antennal segments. No name was given. 

Beebe (1925, p. 72) has reported the finding of a single wing¬ 
less zorapteron in a termite nest at Kartabo, British Guiana. It 
is referred to again by Costa Lima (1937), who says also that 
material of Zorotypus has been collected near Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, which is said by Silvestri to represent a new species. 
The latter species was taken in association with passalid larvae 
in decaying wood of brocado. 

Regarding the Genus Menonia George. 

Menonia cochinensis was described by George (1936) as a new 
genus and species of Zoraptera. The material consisted of a 
single specimen collected from dry foliage on the ground at 
Tripunithura, Cochin State, South India. The following are 
among the important characters either described or figured: 

Apterous. Maxillary palpus five-segmented. Labial palpus three-segmented. 
Tarsi three-segmented, the basal segment much longer and heavier than the 
second. Cercus long and tapering toward apex, four-segmented, the basal three 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 75 


segments bearing macrotrichia and sensory hairs, the apical segment annulated. 
Eyes small. Ocelli absent. Antenna not moniliform (lost beyond the sixth 
segment); segments short and cylindrical. Hind femur broad and well de¬ 
veloped. Length of body (excluding cerci) 1.27 mm., length of cerci 0.6 mm. 


From a study of the characters and the general form of the 
insect, which is illustrated in entirety by its author, it appears 
very doubtful if the species is properly referable to the Zoraptera. 
It is very suggestive of Gryllidae in many respects, and many 
small species of Trigonidiinae are known from India. A nymph 
of the size given above would be difficult to study in all its 
details and might easily be confused with another group of 
insects. From the data available the writer can not be sure of 
the proper placement of Menonia, but it is tentatively trans¬ 
ferred to the Gryllidae. 

THE PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE ZORAPTERA. 

When the order Zoraptera was established, Silvestri (1913) 
mentioned affinities with Blattidae and Isoptera. The first 
known collector of these insects, H. G. Hubbard, noticed the 
superficial resemblance to Corrodentia (see Caudell, 1918), and 
in recent years the tendency has been to group them near this 
order or to treat them as a suborder of Corrodentia. In almost 
any group of insects different features of structure are sugges¬ 
tive of relationship to various other groups and it is difficult to 
state definitely which order is most nearly allied to Zoraptera or 
from which group they are most likely to have been derived. 
Until more conclusive evidence is available, therefore, it seems 
best to mention the relationships suggested by the different 
features of these insects and attempt to summarize opinions 
previously proposed. 

The head capsule is of a generalized type which Crampton 
(1932, p. 31) has likened to that of primitive Corrodentia and 
several orthopteroid groups. Snodgrass (1937, p. 18) has 
pointed out that the prominently developed postclypeus of 
psocids is absent in Zorotypus, and suggests that the head cap¬ 
sule of Zorotypus shows closer affinity to orthopteroid forms. 
It should be noted, however, that there is a considerable range 
in the size of the postclypeus throughout the Corrodentia. 
Because of this fact the head capsule of Zorotypus is very sug¬ 
gestive of that of Embidopsocus and Embidotroctes , but con¬ 
siderably unlike that of Psocus, and the affinities with the 
Corrodentia based upon a consideration of the head capsule 
may be considered as close as those with the Orthoptera, if not 
more so. The maxillae (see Silvestri, 1913, fig. 4) are typical of 
Orthoptera. In psocids there is a conspicuous “maxillary 
fork,” “pick” or “chisel” which differs from the usual lacinia 



76 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

of orthopteroid insects in being much more elongate and not 
closely attached to the main body of the maxilla. A similar 
structure is present in some Mallophaga. Crampton (1929, p. 
473) and others have noticed this similarity, but the actual 
homologies have been the subject of some controversy and 
only recently has Badonnel (1934, p. 73-82) demonstrated, by 
a study of nerve and muscle connections, that the “fork” of 
psocids is a true lacinia which is not actually detached from 
the stipes, only greatly modified. He has found that the muscles 
are comparable to those of an orthopteroid maxilla. Such a 
specialized type of lacinia as occurs in Corrodentia is not present 
in Zorotypus. Crampton (1923, p. 91) says zorapteran maxillae 
are more like those of Orthoptera than of Isoptera. 

Regarding the thoracic sclerites, these are suggestive of 
relationship with Plecoptera and other lower orders, as well as 
with Corrodentia, and no one order is more strikingly like 
Zoraptera than are certain others. The wings resemble those of 
termites in that they break off near their bases, leaving definite 
stubs. The line of breakage is not so clear cut as in most termites, 
but from the evidence of specimens examined the break nor¬ 
mally occurs at about the same place. Karny (1922) was 
impressed by the similarity in structure of the wings of Zorotypus 
to those of roaches of the subfamily Corydiinae, particularly the 
genera Cardax Shelford (now replaced by Caradax Shelford), 
Alluaudella Shelford (now replaced by Alluaudellina Chopard), 
and Cardacopsis Karny. These genera have been illustrated by 
Shelford (1908, pi. 9, figs. 3-7; 1910, figs. 1-4) and Karny (1924, 
fig. 10) and the resemblance of the wings to those of Zorotypus, 
while more so than in those of most roaches, is not nearly so 
great as in the case of Corrodentia of the genus Archipsocus. 
Later, the same author (Karny, 1932) treated the Zoraptera as 
a suborder of Psocoptera (Corrodentia). Neotropical specimens 
of Archipsocus have wings very like those of Zorotypus in texture, 
venation and covering of setae. Crampton (1921 and in other 
papers) has emphasized this similarity; certainly the wings of 
Zoraptera are much more like those of certain Corrodentia than 
they are like those of Orthoptera and Isoptera. 

Regarding the evolution of wing venation in the Corrodentia, 
Tillyard (1926b, p. 346) and Banks (1929) indicate that the 
type found in Archipsocus and its allies is a reduced rather than 
a primitive one. Tillyard (1935, p. 273), in treating of fossil 
psocids from the Upper Permian of New South Wales, estab¬ 
lished the genus Zoropsocus to receive a species from which he 
thought the Zoraptera might have been derived by still further 
reduction of the venation. The venation of Zoropsocus is not 
as suggestive of Zorotypus as that of Archipsocus, but the shape 
of the wing is more like that of Zorotypus. In this connection 
it should be noted that while the wing of Archipsocus is much 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 3 , MAR., 1938 77 

wider at the base than that of Zorotypus, the wings of Embidop- 
socus and Embidotroctes approach the shaoe of Zorotypus. 
Carpenter (1933) has discussed fossil psocids from the Lower 
Permian of Kansas, and, judging from his conclusions, the front 
and hind wings of the earliest Corrodentia were of very similar 
shape, size and venation, unlike the dissimilar front and hind 
wings of Zorotypus and most recent psocids. Handlirsch (1930) 
has pointed out that the wings of Zoraptera are much more 
specialized than the mouthparts or abdomen, and the study of 
both fossil and recent Corrodentia supports that view, since the 
wings would seem to place the Zoraptera high up in the develop¬ 
ment of the latter group, although many other body structures 
are suggestive of an orthopteroid relationship. 

The two-segmented tarsus of Zorotypus is comparable to that 
of many psocids, but the number of tarsal segments is known to 
vary so much within given groups of insects that this feature is 
of limited value for interpreting relationships. 

The terminal abdominal segments of Zorotypus differ from 
those of Corrodentia in the presence of cerci and are much like 
those of certain termites, as has been pointed out by Crampton 
(1929, p. 472) who concludes that the Zoraptera are the most 
primitive of the psocids and indicate a descent from protor- 
thopteroid ancestors resembling ancestral termites in many 
respects. Tillyard (1926b, p. 326) reported what he believed 
to be cerci in the fossil remains of a Permian psocid from Kansas, 
but Carpenter (1932), who examined the specimen studied by 
Tillyard, has doubted that it was really a psocid but rather the 
head end of another insect. Later Carpenter (1933, p. 447), 
was unable to find traces of cerci or genital appendages in a 
considerable series of Permian psocids. In most recent psocids 
a tubercle is borne by each paraproct which Chapman (1930, 
p. 222) has called the sense tubercle of paraprocts. It is barely 
possible that this tubercle has some relation to the cercus of 
orthopteroid insects, and, if so, the differences between the 
apical segments of Zorotypus and Corrodentia are less important 
than might otherwise be supposed. Crampton (1920, p. 102) 
reported that the eleventh tergite and the parapodial plates 
(paraprocts, lateral parts of the eleventh segment) are appar¬ 
ently fused with the tenth tergite. From a study of five species, 
of which males are available for study, it is now possible to 
state that the parapodial plates seem to be weakly sclerotized 
and easily overlooked, but that the eleventh tergite proper is 
usually fused to the tenth tergite. In the remarkable shannoni 
(fig. 44) what is apparently the eleventh tergite is distinct from 
the tenth and bears a process at the base of an apical emargina- 
tion. In cramptoni a weakly sclerotized arc apparently demarks 
the junction of the two apical tergites. As noticeable a line of 
fusion has not been noted in the other species, but it probably 



78 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 3 , MAR., 1938 

occurs in caudelli (fig. 27). This interpretation is reasonable 
and is indicative of relationship with both orthopteroid insects 
and psocids with respect to the terminal segments. 

The male genitalia of Zorotypus can not be properly homolo- 
gized with those of other insects until some details of muscula¬ 
ture and other indicators of relationship have been studied. The 
basal plates of snyderi and cramptoni are superficially suggestive 
of structures occurring in Anoplura (see Ewing, 1932) and in 
Corrodentia (see Chapman, 1930, figs. 1-8, etc.). The assym- 
metrical sclerites of hubbardi and shannoni may be comparable 
to the phallomeres of Blattidae, but such a conclusion can not be 
established at present. 

The male reproductive system is of a primitive type and does 
not correspond closely to that of any other insects known to the 
writer. Snodgrass (1937, p. 19) has noted a resemblance of the 
spermatoza to those of the mantid, Tenodera, and since mantids 
are closely related to roaches and termites, in the opinion of 
most morphologists, this similarity is in keeping with other 
orthopteroid tendencies of Zorotypus. The female reproductive 
system is very simple. The digestive system is of a very general¬ 
ized type and lacks the gastric caeca which are characteristic of 
most Orthoptera. The Malpighian tubules are six in number; 
Snodgrass (1935, p. 379) says that six have been reported in 
embryos of Blatta, Xiphidium (now referred to Conocephalus ) 
and Melanoplus, but the same number occurs in some other 
insects also. 

Turning to the bionomics of Zoraptera, the development of 
two types of reproductive individuals is indicative of a caste 
system and is unquestionably termite-like. Though Zorotypus 
lives in colonies, there is little contact between individuals, so 
that Wheeler (1923, p. 346) states “It is very doubtful whether 
the peculiar insects belonging to the order Zoraptera are social 
or even subsocial ... It seems more probable that Zorotypus 
is merely gregarious like many psocids.” 

In conclusion, Zorotypus is largely orthopteroid with respect 
to the maxillae, the shedding of the wings and in displaying 
rudiments of a caste system. The wings are very strongly 
suggestive of Corrodentia. Other features, such as the head 
capsule, thorax and terminal segments of the abdomen, are both 
orthopteroid and psocid-like. It is fairly clear that the order 
Zoraptera is related to both of these main groups, probably more 
closely so to the psocids; an opinion regarding these affinities 
depends upon the relative importance which one wishes to 
attach to different structures. If the Zoraptera are nearest the 
psocids, it is of course natural that many orthopteroid features 
should be carried over in the evolution, since the psocids and 
their allies were probably derived from an ancient orthopteroid 
stock. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 79 


SUMMARY. 

The order Zoraptera was founded by Silvestri in 1913 and 
three species were then described. Nine other species have 
since been described by Caudell, Karny and Silvestri, and the 
present paper includes 4 previously unknown species, making a 
total of 16. These are from the Nearctic, Neotropical, Ethi¬ 
opian, Oriental and Australian Regions. Only one genus is 
known. 

Two types of reproductive individuals, winged and wingless 
forms, suggest the elements of a caste system in the Zoraptera, 
but the habits are not those of true social insects. In this paper 
the results of preliminary life history work are reported, in¬ 
cluding the description of the egg and egg burster, the first 
stage nymph, and the transformation from the nymphal to the 
winged adult form. 

The male and female reproductive systems and the alimentary 
canal of Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell are described. The male 
genitalia of five species are described; these are very valuable 
for identification purposes. 

The principal features bearing on phylogenetic relationships 
are reviewed; the affinities with Corrodentia are more noticeable 
than those with orthopteroid insects. 

Bibliography. 

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France et. Belg., Suppl. 18, pp. 1-241, 80 figs. 

Banks, N. 1929. A classification of the Psocidae. Psyche, Vol. 36, pp. 321- 
325. 

Banks, N., and Snyder, T. E. 1920. A revision of the Nearctic termites, with 
notes on biology and geographic distribution. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 108, 
pp. 1-228, figs., pis. 

Beebe, Wm. 1925. Studies of a tropical jungle; one quarter of a square mile of 
jungle at Kartabo, British Guiana. Zoologica, Vol. 6, pp. 1-193, 17 figs., 
PI. A. 

Carpenter, F. M. 1932. The lower Permian insects of Kansas. Part 5. 
Psocoptera and additions to the Homoptera. Amer. Journ. Sci., 5th Ser., 
Vol. 24, pp. 1-22, 11 figs. 

— 1933. The lower Permian insects of Kansas. Part 6. Delopteridae, 
Protelytroptera, Plectoptera and a new collection of Protodonta, Odonata, 
Megasecoptera, Homoptera, and Psocoptera. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 
Sci., Vol. 68, pp. 411-503, 29 figs., 1 pi. 

Caudell, A. N. 1918. Zorotypus hubbardi, a new species of the order Zoraptera 
from the United States. Canad. Ent., Vol. 50, pp. 375—381. 

- - 1920. Zoraptera not an apterous order. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 

Vol. 22, pp. 84-97, figs. 1-5. 

— 1922. Zorotypus swezeyi, a new species of the order Zoroptera from, 
Hawaii. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. 48, pp. 133-135. 


80 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 


Caudell, A. N. 1923a. A new species of Zoraptera from Bolivia. Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash., Vol. 25, pp. 60-62. 

- 1923b. Correction. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 25, p. 104. 

- 1927. Zorotypus longicercatus, a new species of Zoraptera from 

Jamaica. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 29, pp. 144-145, figs. 1 and 2. 
Chapman, P. J. 1930. Corrodentia of the United States of America: 1. Suborder 
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Crampton, G. C. 1918. A phylogenetic study of the terminal abdominal 
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-- 1920. Some anatomical details of the remarkable winged zorapteron, 

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-1921. A further comparison of the wings of Zoroptera, psocids and 

aphids, from the standpoint of phylogeny. Canad. Ent., Vol. 53, pp. 110— 
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- 1922a. Notes on the relationships indicated by the venation of the 

wings of insects. Canad. Ent., Vol. 54, pp. 206-216, 222-235, figs. 1-75. 

- - 1922b. Evidences of relationship indicated by the venation of the 

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- 1923. A phylogenetic comparison of the maxillae throughout the 

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- 1926. A comparison of the neck and prothoracic sclerites throughout 

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- - 1929. The terminal abdominal structures of female insects compared 

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- 1932. A phylogenetic study of the head capsule in certain orthop- 

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Denis, R. 1933. Presentation d’un Zoraptere d’lndo-China. In VeCongres 
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Ewing, H. E. 1932. The male genital armature in the order Anoplura, or 
sucking lice. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., Vol. 25, pp. 657-669, figs. 1-9. 
Ferrante, G. 1918. Notes entomologiques. Un nouvel ordre d’insectes. Bull. 
Soc. Ent. d’Egypt, Vol. 5, pp. 22-24. 

Fullaway, D. T. 1924. Winged form of Zorotypus swezeyi Caudell (in Notes 
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George, C. J. 1936. A new genus and species of Zoraptera. Jour. Univ. 

Bombay, Vol. 4, Pt. 5, pp. 86-88, figs, I, 1-5; II. 

Handlirsch, A. 1930. Zoraptera oder Zorapteren, pp. 859-862, 2 figs. In 
Handbuch der Zoologie, by W. Kiikenthal and T. Krumbach. Berlin and 
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PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 81 


Karny, H. H. 1922. Zorapteren aus Sud-Sumatra; Zur Phylogenie der Thysan- 
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- 1924. Beitrage zur Malayischen Orthopterenfauna. Treubia, Vol. 

5, pp. 1-234, figs. 

- 1926. Spolia Mentawiensia, Zoraptera. Treubia, Vol. 9, pp. 1-5, 

figs. 1-3, 1 pi. 

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of insects, fasc. 4, pp. 117-129, figs. 1-8. London. 

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the form of the pronotum in the subfamily Perisphaeriinae. Ann. Mag. 
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8, Vol. 6, pp. 114-116, figs. 1-4. 

Silvestri, F. 1913. Descrizione di un nuovo ordine di insetti. Boll. Lab. 
Zool. Portici, Vol. 7, pp. 193-209, figs. 1-13. 

-1916. Diagnosi preliminare di una nuova specie di Zorotypus 

(Insecta, Zoraptera) de Costa Rica. Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, Vol. 10, p. 120. 
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Amer., Vol. 15, pp. 169-176, 4 figs. 

Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of Insect Morphology. New York and 
London, 667 pp., figs. 

— 1937. The male genitalia of orthopteroid insects. Smithsn. Misc. 
Collect., Vol. 96, No. 5, pp. 1-107, figs. 1-42 (Pub. 3442). 

Snyder, T. E. 1915. Biology of the termites of the eastern United States, with 
preventive and remedial measures. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Bull. 94, 
Pt. 2, pp. 13-95, 14 figs. 

- 1924. “Adaptations” to social life: The termites (Isoptera). 

Smithsn. Misc. Collect., Vol. 76, No. 12, pp. 1-14, 3 pis. (Pub. 2786). 
Soudek, S. 1926. Dva zajlmave a malo sname rady hmyzu. (Two interesting 
and little known insects.) Veda Prfrodnl, Prague, Vol. 7, pp. 197-202, 
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Tillyard, R. J. 1921. On some interesting archaic insects (with exhibitions). 
Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc., Vol. 4, pp. 525-530. 

- 1926a. Insects of Australia and New Zealand. Sydney, 560 pp., 

figs., pis. 

— 1926b. Kansas Permian insects. Part 8. The order Copeognatha. 
Amer. Jour. Sci., 5th Ser., Vol. 11, pp. 315-349, 19 figs. 

— 1935. Upper Permian insects of New South Wales. III. The order 
Copeognatha. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., Vol. 60, pp. 265-279, 13 figs. 
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York. 


82 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 


Explanation of Plates. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, female reproductive system, Priest 
Bridge, Md., Oct. 28, 1937. 

Fig. 2. Same, dorso-lateral view of exserted male genitalia, KOH preparation, 
Priest Bridge, Aug. 15, 1937. 

Fig. 3. Same, right antenna of male, Falls Church, Va., April 24, 1927. 

Fig. 4. Same, alimentary canal, Priest Bridge, Oct. 28, 1937. 

Fig. 5. Same, exterior surface of right hind femur, male, Priest Bridge, Oct. 
17, 1937. 

Fig. 6. Same, lateral view of apex of male abdomen, genitalia exserted, Priest 
Bridge, July 31, 1937. 

Fig. 7. Same, dorsal view of apex of male abdomen, Falls Church, Va., April 
24, 1927. 

Fig. 8. Same, male reproductive system, Priest Bridge, Oct. 28, 1937. 

Fig. 9. Same, egg of apterous female, showing appearance after hatching. 

Fig. 10. Same, egg of apterous female, before hatching. (The fine threads in 
figs. 9 and 10 are fungous mycelium.) 

Plate II. 

Fig. 11. Zorotypus snyderi Caudell, male genitalia in ventro-lateral view, 
clasping organs extended, Jamaica. 

Fig. 12. Same, apex of male abdomen, ventral view, Jamaica. 

Fig. 13. Same, apex of male abdomen, dorsal view, Jamaica. 

Fig. 14. Same, extended part of male genitalia, lateral view, Jamaica. 

Fig. 15. Same, left antenna of male, Jamaica. (Abnormal.) 

Fig. 16. Same, right antenna of same specimen as in fig. 15. (Normal.) 

Fig. 17. Same, ventral outline of right hind femur, male, Miami Beach, Fla. 

Fig. 18. Same, left hind femur, female, Jamaica. 

Fig. 19. Same, left hind femur, female, Miami Beach. 

Fig. 20. Same, left hind femur, male, Miami Beach. 

Fig. 21. Same, right hind femur from same specimen as in fig. 19. 

Fig. 22. Same, dorsal view of apical abdominal tergite, male, Jamaica. 

Fig. 23. Same, right hind leg, male, Jamaica. 

Fig. 24. Same, male genitalia, retracted position, dorsal view, Jamaica. 

Fig. 25. Zorotypus silvestrii Karny, hind femur (redrawn from Karny, 1926, 
fig. 2). 

Fig. 26. Zorotypus longicercatus Caudell, ventral view of right cercus, holotype. 

Fig. 27. Zorotypus caudelli Karny, lateral view of apex of male abdomen 
(redrawn from Karny, 1922, fig. 6). 

Fig. 28. Same, hind femur (redrawn from Karny, 1922, fig. 5). 

Fig. 29. Zorotypus javanicus Silvestri, hind femur (redrawn from Karny, 1926, 
fig. 2). 

Fig. 30. Zorotypus guineensis Silvestri, hind femur (redrawn from Silvestri, 
1913, fig. 5). 

Fig. 31. Zorotypus ceylonicus Silvestri, hind femur (redrawn from Silvestri, 
1913, fig. 10). 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 7 



[ 83 ] 
















PLATE 8 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 



[ 84 ] 






























PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 9 



[ 85 ] 



















PLATE 10 


PROC. ENTW. ASH., VOL. 40 




[ 86 ] 













PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 87 


Plate III. 

Fig. 32. Zorotypus barberi, new species, lateral view of dorsal outline of apex 
of abdomen. 

Fig. 33. Same, left antenna. 

Fig. 34. Same, right hind leg. 

Fig. 35. Same, apex of abdomen, dorsal view. 

Fig. 36. Same, apex of abdomen, ventral view. 

Fig. 37. Same, male genitalia, dorso-lateral view. 

Fig. 38. Same, male genitalia, dorsal view. 

Fig. 39. Same, male genitalia, ventral view. 

Fig. 40. Zorotypus manni Caudell, right hind femur, holotype. 

Fig. 41. Same, base of right antenna, holotype. 

Fig. 42. Zorotypus swezeyi Caudell, ventral margin of left hind femur, holotype. 
Fig. 43. Same, right antenna, holotype. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 44. Zorotypus shannoni , new species, caudal view of apex of abdomen, with 
subgenital plate removed and genitalia treated with KOH. 

Fig. 45. Same, apex of abdomen, dorsal view. 

Fig. 46. Same, right hind leg. 

Fig. 47. Same, ventral view of subgenital plate. 

Fig. 48, Same, left antenna. 

Fig. 49. Zorotypus cramptoni , new species, ventral view of apex of abdomen, 
male paratype. 

Fig. 50. Same, right hind femur, holotype. 

Fig. 51. Same, lateral view of exserted portion of genitalia, male paratype. 
Fig. 52. Same, basal plate of genitalia, male paratype. 

Fig. 53. Same, right antenna, allotype. 

Fig. 54. Same, dorsal view of apical tergites of abdomen, male paratype. 

Fig. 55. Zorotypus philippinensis , new species, right hind leg. 

Fig. 56. Same, right antenna. 

(Figs. 9 and 10 drawn by Mary Foley Benson, others by the author.) 


A NEW SPECIES OF CISTALIA (HEMIPTERA HETEROPTERA: 
LYGAEIDAE). 

By H. G. Barber, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

In the collection of the United States National Museum there 
are two specimens from Cayamas, Cuba, collected by E. A. 
Schwarz, of what is undoubtedly Cistalia signoreti Guerin. So 
far as known this species does not occur elsewhere. Stal, who 
apparently did not have Cuban specimens for comparison, 
erroneously concluded that the specimens from Texas in the 
Stockholm Museum were C. signoreti. Uhler, two years later, 



88 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 


influenced no doubt by Stal’s remarks, fell into the same error in 
recording Guerin’s species from Texas as well as from Nevada 
and California. Although I have not seen any specimens from 
the last two States mentioned by Uhler, numerous examples, 
especially from Texas, in the collection of the National Museum 
are quite distinct specifically from the Cuban specimens, and 
the species is herewith described as new. 

Cistalia explanata, new species. 

Cistalia signoreti Stal, Enum. Hemip. IV, 1874, 165 (not Guerin) Uhler, Bull. 

U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. I, 1876, 311 (not Guerin). 

Closely related to C. signoreti Guerin described from Cuba and agreeing with 
that species in its general coloration. However, the antenniferous tubercles 
are larger and the antennae more incrassate than in Guerin’s species. The 
basal segment of the antenna is gradually enlarged from the base toward the 
apex and all of the segments are densely pilose, without longer, scattered hairs. 
The pronotum has the lateral margin distinctly expanded. The costal margin 
of the corium is laminately expanded. The clavus is coarsely and irregularly 
punctate. The anterior femur has two or three preapical spinules below. Length 
5-6 mm. 


Type. —male, U. S. National Museum Cat. No. 52692, 
Victoria, Tex., Nov. 4, 1908 (W. D. Hunter). Paratypes males, 
2 Victoria, Tex., Jan. 24, 1909, 3 Feb. 4, 1910, and 3 Feb. 22, 
1916, hibernating in grass roots (J. D. Mitchell); Victoria, Tex., 
Feb. 1902 (E. A. Schwarz); Garcitas Creek, Victoria County, 
Tex., Dec. 16, 1911, under driftwood; Columbia, Tex., Dec., 
1912; Willis, Tex., 1903; Brownsville, Tex., March 12, 1936, 
from soil roots of cotton (P. A. Glick). Females, 2 Victoria, 
Tex., Nov. 15, 1912, under log, Sept. 10, 1915, at light, and 3 
Feb. 22, 1916, hibernating in grass roots (J. D. Mitchell); 
2 Nov. 4, 1908 (W. D. Hunter); 3 Sept, (no other data); San 
Antonio, Tex., Dec. 22, 1879; Willis, Tex., 1909; Waco, Tex., 
and Austin, Tex., Oct. 12, 1901 (Uhler Collection); Columbia, 
Tex., Dec. 1872, and 1 Dec. 17, 1878, under bark at foot of live 
oak in cotton field (E. A. Schwarz); 2 Brownsville, Tex., March 
13 and 16, 1936, in soil roots of cotton (P. A. Glick); 2 Texas 
(Belfrage); La. (Uhler Collection); Kans. Sept., 1872. 

Although Cistalia signoreti and C. explanata are closely 
related, the former species can be most readily distinguished 
from the latter by the more slender antenna with the basal 
segment slightly constricted toward base and the lateral margin 
of the pronotum only carinate, not expanded. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 89 

TWO REARED NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS 

STANTONIA ASHMEAD (HYMENOPTERA : BRACONIDAE). 

By C. F. Muesebeck, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The genus Statonia was proposed by Ashmead, 1904, 1 for a 
Philippine species. Since then 13 species have been described, 
8 of these being from the Oriental zoogeographical region, 3 from 
South America, and 2 from Africa. Prior to 1935 the genus was 
not known in the New World from north of Colombia. In that 
year, however, Bruner 2 reported the occurrence in Cuba of the 
first species described in the present paper. Recently a single 
specimen of another species, reared from the 'codling moth in 
Kentucky, was received for identification, this being the only 
specimen of Stantonia I have seen from the United States. Host 
associations in the genus are known only for the two species 
described below. 

Stantonia lamprosemae, new species. 

Figure 1. 

Stantonia , n. sp., Bruner, Cuba Estac. Expt. Agron. Bol. 56 : 36, 1935. 

This species is rather readily recognized by the black dorsal 
stripe on the posterior femur and the yellowish ventral stripe on 
the otherwise blackish posterior tibia. 

Female. —Length 3.8 mm. Head strongly transverse, broader than thorax; 
temple narrow, receding, not more than half width of eye; face much broader 
than long, with scattered shallow punctation; clypeus broadly truncate, longer 
than malar space; maxillary palpus at least as long as width of head; distances 
between ocelli not greater than diameter of one of them; ocellocular line more 
than twice diameter of an ocellus; antenna 39-segmented, slightly longer than 
the body, some of the preapical segments barely longer than broad. 

Thorax considerably higher than wide; notauli complete, finely foveolate; 
mesonotal lobes with scattered and very weak punctures; scutellum smooth and 
shiny; propodeum evenly convex, polished; pleura polished; mesopleurum with 
a long shallow foveolate groove; radial cell on wing margin considerably longer 
than stigma; the first radial abscissa oblique, about two-thirds as long as first 
intercubitus, the second straight, attaining wing margin well before apex; the 
triangular second cubital cell subsessile; second intercubitus very weakly 
developed; second abscissa of cubitus about equal to third; cubitus obliterated 
beyond second cubital cell: nervulus interstitial or slightly antefurcal; mediellan 
cell more than three times as long as submediellan; posterior coxa smooth and 
polished; inner calcarium of posterior tibia not more than half as long as meta¬ 
tarsus; posterior femur and tibia slender. 


1 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 28 : 147, 1904. 

2 Cuba Estac. Expt. Agron. Bol. 56 ; 36, 1935, 




90 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 


Abdomen smooth and shiny, longer and narrower than thorax; compressed 
apically; first tergite at least three times as long as broad at apex, only slighter 
broader at apex than at extreme base; second tergite longer than broad; third 
and following transverse, successively shorter; ovipositor sheath very nearly 
as long as the abdomen. 

Honey yellow; antennae brown, somewhat paler beneath; first abdominal 
tergite black, brownish apically; following tergites with some irregular blackish 
markings medially; wings hyaline, stigma and veins dark brown; most of dorsal 
edge of middle femur, dorsal edge of middle tibia, and middle tarsus entirely, 
blackish; posterior leg with a small spot on outside of coxa at apex, second 
segment of trochanter, dorsal edge of femur except at base, tibia except for 
narrow stripe on the ventral edge, and tarsus, black. 

Male .—Agrees with female in all essential respects. 

Type locality.- —Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52639. 

Host.—Lamprosema indicata (F.). 

Described from five females and two males: the type and the 
two males reared at the type locality by A. Otero, March 30 
and 31, 1934; three females from El Cano, Cuba, reared in 
November, 1931, and a single female collected by H. L. Dozier 
at Mayagiiez, P. R., October 18, 1935. All except the last- 
mentioned specimen were communicated by Dr. S. C. Bruner. 
The number of antennal segments in the paratypes ranges from 
37 to 40, and there is more or less variation in the color of the 
abdomen, the first tergite being sometimes entirely black, while 
in other specimens virtually the whole abdomen is honey yellow. 

Stantonia carpocapsae, new species. 

Immediately distinguished from the preceding species by the 
entirely yellow legs and the pale yellow stigma. Agrees with 
the foregoing description except in the following particulars: 

Female .—Antennae 46-segmented; notauli only weakly punctate; first 
abscissa of radius three-fourths as long as first intercubitus; inner calcarium of 
posterior tibia a little more than half as long as metatarsus; first abdominal 
tergite not distinctly three times as long as broad at apex, at least one and one- 
half times as broad at apex as at base, the surface very faintly coriaceous. 
Antenna yellow, a narrow blackish mark on outer side of scape black; apical 
third of flagellum brownish black; abdomen entirely honey yellow; stigma 
transparent yellowish, veins pale brown; all legs entirely honey yellow. 

Type locality. —Western Kentucky. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52640. 

Host.—Carpocapsa pomonella (L.). 

Described from a single female recorded as having been 
reared from a cocoon of the codling moth in June, 1927, and 
received from Paul O. Ritcher, of the University of Kentucky. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 91 



Fig. 1.—Female of Stantonia lamprosemae , new species. Drawn by Mary F. 
Benson, of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 


EDITORIAL COMMENT —“THE HUMAN FLEA.” 

A recent admirable issue of published information entitled 
“How to Control Fleas” has served to arouse one of the editor’s 
lurking etymological aversions, viz: “the human flea.” 

Now, candidly speaking, there is not the remotest spark of 
humanity about a flea. Most indisputably his inhumanity to 
man makes countless thousands scratch. The species of flea 
commonly addicted to Rattus rattus is very properly termed 
“the rat flea” and likewise Tabby’s saltatorial companion is 
the “cat flea.” Conversely, Towser’s entomological stimulus to 
a more active life never is termed the “canine flea.” Why, 
then, should that damnable atom of pulicarious iniquity Pulex 
irritans be even verbally endowed with humanity? Why is he 
not the “man flea”? —Editor. 






92 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 3, MAR., 1938 

GENERAL CATALOGUE OF THE HEMIPTERA, FASCICLE IV, 
FULGOROIDEA, PART 2, CIXIIDAE, by Z. P. Metcalf, 8 vo., paper, 
269 pp., Smith College, Northampton, Mass., 1936. 

This, the most recent addition to the extensive catalogue of the Hemiptera 
which began publication in 1927, under the editorship of G. Horvath and H. M. 
Parshley, embraces the family Cixiidae and follows closely the plan of the 
previous fascicles. In the brief introduction the characters of the family are 
described, a historical resume is given, and the geographical distribution of the 
family is outlined. 

“The family is divided into tribes, and the genera are arranged under the 
tribes in as near a phylogenetic order as our present knowledge will permit. 
. . . A catalogue is not a revision of a group and the location of the genera 
and species in the present catalogue is merely an attempt to reflect what is 
believed to be the general consensus of the best authorities at the present time.” 
An extensive synonymy is included and indices of “New Names Proposed,” 
“Genera, and Higher Groups” occur at the end of the volume. It is stated 
that a “Bibliography and specific index will appear in the last Part of the 
Fascicle.” —w. r. w. 


Actual date of ■publication, March 22 y 1938 



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CONTENTS 


BARBER, H. G.~A NEW SPECIES OF CISTALIA (hEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA: 

lygaeidae) ......................... 

GURNEY, ASHLEY BUELL—A SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDER ZORAPTERA, WITH 
NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY OF ZOROTYPUS HUBBARDI CAUDELL . 

MUESEBECK, C. F.—TWO REAIRED NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
STANTONIA ASHMEAD (HYMENQPTERA : BRACONIDAe) . 





VOL. 40 


APRIL, 1938 


No. 4 



library 

PROCEEDING^* Iv f * 

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ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 


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Organized March 12, 1884. 

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Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences : . . . . C. F. W. Muesebeck 


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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 APRIL, 1938 No. 4 


\two new genera and one new species of 

SIPHONAPTERA. 

By H. E: Ewing, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

In the present paper two new genera and one new species of 
fleas are described. One of the new genera is based on a species 
described by Jordan in 1928, from China, and the other is 
based on a new species described in this paper from western 
United States. The type slides of the two type species involved 
are in the collection of the United States National Museum. 

MICROPSYLLOIDES, new genus. 

Forehead with broadly rounded free margin; frontal tubercle minute, ves¬ 
tigial; frontal notch absent. Genal comb almost vertical, with 4 dark spines, the 
upper 2 situated near antennal groove. Genal lobe ending in a pale spinelike 
process resembling a spine of genal comb. Labial palpus reaching beyond apex 
of trochanter I, composed of 8 segments. 

Thorax medium sized; pronotum shorter than metanotum, with a comb of 
numerous, dark spines. Mesosternum fused, without demarcation, with 
mesepisternum; mesepisternum separated from mesepimeron by an internal 
vertical ridge. Upper sclerite of metepisternum fused with metanotum. 

Abdomen rather large; with a few apical spines near the median line on some 
of the tergal plates. Antepygidial bristles 2 on each side, medium in length, 
subequal. A single stout, vermiform receptaculum seminis present. 

Legs rather weak. Hind coxa with a small patch of spinelets on inside near 
anterior margin. Last segment of each tarsus with 4 pairs of lateral plantar 
bristles. 


Type species.—Rhadinopsylla jaonis Jordan. 

Only the type species included. This genus is closely related 
to the peculiar genus Micropsylla Dunn and Parker, with which 
it agrees in having the upper sclerite of the metepisternum 
fused with metanotum. In Jordan’s description of the type 
species (Jordan, 1929) he states that one labial palpus is com¬ 
posed of 8 segments and the other of 7. The writer has examined 
the type specimen of this species which is in the United States 
National Museum and finds that both palpi are 8-segmented. 
The palpi of the type specimen are pulled far apart, and it is 






94 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


necessary to reverse the microscope slide in order to see one of 
them to advantage. It is unfortunate that only the female of 
this peculiar species is known. 

TRICHOPSYLLOIDES, new genus. 

Head rather short. Front with evenly and broadly out-curving margin. 
Frontal tubercle small, angulate, hyaline; frontal notch absent. Eyes absent. 
Palpus 5-segmented, not reaching apex of coxa I. Maxilla produced ventrally 
into a long, spinelike process. Antennal club short, segmenatation more distinct 
on posterior than on anterior side; setae on end of second antennal segment 
minute. 

Pronotum shorter than mesonotum, with a single transverse row of setae. 
Pronotal comb composed of usual dark spines and occupying only part of 
posterior margin of pronotum. Mesepisternum separated from mesepimeron 
by an inner chitinous ridge. Upper sclerite of metepisternum fused with meta- 
notum; metepimeron fused along upper part of anterior end with metepisternum. 

Abdomen well clothed with stout, long setae; combs and apical spines absent. 
Antepygidial bristles absent. Sternal plate VIII of male large, broad, practically 
unmodified; sternal plate IX of male produced posteriorly into a pair of long, 
conspicuous lobes, each of which bears a ventral, subapical tuft of setae; movable 
finger of clasper an upturned hook. 

Legs slender. Coxa III without a row or patch of spinelets on inside. Last 
segment of each tarsus with 4 pairs of lateral plantar bristles, none of them 
displaced toward middle line of segment. 

Type species.—Trichopsylloides oregonensis, new species. 

This new genus is nearest Trichopsylla Kolenati, from which 
it differs in the presence of a pronotal comb and the absence of 
eyes. A single species is included. 

Trichopsylloides oregonensis, new species. 

Forehead with a single row of setae, the ocular row. This row is composed 
of four setae arranged in a straight line, the uppermost being situated near 
anterior margin of antennal groove. Postantennal region of head with two rows 
of setae on each side. Two pairs of dermal pits on front, one pair immediately 
behind and above frontal tubercle and a submarginal dorsal pair. Pronotal 
comb with twelve spines, decreasing in length from top downward. Typical 
abdominal segments each with long dorsal and ventral setae arranged in two 
rather irregular and incomplete rows; middle lateral areas of abdomen bare. 

Modified terminal abdominal segments of male as follows: Sternal plate VIII 
large and broad, with a few large ventral setae; sternal plate IX with long, 
truncate vertical process, extending upward to front margin of body of clasper. 
Manubrium of clasper extending downward beyond penis and ending in an 
anteriorly directed spinelike process; dorsal process represented by a broad, 
rounded lobe; 2 acetabular bristles on each clasper, situated submarginally 
below acetabulum; movable finger hooklike, scarcely reaching to upper margin 
of dorsal lobe of clasper and bearing a very long, subapical bristle on posterior 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 95 


margin as well as two shorter, more ventral, marginal bristles. Tergal plate of 
anal segment slightly longer than pygidium, well clothed with setae. 

Receptaculum of female with a cylindrical head about one and one-half times 
as long as wide and a sausage-shaped tail of about the same length. Stylet of 
almost uniform width for most of its length, without lateral setae but with two 
terminal setae, one about as long as the stylet itself and the other twice as long. 

Length of male , 1.8 mm.; greatest depth of abdomen, 0.7 mm. Length of female, 
2.7 mm.; greatest depth of abdomen, 1.2 mm. 

Type host and type locality.—Aplodontia pacifica , at Delake, 
Oregon. 

Holotype. —U. S. National Museum no. 51880. 

Remarks. —One male (holotype) from type host, a mountain 
beaver, at type locality, June 24, 1933, by S. G. Jewett, Jr. 
(Bishopp no. 19194); one male and one female from “mountain 
beaver,” Greathorn Creek, Columbia National Forest, Wash¬ 
ington State, March 26, 1936, by Andv Roth (Bishopp no. 
23413). 


NEW SARCOPHAGINAE (DIPTERA). 

By Harold C. Hallock. 1 

An extensive study of the Sarcophaginae of New York has 
been made during the past three years. Although the writer has 
examined over 2,500 specimens collected in New York State 
and more than 1,500 specimens from New England and eastern 
Canada, only two new species were discovered. After this 
manuscript was completed a description of one of these species 
(Johnsonia borealis ) by Mr. H. J. Reinhard was received. As 
Mr. Reinhard had only two female specimens of this species 
a description of the male will be given in this paper. A descrip¬ 
tion of a new Sarcophaga is given at this time and the type is 
deposited in the United States National Museum in order that 
a careful record of this species may be preserved. 

These new species belong to the genera Johnsonia and 
Sarcophaga , which were placed in the family Sarcophagidae 
by Aldrich (1904), Williston (1908), Parker (1914), and Lopes 
(1936). Hall (1933) grouped-these genera with some others in 
the Calliphoridae. Curran (1934) placed them in the Meto- 
piidae. Townsend (1935), after an extensive study of material 
in European Museums, placed Johnsonia in the Melanophoridae 
and Sarcophaga in the Stephanostomatidae. Reinhard (1937) 
placed Johnsonia in the family Stephanostomatidae. At this 
time the writer is inclined to follow Williston and retain the 
family name of Sarcophagidae, at least until the group can be 
studied more extensively. 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 




96 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


JOHNSONIA Coquillett. 

Coquillett, 1895. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. vol. 47, p. 316. 

Hall (1933) pointed out that the diagnostic characters of this 
homogeneous genus were the setulose fifth vein and the long 
bristles on the cheeks. 

The species of this genus are nearly all tropical or subtropical 
in their distribution. When Reinhard (1937) described John- 
sonia borealis from two female specimens which were taken in 
Michigan and Ohio this was the first Johnsonia recorded from 
the northern states. 

The following table, which has been modified from Hall 
(1933), separates the known species. 


1.—Fourth abdominal segment entirely black_ lagunicula Hall 

Fourth abdominal segment partially or entirely reddish_ 


2. —Pulvilli enlongate ______ _____... 

Pulvilli normal........................ 

3. —Abdomen mostly red, legs red_ .frontalis Aldrich 

Only fourth abdominal segment red, legs black_ borealis Reinhard 


4.—Fourth abdominal segment black on apical third or slightly more.... 

bivittata Curran 


.2 

.3 

.4 


Fourth abdominal segment red on apical half or more___5 

5.—Legs red or reddish_ elegans Coquillett 

Legs black............... ......setosa Aldrich 


JOHNSONIA BOREALIS Reinhard. 

Reinhard, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 32, pp. 62-74. (1937). 

Male. —Head: front 0.369 of head-width; parafrontals and parafacials gray 
pollinose with a few scattering black hairs; frontal bristles about seven extending 
to base of antennae, anterior four pairs directed inward, the rest reclinate; a 
single proclinate fronto-orbital bristle situated close to the frontal row; frontal 
vitta dark reddish brown, wider than parafrontal on upper half; antennae 
black, third joint tinged with red basally and about twice the length of the 
second; arista with long plumosity for four-fifths of its length; antennae reaching 
nearly to the vibrissae, which are very long and at the oral margin; palpi and 
proboscis black; bucca less than one-fourth the eye-height; back of head with 
three rows of black bristly hairs; beard black except a few pale hairs near the 
neck. 

Thorax gray pollinose with three black stripes; no anterior acrostichals; 
dorsocentrals 2, 3; sternopleurals 2; prescutellar bristles present; scutellum with 
two pairs of marginals, subapical and apical bristles very weak; infrasquamal 
hairs present; propleura and prosternum bare. 

Abdomen gray tessellated except the fourth segment, which is red and with a 
narrow black margin at its base and a black triangle in middle extending half 
the width of the segment; first and second segments with laterals only, third and 
fourth segments with marginal row of bristles. 











PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 97 



2 2a 

Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 1. Johnsonia borealis Reinhard. Right lateral view of hypopygial struc¬ 
tures. la. Rear view of anal forceps. 

Fig. 2. Sarcophaga montanensis , n. sp. Right lateral of hypopygial structures. 
2a. Rear view of anal forceps. 

Hypopygium red; anal forceps, cla'spers, and aedeagus black. Genital features 
as illustrated in figures 1 and la. 

Wings hyaline; costal spine small, first vein with numerous setae, third vein 
with setae almost to crossvein, fifth vein with numerous strong setae; epaulets 
black. 

Legs black, hind tibia without villosity, middle tibia with two anterodorsal 
bristles, pulvilli elongate. 

Length, 8.5 mm. 

Female .—As Reinhard (1937) gave an excellent description of the female only 
a few additional points will be mentioned. Fourth abdominal segment entirely 








98 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


red or with a black margin; sternopleural bristles 0, 1; but one specimen has 
0, 2 bristles on the right sternopleural sclerite. 

Length, 6.5 to 10 mm. 

Mr. D. G. Hall very kindly pointed out in a letter that 
Johnsonia borealis may be separated from the closely related 
form, Johnsonia frontalis Aid., by the “less elongate pulvilli, 
abdomen less extensively reddish (fourth segment only), and in 
having black legs instead of red.” Mr. H. J. Reinhard very 
kindly compared a specimen of my material with the paratype 
and verified the determination. 

This species has been found at the following localities: 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., one male July 6, 1936, one female July 26, 
1936 (Townes); Eberlys Mill, Pa., one female July 12, 1909 
(Walton); Hamburg, Mich., one female June 3, 1934 (Steyskal); 
Brownhelm, O., Aug. 14, 1916 (Reinhard). 

Dr. H. K. Townes has very kindly presented the male speci¬ 
men, which was used in this description, to the United States 
National Museum so that it may be available for future study. 

Holotype .—Female in the Univ. of Michigan Museum. 

SARCOPHAGA Meigen. 

Meigen, 1826, Syst. Beschr. Zwei. Ins., V. p. 14. 

The following new species, which is a typical Sarcophaga , was 
received from Mr. David G. Hall and was collected in the 
Adirondack Mountains by Dr. J. M. Aldrich. 

Sarcophaga montanensis, n. sp. 

Male. —Head: front 0.181 of head width; parafrontals and parafacials gray 
pollinose, each parafacial with a row of long bristly hairs near the eye; frontal 
bristles fourteen, diverging in the lower four to beyond the middle of the second 
antennal joint; antennae black, arista with long plumosity for half its length; 
third joint two times the second, reaching almost to the vibrissae, which are 
long and at the oral margin; facial ridges hairy nearly half the distance to the 
base of the antennae; palpi and proboscis black, both normal; bucca about one- 
fourth the eye height, with numerous black hairs; three rows of bristly hairs 
back of eyes (the lower row irregular). 

Thorax with the usual three to five black stripes; posterior dorcentral 
bristles four; acrostichals present in prescutellars only; sternopleurals three; 
scutellum with two pairs of marginals, one of subapical, and one of apical bristles. 

Abdomen gray tessellated; first and second segments with laterals only; third 
and fourth segments with marginal rows of about ten bristles each. Fifth 
s ternite divided, arms yellowish, with short black setae on the inside edges. 

Hypopygium black except a slight reddish tinge on dorsum, covered with 
black hairs; first segment with a marginal row of twelve strong bristles; forceps, 
accessory plates and aedeagus black; genital parts as in figures 2 and 2a. 

Wings hyaline; costal spine minute; third vein bristly nearly half way to 


cross vein. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 99 

Legs black; middle femur with comb below; hind tibia with moderately long 
hairs. 

Length, 12 mm. 

This species belongs to Aldrich’s (1916) group E. It may be 
separated from Sarcophaga houghi Aid. by the absence of a 
conspicuous hump on the back of the aedeagus. The absence of 
•several slender processes at apex of the aedeagus distinguishes 
this species from Sarcophaga misera var. harpax P. 

Described from one male collected July 4 at White Face Mt., 
Adirondacks, N. Y., altitude 3800 feet (J. M. Aldrich). 
Holotype. —Male, Cat. No. 52085, U. S. N. M. 

Literature Cited. 

Aldrich, J. M. 1904. Catalogue of North American Diptera. Smithsonian 
Misc. Collection No. 1444, 1-680. 

Aldrich, J. M. 1916. Sarcophaga and Allies in North America. The Thomas 
Say Foundation, La Fayette, Ind. 

Curran, C. H. 1934. North American Diptera. The Ballou Press, New York 
City. 

Hall, D. G. 1933. The Sarcophaginae of Panama (Diptera : Calliphoridae). 

Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 66, 251-285. 

Lopes, H. de Souza. 1936. Sobre Alguns Paratypes de Sarcophagidae Conserva- 
dos no Museu Paulista (Dip.), Museu Paulista da Universidade de Sao Paulo 
Tomo 21, p. 839-862. 

Reinhard, H. J. 1937. North American Muscoid Diptera. Bull. Brooklyn 
Ent. Soc. 32, pp. 62-74. 

Townsend, C. H. T. 1935. Manual of Myiology Part II, Charles Townsend 
and Filhos Press, Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo, Brasil. 

Williston, S. W. 1908. Manual of North American Diptera, Third Edition, 
James T. Hathaway Press, New Haven, Conn. 


REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY ONCERINAE WITH 
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS (COLEOPTERA: 

SCARABAEIDAE). 

By Lawrence W. Saylor, 

Bureau of Biological Survey , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The beetles of this group are quite small and their distribution 
is rather localized in Southern and Lower California; these 
reasons probably account for the fact that adequate series have 
not heretofore been assembled and the true relationships of the 
species revealed. The availability of a small series of the rare 
Nefoncerus convergens and a large number of specimens of the 
commoner Oncerus floralis has induced the writer to study the 
taxonomy of the group with the result that he finds it necessary 
to remove them from their present systematic position. 



100 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 

Oncerus and the related new genus, herein described as 
Nefoncerus, are characterized mainly by having the labrum 
connate with the apex of the clypeus but on the same plane 
with the latter, and by the presence of the abdominal spiracles 
entirely in the membrane. These two genera can not be placed 
either with such other Laparastict scarabs as Chnaunanthus of 
the Chasmatopterinae, with Aclopus of the Aclopinae, nor with 
any other related subfamilies, mainly because of the radically 
different type of clypeal and labrum formation; all of these 
other subfamilies either have the mandibles large and exposed, 
the head and thorax armed with horns, or if the labrum be 
exposed it is small and inserted under the clypeus and not 
inserted at the apex of the clypeus and on the same plane with 
the latter, as is the case in Oncerus. 

Oncerus and Nefoncerus are probably closest to Aclopus of the 
Aclopinae, but differ from the latter especially in having the 
labrum and clypeus on the same plane and the mandibles not 
visible from above, as well as such supplementary characters 
as the basically different type of tarsal claws (short and cleft, 
rather than long, slender and simple), the smaller eyes and the 
different facies. 

Oncerus and Nefoncerus are also somewhat similar to the 
Melolonthine tribes Sericini and Liparetrini, but differ from 
the latter two in the matter of the spiracular arrangement and 
in most instances in the insertion of the labrum. 

It may also be noted here that the tribe Liparetrini as listed 
in the Coleopterorum Catalogus is composed of many diverse 
elements and the whole tribe needs careful study. The Aus¬ 
tralian Pachytrichia castanea , for instance (having labrum 
inserted at apex clypeus and on the same plane, and the last 
abdominal spiracle inserted in a fold) is placed next to the 
American Plectrodes (having the labrum inserted so far back 
under the clypeus as to be invisible from above, and the last 
spiracle situated on the slight suture between the connate 5th 
ventral and the propygidial segments) ! 

Were it not for the different type of abdominal spiracle 
arrangement, Oncerus et al could be placed with Phyllotocus in 
the Sericini since this common Australian genus is quite similar 
in the insertion of the labrum, differing mainly in the type of 
claws and the often-carinate pygidium, as well as in the highly 
spinose type of hind tibiae. The genus Cheiragra , however, 
also Australian and placed right next to Phyllotocus has the 
labrum inserted under the clypeus, so that it appears as though 
many former students of the scarabs had somehow overlooked 
the importance of the insertion of the labrum. 

It being impossible to satisfactorily place the genera Oncerus 
and Nefoncerus in any of the known subfamilies it becomes 
necessary to designate a flew one for them, and this may be 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 101 


known as the subfamily oncerinae, characterized by having 
all the abdominal spiracles in the membrane, the labrum inserted 
at the apex of the clypeus and on the same plane, the claws 
short and cleft (variously modified in one species) and the 
abdominal segments either connate or free. 

The only two genera known definitely to belong in the new 
subfamily may be separated as follows: 

(The males are more slender and have the abdomen flattened or concave in 
side view, whereas the females have the abdomen convex and the general 
habitus much more robust.) 

Front tarsal claws male similar to each other and to those of female 
and simply cleft, no basal dilation; abdominal segments, except last, 
closely connate and sutures hardly or not discernible; hind tibiae 
times longer than widest point, the spurs inserted at apex, and 
on inner, lower margin; clypeus with sides parallel or slightly con¬ 
vergent basally. (California.)...... Oncerus. 

Front claws male strongly dissimilar to each other and to those of female 
hind and middle claws with large basal dilation, thus appearing 
tridentate; abdominal segments entirely free, sutures strong; hind 
tibiae nearly 3 times longer than wide, the spurs inserted definitely 
before the apex and on the outer, upper margin; clypeus with sides 
strongly convergent apically. (Lower California.)__ ....Nefoncerus. 

Oncerus floralis Leconte. 

(Figure 1, a-d.) 

Oncerus floralis Leconte, Jour. Ac. N. S. Phila. (2), III, 1856, pg. 284; Dalla 
Torre, Junk Col. Cat. pars 45, pg. 7. 1912. 

Head and thorax piceous, elytra testaceo-castaneous. Clypeus extremely 
coarsely punctured, and tumid at middle; front coarsely punctured in apical 
half, basal half and vertex smooth. Thorax moderately coarsely, irregularly 
and sparsely punctured. Elytra covered with very long, rather dense hair. 
Length 3. to 3.8 mm. 

The only described species in this genus can be taken in 
moderate abundance in the southern Californian desert regions 
early in the year, on all types of flowers. Found commonly on 
Malocathrix glabrata flowers by McKenzie and Timberlake in 
Borego Valley on March 20. Occurs to San Diego, and appar¬ 
ently known only from California. The author has examined 
well over a hundred examples and little or no variation occurs 
in the species that he has noted. 

NEFONCERUS Saylor, new genus. 

Oblong-oval, sparsely pilose above. Ligula separate from mentum. Labrum 
prolonged beyond apex of clypeus and on the same plane with the latter. Head 
with clypeus rapidly narrowed apically, suture distinct; eyes moderate, not 




102 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


prominent. Antennae 9-segmented, club 3-segments, antennal club small and 
subglobose. Thorax transverse, sides subarcuately rounded, hind angles very 
broadly rounded, front angles subangulate; front margin slightly membranous. 
Abdominal segments free, not at all connate. Front outer claws male strongly 
dissimilar, and unlike those of the hind and middle legs; all claws of female 
similar. Middle and hind tarsal claws with large acute basal dilation, thus 
appearing tridentate. Otherwise as in Oncerus floralis. 

Genotype.—Oncerus convergens Horn. 


While appearing somewhat similar to Oncerus floralis in some 
of the characters, the presence of marked sexual dimorphism in 
the claws of one species and not in another, correlated with the 
great differences in the basic tibial, claw and abdominal struc¬ 
tures, necessitates the separation of 0 . convergens into another 
genus. The hind tibiae of Nefoncerus in proportions, and 
manner and placement of the hind tibial spurs differ noticeably 
from those of Oncerus floralis , as may be readily seen from the 
key. While it may be pointed out that the connate condition 
of the abdomen, the shape of the clypeus, etc., are not good 
generic characters, the author feels that the placement of the 
tibial spurs on entirely different areas of the tibiae, correlated 
with the sexual dimorphism as exhibited in the front claws, and 
the different facies, makes the separation of 0 . convergens from 
0. floralis more or less obligatory. 


Nef oncerus convergens (Horn). 

(Figure 2, a-e, Plate 11.) 

Oncerus convergens Horn, Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci., ser. 2, IV, 1894, p. 394. 

Head with clypeus and front very coarsely punctured, pilose. Thorax rufous, 
densely coarsely punctured over the entire surface, the hind angles very broadly 
rounded. Front tibiae with a very sharp submedian tooth; tarsi as in the figures, 
the hind and middle tarsi similar to each other. Elytra with somewhat sparse, 
short, subprocumbent hair. Length 4 mm. 

The writer has examined 7 specimens of this rather rare and 
localized species, all from Lower California: San Jose del Cabo 
and Calmalli Mines, collected by Hubbard & Schwartz, and by 
Chas. Fuchs. The brief description as given above correlated 
with the key and accompanying figures, should enable one to 
readily place this species. 


The writer is indebted to Dr. E. A. Chapin of the U. S. National Museum for 
helpful suggestions and the loan of material, as well as to Dr. E. C. Van Dyke 
for the use of the material in the California Academy of Sciences. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 11 





2 b 



I c 


Explanation of Figures. 

Figure 1: Oncerus floralis Leconte 
Figure 2: Nefoncerus convergens (Horn) 
a: Head, dorsal view 
b: Inner view of hind tibiae 
c: Male genitalia 
d: Front inner male claw, 
e: Front outer male claw. 



2 c 


[ 103 ] 















104 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE SUBFAMILY 
TRIATOMINAE (REDUVIIDAE: HEMIPTERA). 

By H. G. Barber, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

PARATRIATOMA, new genus. 

Head elongate oval, scarcely shorter than pronotum, vertex very convex; 
eyes rather small, not strongly projected, each much narrower than width of 
vertex; preocular region distinctly longer than postocular, transversely impressed 
behind the strongly elevated tylus, devoid of an arcuate preocellar sulcus. 
Ocelli slightly elevated, widely separated. Antennae inserted closer to eyes 
than to apex of head, formed as in Triatoma; basal segment short, not quite 
reaching to apex of head. Rostrum stout, nearly straight, apposed to venral 
surface of head. Pronotum somewhat wider than long; the transverse impression 
placed well before the middle; disk of anterior lobe strongly, convexly elevated 
on each side of a deep longitudinal impression; posterior lobe with a median, 
longitudinal, shallow impression bounded on each side by a low rounded ridge. 
Scutellum devoid of a discal depressed area, prolonged into a cylindrical, apical 
process. Prosternum longitudinally sulcate. Legs rather short, scarcely 
incrassate, mutic; anterior tibia devoid of an apical spongy fossa. Entire body 
and the appendages sparsely covered with long, coarse hairs. 

Type of the genus Paratriatoma hirsuta , new species. 

The genus Paratriatoma is most closely related to Triatoma , from which it 
may be distinguished by the ovoidal shape of the head, the absence of an arcuate 
interocellar sulcus, the absence of femoral spines or tubercles, and particularly 
in the remarkable hirsuteness of the body and of the appendages. 

Paratriatoma hirsuta, new species. 

Narrowly oval; hirsute; slightly shiny; sordid ochraceous, scutellum and disk 
of the corium slightly infuscated, legs stramineous. Head with numerous long, 
coarse, curved, black hairs; the strongly convexed interocular region or vertex 
nearly four times as wide as an eye; dorso-ventral length of eye much shorter 
than corresponding dimension of head, the two eyes widely separated on the 
gula; anterior region before antenniferous tubercles with lateral margins not 
parallel but gradually converging anteriorly to apex of juga; preocular lateral 
margin to apex of antennilerous tubercles somewhat shorter than postocular 
margin, the latter, as seen from above, very slightly convex and abruptly 
contracted to collum. Ocelli large, slightly elevated, each situated behind inner 
margin of an eye. Antenna with basal two segments covered with proclinate, 
black hairs which on the second segment are much longer than the width of the 
segment; basal segment not quite reaching apex of head, a little more incrassate 
than second segment, which is about three times as long as basal; last two seg¬ 
ments slender, with scattered, fine, oblique hairs which are three or four times 
as long as the width of the segments. Rostrum sparsely hirsute; apex attaining 
middle of prosternal sulcus; basal segment over one-half as long as second, 
third segment nearly one-half as long as second. Pronotum posteriorly nearly 
one-third wider than long: the outer anterior angle slightly produced in an 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 105 


obtusely rounded tubercle; lateral margin of posterior lobe, anteriorly, lightly 
inpressed; humeral angles bluntly rounded. Scutellum somewhat elevated, 
disk roughly corrugated, cylindrical apical process about as long as remainder 
of scutellum. Connexivum immaculate, dorsally narrowly exposed beyond 
costal margin of corium, ventrally very narrowly exposed beyond lateral 
margins of ventral sclerites. Femora and tibiae with long, inclined, black hairs, 
denser on tibiae. Length 13-14.5 mm. 

Type male, U. S. National Museum, Cat. No. 52747, Mojave, 
Calif., Aug. 23, 1935 (J. W. Vernon). Paratypes: Two males, 
Phanton Ranch, Grand Canyon, Ariz., May, 1929 (Vernon 
Bailey); female, with the same data as type; one nymph, 
Phanton Ranch, Grand Canyon, Ariz., May 1929 (Vernon 
Bailey) and two nymphs, Shoshone, Calif., April 1921 (H. J. 
Lind). 

Nothing is known concerning the habits of this species beyond 
a report from J. W. Vernon that the specimens from Mojave 
had attacked man. 


SEX DETERMINATION IN THE HONEYBEE. 

By W. J. Nolan. 

The story of sex determination in the honeybee is linked with 
the name of Dzierzon, who about eighty years ago established 
the fact that drones can arise from unfertilized eggs and that 
queens and workers arise from fertilized eggs. His results, 
obtained by crossing the yellow Italian with the European 
brown bee, indicated that this is the only way in which male 
and female bees are produced. 

Final evidence that the drone arises only from unfertilized 
eggs and the female from fertilized eggs seemed to be given by 
Nachtsheim’s cytological study of the European brown bee, in 
which he showed that the drone has only the haploid number of 
chromosomes whereas the female has the diploid number. 
Nachtsheim also set forth the view that sex in the bee is de¬ 
termined by the number of X chromosomes present, one X 
chromosome causing a male to develop and two X chromosomes 
a female. 

The foregoing ideas are not entirely in accord with certain 
more recent findings in the honeybee or in the hymenopteran 
Habrobracon juglandis Ashm., nor do they permit the explana¬ 
tion of sex determination in the honeybee on the basis of modern 
genetic conceptions regarding other forms. Thus, although the 
development of males from unfertilized eggs remains unques- 



106 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


tioned, evidence has been found that in a South African variety 
of the honeybee females likewise can develop from unfertilized 
eggs. 

The finding of biparental males in Habrobracon juglandis leads 
to the question as to whether male honeybees do not also 
occasionally develop from fertilized eggs. The finding, in the 
experimental apiary at Beltsville, Md., of a drone termed a 
haplodiploid male mosaic by the Habrobracon geneticist Whiting 
is of considerable interest in this connection, since, if this drone 
does possess some diploid tissue, it seems the nearest approach 
to a diploid male yet recorded for the honeybee. Instead of 
having hairs of the same color on both sides of its thorax, the 
usual characteristic, this drone was strikingly marked by having 
only hairs of a moleskin color on the left side in contrast to 
yellowish hairs on the right. Judging from the appearance of 
the worker daughters, the mother of the drone had apparently 
mated with a drone somewhat darker than herself. The genetic 
explanation of the drone, however, has not yet been worked out. 
That the specimen was not a gynandromorph, or an intersex 
form, was shown by the fact that it bore only male appendages 
and its internal organs were male. 

Cytological, or even genetic, identification of the sex chrom¬ 
osomes in the honeybee still remains to be accomplished. In 
contrast to Nachtsheim’s view concerning the honeybee, 
Whiting maintains that in Habrobracon the female is of the XY 
instead of the XX type and, further, that the haploid males are 
of the X and Y types and the biparental males of the XX and 
YY types. These four male types look alike but are distinguish¬ 
able genetically. To account for the determination of sex he 
ascribes the possession of a pair of factors, F. g., to the X chrom¬ 
osome while the Y chromosome possesses their allelmorphs 
f. G. The presence of both F and G is necessary for the formation 
of a female, a condition that results in the union of X and Y. 

The modern theory of genic balance has also caused sex 
determination in the honeybee to appear more of a puzzle than 
formerly, since according to this theory it is not the sex chrom¬ 
osomes alone that determine maleness or femaleness but the 
resultant effect of genes for maleness and genes for femaleness 
found not only in the sex chromosomes but in the autosomes as 
well. Some investigators include the cytoplasm as a third 
factor in sex determination. According to the theory of genic 
balance, sex determination in the honeybee can not be explained 
on the basis of the fact that there is only one X chromosome in the 
drone and two X chromosomes in the female, for the proportion 
of X chromosome to autosome material is the same in each 
case, since not only the X chromosome but also the autosome 
content of the female is held to be double that of the male. 

Even the cause of the sex ratio in the honeybee colony has 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 107 

been given no satisfactory explanation as yet, although various 
reasons have been advanced for the preponderance of adults 
developed from fertilized eggs. The belief that the size of cell 
causes the queen, in egg laying, to bend her body in such a way 
as to shut off or induce the escape of sperm from her spermatheca 
has been disapproved by common beekeeping experience, be¬ 
cause drones develop from eggs laid in the smaller worker cells 
as well as in the normal drone cells. 

Experimental breeding work to determine definitely the 
nature of sex determination in the honeybee will be greatly 
facilitated by the discovery of some easily recognized mutation. 
In the meantime the question demands a further cytological 
study of the honeybee. 


SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF BACILLUS LARVAE IN CULTURE 
AFTER EXPOSURE TO LETHAL AGENTS. 

By C. E. Burnside. 

American foulbrood, caused by Bacillus larvae , is the most 
serious disease that affects honeybees. Infected colonies prac¬ 
tically always die, and burning them is the only dependable 
treatment known. The causative organism does not grow on the 
usual nutrient media, but can be cultured when unheated egg 
yolk and extracts from certain plants, especially carrot, are 
added to the medium. In such media containing carrot extract 
but no nitrates B. larvae stores nitrites, whereas the usual 
contaminating organisms do not. This provides a fairly accurate 
chemical test for identifying B. larvae. When favorable medium 
is inoculated with not less than 500,000,000 spores, a fairly 
luxuriant growth develops within 48 hours. As the amount of 
inoculum is reduced the lag period is increased, and with less 
than 50,000 spores no growth occurs on egg-yolk agar. 

During the past 30 years various disinfecting and sterilizing 
agents for destroying B. larvae have been tested. In the earliest 
cultural tests treated spores that failed to germinate within 48 
hours were considered killed. Boiling in water for 5 to 11 min¬ 
utes was thought to destroy all spores of B. larvae. Resistance 
to boiling in honey was reported to be slightly greater and 
resistance to moist heat under pressure a little less. Early 
tests showed that B. larvae is highly resistant to several common 
chemical disinfectants. Formaldehyde was found to be the 
most effective, and for a number of years water and alcohol 
solutions of this chemical were widely used by beekeepers for 
disinfecting combs and other equipment from diseased colonies. 
Disinfection was supposed to be complete after 48 hours’ 
exposure to a 20-per cent aqueous solution of formalin. The 
method eventually proved unreliable, however, and has since 



108 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 

been abandoned in favor of burning. The efficiency of disin¬ 
fecting agents was usually tested with cultures on egg-yolk 
agar or by inoculating colonies of bees. 

In more recent experiments, using improved media and incu¬ 
bation up to 30 days, new conceptions have been obtained of 
the resistance of B. larvae and the characteristics of the cultures 
after subjection to lethal agents. By the old method of testing 
the dead larvae after treatment with formalin solution retained 
paraformaldehyde, which often inhibited or prevented growth 
of B. larvae. A method of washing now in use at the Bee 
Culture Laboratory removes all formaldehyde or other chemi¬ 
cals before cultures are prepared. Spores of B. larvae that had 
been exposed to 20-per cent formalin solution for 3 days and 
washed before being placed in culture gave growth after pro¬ 
longed incubation. No growth was obtained with spores that 
had been treated for 4 days. Sublethal exposure to formalde¬ 
hyde increased the lag period of spores in culture ranging from 
slight delay in germination up to 30 days in some instances. In 
general the lag period increased with the period of exposure. 

There was a marked and unexplained variation in cultural 
results with treated spores. With similarly treated spores 
growth in culture ranged from very slight to luxuriant, with no 
growth in some cultures after 30 days’ incubation. In most of 
the tests the inoculum consisted of one scale of about 
2,500,000,000 spores. Increasing the inoculum beyond one 
scale appeared not to reduce the lag period, increase the luxuri¬ 
ance of growth, or affect the variation in cultural results. 
Sublethal exposure of B. larvae to chlorine, copper sulfate, 
mercuric chloride, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, 
and commercial lye was found to affect the lag period and 
growth of spores in culture in practically the same manner as 
does formaldehyde. 

When improved media, prolonged incubation, and large inocu¬ 
lums were used, the resistance of B. larvae to heat was found to 
be much greater than was formerly supposed. In some instances 
spores resisted boiling in water for 5 hours, autoclaving at 15 
pounds’ pressure for 25 minutes, dry heat at 98° C. for 46 
hours, and melted beeswax at 100° C. for nearly 5 days. The 
variation in lag period and luxuriance of growth of heated 
spores was extreme. In general the lag period increased and 
the luxuriance of growth was reduced as the time and tem¬ 
perature were increased. 

Variations in cultural results with spores from different 
sources suggested differences in resistance, but the equally 
great variations in cultures prepared with spores from the same 
source made it difficult to detect differences in resistance. 
Extreme variation in results, for which we have no explanation 
as yet, has made it impossible to establish the minimum period 


* 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 109 

of heating required to destroy all spores of B. larvae. The 
results indicate that the effect of lethal agents on the spores is a 
gradual weakening and destruction. Although inoculums of 
more than 2,500,000,000 treated spores did not seem to decrease 
the lag period or increase the number of positive cultures, in 
most cases much smaller inoculums did increase the lag period 
and reduce the number of positive cultures. An Italian investi¬ 
gator, in testing the resistance of B. larvae to heat, used inocu¬ 
lums of about 2,000,000 spores and reports a much lower resist¬ 
ance than is indicated by our experiments. It is thought that 
the difference may be explained by the difference in the amount 
of inoculum. 

Tests on the inoculation of colonies indicate that sublethal 
heating of B. larvae spores destroys or greatly reduces their 
virulence and that spores capable of growing in culture may not 
produce disease when fed to colonies. 


A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THYSANOPTERA 
FROM GREENHOUSES. 

By J. C. Crawford, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The discovery of a new greenhouse pest is always a matter of 
interest, and the new species described below was found through¬ 
out the large series of houses known as Range 1 of the New 
York Botanical Gardens, where it was taken on many plants 
and was present in great numbers, being by far the most 
abundant thrips present. In fact, the different species ordi¬ 
narily known as the common greenhouse thrips were very rare. 

ASPROTHRIPS, 1 new genus. 

Belongs to the Dendrothripini. Head excavated in front, antennae 8-jointed 
with a short 2-jointed style, antennal joints 5 and 6 closely united and with 7 
and 8 forming a compact mass; maxillary palpi 3-jointed; trichomes on segments 
3 and 4 U-shaped; wings very narrow, practically pointed at tips, fore wings 
almost straight along posterior margin (not like those of typical Dendrothripini 
in shape), with a thin costal fringe of hairs in apical five-eighths, these arising 
almost from costa itself, no bristles on costal margin, anterior wings with two 
veins, fore vein with no (usually) or with one apical bristle, hind vein with 
about four widely-spaced bristles; all major setae and wing bristles markedly 
reduced, being mostly minute, with those on apical margin of prothorax and 
apical abdominal segments short; paired median bristles on abdominal segments 
not close together; comb on abdominal segments not developed; paired medio- 
dorsal bristles on tergites 2-8 small, not close together. 


a<rrrpos = white (modern Greek). 




110 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, APR., 1938 

Type.—Asprothrips raui Crawford. 

In the Dendrothripini this genus is near Dendrothrips but 
differs from it in the very narrow, pointed, not dendrothripine 
wings, in the fringe hairs of fore wings arising close to costa 
instead of far back of it, in the less excavated head, in the 
marked reduction in size of all major bristles, and in the paired 
median bristles of abdominal segments 2-8 not being close 
together. 

From Pseudodendrothrips, also, it differs by the short style, 
the lack of long pronotal bristles, and the lack of long posterior 
tarsi. Aneurothrips has the fore wings veinless and the surface 
without bristles; Metaxyothrips has the head produced in front; 
Hydatothrips has the single vein of the fore wings uniformly set 
with bristles, a comb on sides of tergites 1-6 and complete ones 
on 7-8. 


Asprothrips raui, new species. 

Female (macropterous).—Length (slightly distended) 1.1 mm. Very light 
yellowish-white including basal antennal segments; ocellar pigment bright red; 
eyes black; tip of antennal segment 4 light brown, 5-8 dark brown, with 5 
lighter at base; all bristles colorless and hard to see. 

Head with anterior ocellus directed forward; eyes protruding and with large 
facets, pilose; head (from front of eye) 80 mu long, 140 mu wide; ocelli in an 
equilateral triangle remote from eyes, postocelli about as far from eyes as from 
each other; all bristles on head minute, outer postocular seen in outline about 
6 mu long; mouth cone short, hardly reaching middle of prosternum; antennal 
joint 3 with a long pedicel, 4 and 5 with short pedicels; length of antennal 
segments in mu: 

1 (visible portion)..2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

20........32 36 34 31 33 8 12 

Prothorax about 130 mu long, 186 mu wide, delicately transversely lined, 
post margin with 4 short (12 mu) bristles on each side; wing veins faint, bristles 
on them reduced to setulae not much longer than those on surface of wings; 
basal one-third of fore wing without surface setulae; fore vein with no (usually) 
or one apical bristle, hind vein with about four widely-spaced bristles hardly 
6 mu long; fore wings about 633 mu long, median width 32 mu, almost straight 
along posterior margin beyond basal curve. Pterothorax wider than prothorax, 
sides gently curved, 260 mu long, 240 mu wide. 

Abdomen delicately reticulated; no comb on tergites, disks of abdominal 
segments with two pairs of short spines, median pair on segment 7 about 25 mu 
apart, lateral pair 18 mu from median pair; ninth segment with an apical row of 
four pairs of spines of which the median pair is longer (22 mu) and stronger than 
the others and about as long as the lateral subapical pair, and the two pairs on 
tenth segment. 

Male (macropterous).—Length (distended) 1.0 mm. Very similar to the 
female but with the fifth antennal segment light in basal half. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 111 


Type locality. —New York, N. Y., in greenhouses. 

Host. —Palm (female holotype, Nov. 21, 1936, G. J. Rau, 
Coll.). Anthurium sp. (male allotype, Dec. 6, 1936, J. C. 
Crawford, Coll.). 

Type. —Cat. No. 52354, U. S. National Museum. 

Many female paratypes taken December 6, 1936, to January 
7, 1937, by the author, commonly on Carludovica atrovirens, 
Bactris utilis, Alocasia odor a, Aglaonema mode stum, and sparsely 
on many other plants in greenhouses in the New York Botanical 
Gardens, where it is a rather serious pest. The male allotype 
is the only specimen taken of that sex. 

This species is dedicated to Mr. Rau, who first collected it, as 
well as other greenhouse thrips. 

Paratypes have been deposited in the collection of Dr. H. 
Priesner, who confirmed my finding that it was new, both 
generically and specifically. Other paratypes in my collection. 


MINUTES OF THE 489th REGULAR MEETING OF THE ENTO¬ 
MOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 489th meeting of the Society was called to order at 8 p. m., Thursday, 
February 3,1938, by President E. A. Back, in Room 43 of the National Museum. 
Thirty-six members and thirteen visitors were present. The minutes of the 
previous meeting were read and approved. 

Under Notes and Exhibition of Specimens, Austin H. Clark called attention 
to the fact that the figure of Danais plexippus (L.) in Dr. Holland’s “ Butterfly 
Book” (pi. 7, fig. 1) does not represent the North American migratory form of 
this species—typical plexippus. At his request Dr. Ralph L. Chermock and 
Dr. Hugo Kahl were so kind as to look up the specimen figured, which is in the 
Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh. They found that it was labeled “Danais 
erippus , South America,” and was purchased from Dr. O. Staudinger. It agrees 
minutely with a specimen from Salvador in the National Museum and represents 
the form nigrippus Hsch. from Central and northern South America, though it 
is not wholly typical. 

Mr. Clark also noted the great abundance of the canna leaf-folder, Calpodes 
ethlius Cram., in Virginia during the past summer. He personally found the 
larvae in fifty cities and towns in sixteen counties, all in the coastal plain. In 
many places, especially near the sea and near Chesapeake Bay, it did much 
damage. Larvae were very common at Alexandria and between Alexandria and 
Washington, and many were found on the cannas in the Department of Agri¬ 
culture grounds. (Author’s abstract.) 

F. C. Bishopp called attention to the Third North American Wild Life 
Conference, to be held at Baltimore, Md., February 14-17, 1938. 

E. A. Back described an interesting case of injury, caused by a scolytid 
beetle, Pterocyclon jasciatum (Say), to brine barrels in a pickle factory. Mater¬ 
ials were exhibited which demonstrated how the beetles make holes in the 
barrels, allowing leakage of the brine. 



112 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


The following persons, having been duly recommended by the Executive 
Committee, were unanimously elected to membership in the Society: 

L. G. Baumhofer, Division of Forest Insect Investigations. 

William H. Bennett, Department of Forest Entomology, the New York State 
College of Forestry at Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Samuel C. Billings, Insecticide Division (Testing Section), Food and Drug 
Administration, Beltsville, Md. 

B. D. Burks, Illinois Natural Flistory Survey, Urbana, Ill. 

Mrs. Abby H. Casanges, Division of Control Investigations. 

Percy Jones, Division of Control Investigations. 

Randall Latta, Division of Control Investigations. 

Miss Janet Mabry, Division of Insect Pest Survey and Information. 

Elmer L. Mayer, Division of Control Investigations. 

S. C. Munson, Division of Control Investigations. 

Miss Gertrude Myers, Division of Insect Pest Survey and Information. 

L. W. Orr, Division of Forest Insect Investigations. 

Miss Helen Sobers, Division of Insect Pest Survey and Information. 

The first speaker on the regular program, James M. Brennan, presented an 
illustrated talk, entitled “Some indications of the taxonomic value of the male 
genitalia of Tabanidae.” The dipterous family Tabanidae, represented by 
2,500 or more described species, has, because of the reported lack of characters, 
always been somewhat of a bane to the taxonomist. Color characters have been 
used extensively for separating closely related species, but in many species 
the range of variation in color pattern is so great as to make it utterly worthless. 
Structural characters, principally derived from the head and its appendages, 
have been useful in formulating generic concepts within the group, but little 
application of structures has been made to species. 

Present investigations show, however, that at least within some genera, 
successful application of the external male genitalia can be made to the taxonomy 
of Tabanidae, and that certain structures involved do have definite diagnostic 
value in separating species. 

In Stonemyia Brennan (1935), a small genus comprising six good species, 
valid diagnostic characters were found principally in the shape of the claspers 
of the external male genitalia. Likewise the form of the ninth tergite was 
found to be fairly reliable as a supplementary character. 

Representative species of six other genera have been studied but thus far the 
evidence is insufficient to permit of more than general statements. However, 
it is apparent that the external male genitalia are important in establishing 
generic relationships. 

It is likewise indicated that the male genital structures do not have taxonomic 
significance within all groups of the Tabanidae. 

The method of preparing specimens for study involves the simple technique 
of snipping off the abdominal tip, relaxing and clearing in 10% caustic, dissecting 
out the hypopygium, and clearing further if necessary. The structures, because 
of their depth, various curves, projections, and angles do not lend themselves 
readily to a slide mount, hence are studied in a drop of glycerine or glycerine 
jelly. (Author’s abstract.) 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 113 


George G. Becker gave an interesting talk, entitled “South African insects 
of plant quarantine interest.” He discussed some of the insect problems of South 
Africa, devoting the major part of his talk to the handling of South African 
deciduous fruits which are to be shipped to the United States under the pro¬ 
visions of the Bureau’s circular B. E. P. Q.—464. The discussion was illustrated 
with slides showing the character of some of the fruit producing areas of South 
Africa, and the equipment and methods of handling fruit in the large Govern¬ 
ment-owned cold storage plant at Cape Town. (Author’s abstract.) 

Discussion followed by Sasscer and Wade. 

The last item on the regular program was in the form of two book reviews by 
A. B. Gurney: 

Genetics and the Origin of Species. By Theodozius Dobzhansky. New York: 
Columbia University Press. 1937. 364 pp. 

This book on the evolution of species, written by Professor Dobzhansky of 
the California Institute of Technology, will interest workers in many fields of 
biology. A Russian by birth and training, and well acquainted with the prob¬ 
lems of insect taxonomy although primarily a geneticist, Professor Dobzhansky 
presents “a discussion of the mechanisms of species formation in terms of the 
known facts and theories of genetics.” The reader need not have an extensive 
background in genetics to appreciate the importance of the principles discussed. 

The first of the ten chapters, Organic Diversity, emphasizes the discontinuity 
of living things and the importance of the non-blending unit of inheritance: the 
gene. The second defines the term “mutation” as a change in a gene, and 
discusses the occurrence of mutations. This definition differs from that of many 
authors who use a broader interpretation involving numerical and structural 
chromosomal changes in addition to simple gene changes. Three chapters 
discuss translocation, inversion, polyploidy and other types of chromosomal 
changes and their bearing, together with that of mutations, on the origin of 
races and species. One chapter is devoted to Variation in Natural Populations 
and three concern certain of the more important phenomena which enable races 
and species to evolve as distinct populations once change has occurred: Selection, 
Isolating Mechanisms, Hybrid Sterility. The last, Species as Natural Units, 
includes the definition of a species “as that stage of evolutionary process at 
which the once actually or potentially interbreeding array of forms becomes 
segregated in two or more separate arrays which are physiologically incapable 
of interbreeding.” Although time on a geological scale may be necessary for 
significant change to be apparent, a species is thus seen to be a stage in a dy¬ 
namic process, “not a static unit.” Species reproducing mainly vegetatively or 
asexually are often characterized by differences which are much less than those 
distinguishing most bisexual organisms. 

Because of the difficulty, often the impossibility, due to lack of biological 
data, of determining whether a given population contains several distinct 
species or several races of only one species, the personal judgment of a taxono¬ 
mist will continue to be important. It may be hoped, however, that an appre¬ 
ciation of Professor Dobzhansky’s conception of species will lead to a better 
understanding of the problems of systematic biology. 

The Origin of Higher Categories in Cynips. By Alfred C. Kinsey. Bloom¬ 
ington, Indiana: Indiana University Publications. 1936. 334 pd. 


114 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


This publication is a continuation of the work presented by Professor Kinsey 
in 1930, entitled “The Gall Wasp Genus Cynips, a Study in the Origin of 
Species.” Aside from the purely taxonomic matter contained, the work is of 
unusual interest because of the large number of specimens studied and the 
author’s efforts to analyze the evolutionary factors active in the Cynipidae and 
to understand the nature of species, genera and still higher categories in terms 
of natural processes. He concludes that species are realities in Nature, but that 
higher categories are arbitrarily delimited sections of phylogenetically continuous 
chains of species. 

It should be noted that the units treated as species correspond to the races 
or subspecies of many authors. Professor Kinsey believes that species usually 
arise by mutation and subsequent isolation in the case of Cynips; this is in 
agreement with Professor Dobzhansky’s recent work, but the various types of 
mutation are not discussed in detail, while Professor Dobzhansky attaches 
the greater importance to gene changes as opposed to chromosomal changes. 
(Author’s abstract.) 

Adjournment at 10.15 p. m. 

Ashley B. Gurney, 
Recording Secretary. 


MINUTES OF THE 490TH REGULAR MEETING OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 490th meeting of the Society was called to order at 8 p. m., Thursday, 
March 3, 1938, in Room 43 of the National Museum, with President Back 
presiding and thirty-one members and six visitors present. The minutes of the 
previous meeting were read and approved. 

F. W. Poos presented the names of the following individuals, who, following 
the motion of N. E. Mclndoo, were unanimously elected to membership in the 
Society: 

J. A. Beal, Division of Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology 
and Plant Quarantine, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

William E. Bickley, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, 
College Park, Md. 

L. P. Ditman, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College 
Park, Md. 

Neale F. Howard, 151 West Eleventh Avenue, Columbus, Ohio. 

Paul Knight, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College 
Park, Md. 

Mrs. Margaret C. Mansuy, Division of Insect Identification, Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Washington, D. C. (Reinstatement.) 

Roy H. Nagel, Division of Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau of Ento¬ 
mology and Plant Quarantine, Milwaukee, Wise. 

Alfred B. Pettit, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, 
College Park, Md. 

Miss Virginia E. Thomas, Department of Entomology, University of Mary¬ 
land, College Park, Md. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 115 


V. L. Wildermuth, Division of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Tempe, Ariz. 

R. A. Cushman discussed a gynandromorph ichneumonid ( Delomerista sp.) 
which exhibited imperfectly formed genitalia of both sexes. (Author’s abstract.) 

E. A. Back exhibited an historic book, badly infested by beetles, which had 
recently been sent to him from Florida. The beetle has been described by 
W. S. Fisher as a new genus and species of Anobiidae, Neogastrallus librinocens. 

The regular program consisted of a symposium on bee culture, the first talk 
being by J. I. Hambleton, entitled “Work of the Division of Bee Culture.” 
Dr. Hambleton outlined the different types of investigation done at the several 
field laboratories of the division. Because of the differences in season, honey 
plants and other factors, certain beekeeping problems can be studied at one 
laboratory to better advantage than at others. Some of the recent trends in 
apicultural practice and research were discussed. 

The remainder of the program included the following papers: Sex determina¬ 
tion of honey bees, W. J. Nolan. Some cultural characteristics of Bacillus 
larvae , C. E. Burnside. 

Discussion followed by Mclndoo, Snodgrass, Cushman and Back, and 
Dr. Hambleton gave an interesting survey of the use in medical practice of the 
natural stinging of honey bees, particularly as related to arthritis. 

Adjournment at 10 p. m. 

Ashley B. Gurney, 
Recording Secretary. 


BOOK NOTICE. 

THE WORKS OF HENRY DAVID THOREAU, Selected and edited by 
Henry Seidel Canby, 8 vo., cloth, 848 pp., 11 reproductions of photo¬ 
graphs by Henry B. Kane. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937, $5.00. 

In event that some small portion of the entomological fraternity may not 
readily recognize a fellow entomologist in Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), 
the American naturalist, writer, educator, lecturer, ethnologist, poet and phi¬ 
losopher, let it be remembered that an actual tabulation published some years 
ago by one of his admirers (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 35 : 1-21, Mch., 1927) after 
an exhaustive study of the 20 volume Walden edition of his published writings 
revealed that he had given consideration therein to a total of 2,512 insects, and 
had shown abundant evidence not only that he had studied them long and faith¬ 
fully, but that his discussions of them proved him to be a prose writer of the 
highest distinction. Thoreau has been over seventy-five years in his grave and 
with the passing of the years his reputation as a writer and as a naturalist has 
been steadily growing. Comparatively unknown and unappreciated during his 
lifetime, it has been his subsequent destiny to attain world wide and steadily 
growing fame. There is, as Canby has pointed out, a “growing belief that he 
belongs to the small group of really great Americans.” One excellent criterion 
by which to measure something of the growth and permanence of this attitude 
toward him is to examine into and evaluate the output of the various editions 
of his published works. The very considerable total of all these over the many 



116 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 4, APR., 1938 


decades take on an added and a touching significance to those to have learned 
to love his writings and to revere his memory as one of the world’s great souls. 
And now there has been issued still another edition, this time under the editor¬ 
ship of the well known literary critic Henry Seidel Canby, in which edition all 
the more important—the outstanding portions of Thoreau’s writings, including 
parts of his “Journal” now out of print, are made available for the first time 
in a single volume. A survey of this book will show that its arrangement is 
designed for easy reading and for ready reference. The introduction and the 
short biography by the editor are followed by selections of excerpts from the 
“Journal,” and a slightly abridged text of the “Week on the Concord and 
Merrimack Rivers,” first published in 1849. This is followed by “Walden,” 
printed entire from the first edition of 1854, a selection of his better known 
“Poems,” and travel chapters from his posthumous books the “Maine Woods” 
and “Cape Cod.” Those who have enjoyed reading his nature essays may find 
included most of the old friends such as “Natural history of Massachusetts,” 
“Walking,” “Autumnal tints,” “Wild Apples,” “Succession of forest trees,” 
and the like. Also, while not of entomological interest, there are given likewise 
a number of other well known essays as “Life without principle,” the well- 
known lectures on “John Brown,” “Civil disobedience,” and on other issues of 
his day. The editor has very fittingly added at the end of the volume a well- 
selected bibliography of biographical, critical and other material. Obviously, 
a writer who dies at forty-five leaves behind him much unfinished literary work, 
and those who have taken the trouble to trace out Thoreau’s literary methods, 
in sufficient detail to discern the extreme care used by him in rewriting and 
recasting original “Journal” material, again and again, until satisfactory, will 
be quick to apprehend that several more books could even yet be quarried from 
that voluminous “Journal.” And this is particularly true of his entomological 
material since much of it yet remains to be placed in final order. Notes from 
Thoreau’s “Journal” are seldom cast in final literary form. Many of them stand 
in need of shaping and polishing, but they are none the less interesting for that 
and they are seldom mere records of fact. However, in the edition under con¬ 
sideration much of the best of his entomological work has been retained, and it 
is with pleasure that one can read again such well-known favorites as the 
“Battle of the Ants,” and others. However, it better suited his genius to trace 
some analogy between the flying insect and his own thoughts than to make a 
scientific study of it. Thoreau was seldom dull even in mere records of common¬ 
place facts, and the reader of this book, though he may be well acquainted with 
the author’s picturesque style, can hardly fail to be impressed anew with his 
power to convey a vivid and interesting picture in a few words. 

The book on the whole is a valuable addition to Thoreauana, and its reading 
and re-reading is commended. Query: Is there any living entomologist any¬ 
where to-day whose work will be sufficiently valuable and whose fame will be 
sufficiently lasting that his writings will thus be republished seventy-five years 
after his death? —j. s. w. 


Actual date of -publication , April 30,1938 



ANNOUNCEMENT 


Prices for back volumes and single numbers of the Proceedings of the Ento¬ 
mological Society of Washington are as follows, until further notice: 


Vols. 1-19, per volume. $2.00 

per number—. .50 

Vols. 20-39 per volume. 4.00 

per number... 50 


Complete sets, Vols. 1-39 (1884-1937) Inclusive . $109.00 

Double numbers:.(per double no.) .50 

These include Nos. 2-3 of Vol. 7; Nos. 1-2 and 3-4 of Vol. 8; 

Nos. 1-2 and 3-4 of Vol. 10; Nos. 7-8 of Vol. 24; Nos. 5-6 and 
7-8 of Vol. 25 and Nos. 8-9 of Vol. 36. 

Note: Nos. 1-4 of Vol. 9 and Nos. 1-4 of Vol. 19 (each of 
which were issued under one cover) are available only 
as complete volumes. Per volume-... 2.00 


A 20 PERCENT DISCOUNT WILL BE MADE TO MEMBERS 
AND SUBSCRIBERS ON ORDERS OF $10.00 OR OVER. 


Domestic shipments prepaid, foreign shipments f. o. b. Washington. 


(Make checks , drafts , etc . payable to the Entomological Society of Washington.) 


D. J. CAFFREY, 

Corresponding Secretary, 

Address: Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , 
Washington , D. C. 














CONTENTS 


BARBER, H. G.—A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE SUBFAMILY TRIA- 

TOMINAE (rEDUVIIDAE-HEMIPTERa) . .. 104 

BURNSIDE. C. E— SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF BACILLUS LARVAE IN CUL¬ 
TURE AFTER EXPOSURE TO LETHAL AGENTS ........... 107 

CRAWFORD, J. C.-A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THYSANOPTERA FROM 

GREENHOUSES. 109 

EWING, H. E.—TWO NEW GENERA AND ONE NEW SPECIES OF SIPHON- 

APTERA.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 93 

HALLOCK, HARDING C.—NEW SARCOPHAGINAE (dIPTERA) .. 95 

NOLAN, W. J.— SEX DETERMINATION IN THE HONEYBEE . 105 

SAYLOR, LAWRENCE W.—REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY ONCERINAE WITH 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS (COLEOPTERA : SCARABAEIDAe) . . 99 

,< a. \ ; , Z'i ■ >■■■ V y -; V ., 








VOL. 40 


R bcbi v aD 
JUN1 jgoo 

MAY, 193&S.0** , No. 5 

1 0T Agriculture 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



Published Monthly Except July, August and September 
by the 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., under 
Act of August 24, 1912. 


Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum on the 
rirst Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p. m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1938. 

Honorary President .L. O. Howard 

President . . ..... E. A. Back 

First Vice-President .R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President .. Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary ... . Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary ..D. J. Caffrey 

Treasurer ....H. E. Ewing 

Editor .. W. R. Walton 

Executive Committee . . . B. A. Porter, S. B. Fracker, N. E. McIndoo 
Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences .C. F. W. Muesebeck 


PROCEEDINGS 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society at 
Washington, D. C. Terms of subscription: Domestic, $4.00 per annum; 
foreign, $4.25 per annum; recent single numbers, 50 cents, foreign postage 
extra. All subscriptions are payable in advance. Remittances should be made 
payable to the Entomological Society of Washington. 

Authors will be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in which their 
articles appear at a charge of 25 cents per copy, or reprints of such articles, with¬ 
out covers, at the following rates, provided a statement of the number 
desired accompanies the manuscript: 



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Authors will be furnished gratis with not to exceed 2 text engravings of line 
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$1.00 per plate and 50 cents per text figure. Immediate publication may be 
obtained at author’s expense. All manuscripts should be sent to the 
editor. 













PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 MAY, 1938 No. 5 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW NORTH AMERICAN TRICHOPTERA. 

By Herbert H. Ross, 

Illinois State Natural History Survey , Urbana , III. 

Collections of caddis flies examined recently have included 
specimens of hitherto undescribed forms which show some new 
characters for the group. The following descriptions include 
the more interesting of these. I wish to express my gratitude to 
Dr. C. O. Mohr, Illinois State Natural History Survey, for 
assistance with the drawings. Holotypes are deposited in the 
Illinois Natural History Survey collection. 

Rhyacophila gemona, new species. 

Male. —Length 17 mm. Head, body, antennae, and mouth parts almost 
black, legs dark brown at base, grading to tawny at apex; wings without an 
obvious pattern, conspicuously mottled with medium brown and light gray. 
General structure typical for genus. Genitalia, fig. 1, most closely resembling 
those of acropedes Banks, differing in the dorso-ventrally compressed ninth 
segment and the curious tenth tergite. Ninth segment wide, collar-like and 
twice as wide as deep. Tenth tergite fitting into a concavity on the ninth, its 
base with a pair of dorsal projections forming a heart-shaped basal cavity, the 
apical portion produced into a wide, bifid process. Claspers long; the basal 
segment seen from lateral view slightly longer than the apical, with a constric¬ 
tion near middle, but seen from ventral view with a foot-like base at right 
angles to lateral portion; apical segment sinuate, its apex incurved and produced 
into a narrow lobe whose inner margin is beset with a cluster of black setae. 
Aedeagus composed of three parts: a sclerotized, cap-shaped base from the 
dorsum of which protrudes an elongate sclerotized tube somewhat heart-shaped 
at the base but rapidly tapering to a narrow tube; from the ventral part of the 
cap-like plate extend a pair of extensile membranous appendages bearing a 
“claw” of dense, sharp setae at apex. 

Holotype, male. —Razorhone Creek, Mt. Baker, Wash., July 21, 1936, H. H. 
Ross. 

Rhyacophila norcuta, new species. 

Male. —Length 11 mm. Head and body black; antennae, base of legs, and 
wings dark brown; apical portion of legs shading to tawny, front wings with 
scattered patches of light hair. General structure typical for genus. Genitalia, 
fig. 2, most closely resembling those of rotunda Banks, differing in the produced 
mesal portion of the tenth tergite, infolded dorso-mesal lobe of apical segment 






118 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 


of clasper and other characters. Ninth segment angulate where indented to 
receive clasper. Tenth tergite longer than wide, dorsal portion prolonged into 
a semi-truncate mesal lobe. Claspers deep; basal segment with apico-ventral 
corner produced considerably ventrad and joining the body of segment with a 
deep crease; apical segment much deeper than long, apical margin incised, 
ventral lobe produced, and lateral face with a very pronounced ridge extending 
from the base into the .ventral lobe; mesal side of segment with a large area 
folded over, entire segment somewhat boot-shaped. Aedeagus with a central 
sclerotized flap, produced at apex into a thin point; from the base arise a pair 
of extensile membranous arms, each with a semi-sclerotized flap at apex covered 
with a thin brush of stout bristles. 

Holotype , male. —Ilwaco, Wash., May 26, 1918, A. Spuler. 

Rhyacophila pellisa, new species. 

Male. —Length 8 mm. Body dark brown; antennae slightly lighter; legs 
luteous; wings uniformly infuscate with brown, with only a few inconspicuous 
lighter areas around apex. General structure typical for genus. Genitalia, 
fig. 3, resembling most closely those of atrata Banks and valuma Milne, differing 
in shape of tenth tergite and aedeagus. Tenth tergite incised on meson to form 
a V-shaped sclerite. Claspers with basal segment long and parallel-sided, 
approximately three times as long as wide; apical segment rhombic, its apical 
margin abruptly and deeply incised at dorsum so that apex of dorsal margin 
forms a short, overhanging hook. Aedeagus with a dorsal, sclerotized tube and a 
ventral spatula which has its base membranous and apex covered with a cluster 
of long, spiculate hair confined to dorsal and lateral surfaces; this apical brush is 
fusiform from all angles, not clavate as in valuma. 

Female. —Similar in size, color, and general structure to male. Apex of ab¬ 
domen drawn out into a narrow tube in which all the segments are cylindrical 
and unmodified. 

Holotype , male, and allotype , jemale.— Cascade Lodge, Rocky Mountain 
National Park, Colo., Aug. 2, 1931, H. C. Severin. Paratypes. —Same data, 
3 dV 7 $ . 

Dolophilus strotus, new species. 

Male. —Length 4.3 mm. Color uniform yellowish-brown with eyes black and 
pubescence ranging from tawny to dark brown. General structure typical for 
genus, Rj +3 undivided, abdominal sternites without ornamentation. Lack of 
tubercles or flaps on seventh and eighth sternites separates this species from 
shawnee Ross, its closest ally. Male genitalia as in fig. 6. Ninth segment widest 
in middle, tenth tergite and cerci set into a notch in its dorsum, Tepth tergite 
somewhat triangular, its apex narrowly truncate, its base indistinctly separated 
from either ninth tergite or cerci. Cerci finger-like, slightly shorter than tenth 
tergite, with a cluster of fine setae at apex. Claspers with basal segment 
narrowed towards apex, shorter and stockier than apical segment, which is 
slightly narrowed just beyond middle and expanded into a slightly spatulate 
apex. The inner face of this spatulate apex bears a brush of short, stout, black 
setae. 

Holotype , male. —Page, Okla., June 23, 1937, Standish-Kaiser. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 1 19 


Parapsyche almota, new species. 

Male. —■Length 13 mm. Head and body mottled with dark and light brown, 
antennae and legs tawny, wings purplish with abundant pale areas scattered 
over the entire front wing. General structure typical for genus. Genitalia, 
fig. 5, resembling very closely those of apicalis (Banks), differing in the dorsal 
production of the ninth tergite into a pair of high and declivous humps, in 
addition to differences in other parts of the genitalia. Tenth tergite divided 
into a pair of cylindrical, curved arms which almost meet apically, the base of 
each with a small patch of long setae. Claspers short and one-segmented, with a 
thumb-like process projecting from mesal side of ventral margin; clasper clothed 
with abundant setae but mesal process beset only with minute pore-like struc¬ 
tures. Aedeagus with a wide base and a constricted middle portion which is 
slightly expanded at apex; extreme apex with a large sclerotized hook curved 
ventrad. 

Female. —Length 14 mm. Color and general structure as in male. Eighth 
tergite regularly collar-like, without brushes of setae. Eighth sternite divided 
into two plates separated along the meson for their entire length and with the 
apico-mesal region evenly rounded and bearing an even, sparse row of setae 
from the apico-lateral corner to the middle of the mesal margin. Remainder 
of the genitalia similar in essential respects to Hydropsyche. 

Holotype , male. —Almota, Wash. Allotype, female. —Vancouver, B. C., July 
20, 1936, along Seymour Cr., H. H. Ross. 

Parapsyche cardis, new species. 

Male. —Length 14 mm. Body and wings mottled with light and dark shades 
of brown typical of other members of the genus. General structure typical for 
genus. Genitalia, fig. 4, resembling most closely those of elsis Milne, differing 
in the heart-shaped tenth tergite and shorter claspers. Ninth segment pro¬ 
duced into a dorsal hump. Tenth tergite short and wide, the apex turned 
ventrad, the dorsal view heart-shaped, tapering to a rounded point. Claspers 
short and very slightly sinuate, the dorsal margin rounding into the apical, the 
apico-ventral corner sharply angulate, with no vestige of a suture separating 
off an apical segment. Aedeagus with semicircular general outline, the base 
largest, the apex bearing a dorsal, thumb-like projection: from the apex protrudes 
a series of membranous folds containing internal sclerotized supports. 

Holotype , male. —Smokemont, N. C., June 14, 1935, H. H. Ross. 

HOMOPLECTRA, new genus. 

Characteristics. —Wing venation,'spur count, and structure of mouth parts 
typical for the family Hydropsychidae. It is most closely related to Diplectrona 
Banks but differs in the coalesced condition of Sc ; and Ri in both wings. An¬ 
tennae relatively short and robust. Posterior portion of dorsum of head with a 
high, raised “V” composed of a pair of sharp, short ridges diverging anteriorly, 
not quite meeting posteriorly. All wings with Sea joining Ri at base of stigmal 
region, the two immediately separating and diverging again. 

Genotype.—Homoplectra alseae n. sp. (original designation). 

The species Diplectrona nigripennis Banks belongs in this 
genus. 


120 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 


Homoplectra alseae, new species. 

Male. —Length 8.5 mm. Head, body, and base of legs black; antennae, apex 
of femora, tibiae, and tarsi golden yellow; wings almost black. General struc¬ 
ture as described for genus. Genitalia similar in general pattern to those of 
nigripennis (Banks), but differing in the more complicated structure of the 
aedeagus, fig. 7. Tenth tergite with a pair of dorsal horns. Claspers long and 
slender, with an indistinct suture separating off a button-like apical segment. 
Aedeagus consisting of a large bulb-like internal base from which arise the fol¬ 
lowing structures, numbered as in fig. 7: (1) a stout, curved dorsal prong sub¬ 
divided at apex, not projecting beyond body cavity; (2) a pair of sclerotized 
filaments arising just beneath; (3) a pair of sclerotized processes with a bulbous, 
sinuate base and narrow, tapering apex; (4) the rod-like apex of the aedeagus 
proper; and (5) a long, slender, sclerotized process below this whose apex is split 
into a pair of ribbon-like plates. 

Holotype , male. —Alsea Mountain, Benton County, Ore., May 3, 1936, 
H. A. Scullen. 

Hydropsyche amblis, new species. 

Male. —Length 10.5 mm. Head and thorax black, abdomen and appendages 
tawny, antennae with dark, dorsal V-marks on seven basal segments of flagellum, 
wings dark brown with very little pattern. General structure typical for alter- 
nans group, differing from tana Ross, its closest relative, in the long snout of 
the aedeagus and sessile, dorso-lateral spur of aedeagus. Genitalia, fig. 9, 
with tenth tergite produced into a sharp dorso-mesal hump and its apex divided 
into a pair of deep, thin, lateral processes which form a semicircle when seen 
from dorsal view. Claspers with apical segment short, its apex produced into a 
slight point. Aedeagus with base wide, forming a right angle with remainder; 
dorso-lateral process represented by a sessile spur which curves outward; apex 
produced into a thumb-like process bearing two pairs of setal pouches, the 
anterior pair opening through the apex, the posterior pair through the side-wall. 

Holotype , male. —Corvallis, Ore., June 6, 1935, G. Ferguson. 

Hydropsyche protis, new species. 

Male. —Length 8 mm. Head and body dark brown, appendages light brown; 
wings brown, apical portion with a row of light spots running from stigma to 
anal angle. General structure typical of alternans group, differing from amblis 
in the aedeagus, which does not extend beyond dorso-mesal plates. Genitalia, 
fig. 8, with tenth tergite hump-like, the hump subdivided into a pair of hairy, 
low, lateral lobes and a sharp, slightly higher, unclothed mesal lobe; apico- 
lateral processes finger-like and of moderate length. Claspers with apical seg¬ 
ment short, upper margin concave, apex slightly pointed. Aedeagus with the 
“bend” obtuse and the base large; dorso-lateral process represented by a 
sessile, out-turned spur; apex short, not extending beyond dorso-mesal plates 
and containing a double pouch of long, upturned setae. 

Female. —Robust and slightly longer than male, otherwise similar in size, 
color, and general structure. Plates of eighth sternite differing from other 
members of the alternans group in that they are not produced into a high lobe 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH,, VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 121 


but are almost identical with those of H. cuanis Ross, having the meso-apical 
corner almost quadrate. 

Holotype, male, and allotype, female. —Trout Creek, Utah, July 25, 1935, 
H. B. Stafford. 


Hydropsyche orris, new name. 

Hydropsyche cornuta Ross, Ill. St. Natural History Survey Bull., 21 (4) : p. 141, 
March, 1938. Preoccupied by H. cornuta Martynov, 1909. 

Mr. Mosely has kindly drawn my attention to the prior use 
of Martynov’s name. 

Limnephilus aretto, new species. 

Male. —Length 13 mm. Color brown, spines on legs black, and wings flecked 
with lighter and darker brown spots. General structure, including chaetotaxy 
of head, typical of subgenus Anabolina. Front basitarsus short and stocky, 
only half length of succeeding segment. F.ighth tergite with a small, meso- 
apical projection covered with a brush of short, black setae. 

Male genitalia, fig. 11 , most closely resembling those of occidentalis Banks, 
but markedly different in the short, stocky, tenth tergite. Ninth segment 
reduced to a narrow collar dorsally, the ventral portion enlarged and somewhat 
bulbous. Plates of tenth tergite with a wide base and a short mesal process 
which is slightly recurved at the apex. Cerci without teeth or projections 
on mesal surface. Claspers short, stocky and truncate, and only indistinctly 
separated from ninth sternite. Aedeagus with central portion simple and with 
lateral arms as in fig. 11 A, the apex produced into a long point with a stout spur 
at its base. 

Holotype, male. —Pullman, Wash., C. V. Piper. 

Stenophylax indiana, new species. 

Male.— Length 17 mm. Body and appendages faun colored, the wings with a 
small dark spot in base of cell R 4 and around M just before it branches. General 
characteristics typical for subgenus, the spur count 1 - 2 - 2 , the leg spines black. 

Genitalia, fig. 10, most closely approaching subfaciatus (Say), differing most 
conspicuously in the very stocky aedeagus. F.ighth tergite with the apico- 
mesal portion convex and bearing a pair of sparse brushes of small, dark setae; 
there is no concavity between the two brushes but a slight one laterad of each. 
Tenth tergite short, each half divided into a short, mesal point and a small, 
lateral hump. Cerci large, extending a considerable distance beyond apex of 
tenth tergite. Claspers held at right angles to longitudinal axis; base pad-like 
with abundant long setae, apex produced into a concave sclerotized plate whose 
mesal side is produced into a long, sharp point. Aedeagus short and stocky, 
apical portion extremely constricted just beyond base, apex narrowed to form 
a slightly constricted tube; lateral processes with base enlarged and vasiform, 
apical portion consisting of a stout spine sharply upturned at end. 

Female. —Length 19 mm. Color and general structure as for male. No 
satisfactory characters have yet been found to distinguish it from females of 
subfaciatus. 


122 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 


Holotype, male. —Rogers, Ind., October 7, 1937, Ross & Burks. Allotype , 
female. —Athens, Ohio, September 23, 1933, W. C. Stehr. Paratypes. —Same 
data as allotype: Sept. 23, 1933, 1 $ ; September 15, 1933, Id”; September 25, 
1933, Id”; September 30, 1931, lcf. 

Micrasema bactro, new species. 

Male. —Length 6 mm. Color black the appendages shading to brownish 
General structure typical for genus. Male genitalia, fig. 12, indicating a similarity 
to the rusticum group, differing markedly, however, in the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth tergites, which are cut away dorsally so that the two sides are connected 
only by a narrow sclerotized bridge, fig. 12A. Cerci closely appressed at base, 
and their bases fused on the meson. Tenth tergite wide at base, narrowing to a 
rounded apex, and bearing dorsally a single wart with one or two scattered 
setae. Claspers clavate, the upper margin subdivided into a pair of setiferous, 
thumb-like processes, the apex broad and almost truncate, wider than base; 
the inner surface of the whole strongly concave. 

Holotype , male. —Strawberry Camp, Grant County, Ore., July 17, 1936, 
5700 ft. elevation, R. E. Reider. 

Explanation of Plates 12 and 13. 

Male genitalia of Trichoptera. 

Fig. 1. Rhyacophila gemona; 1A, tenth tergite, dorsal view. 

Fig. 2. Rhyacophila norcuta; 2A, ninth and tenth tergites, dorsal view. 

Fig. 3. Rhyacophila pellisa , apical segment of clasper; 3A, tenth tergite, 

lateral view; 3B, tenth tergite, dorsal view; 3C, ventral lobe of 
aedeagus, dorsal view; 3D, aedeagus, lateral view. 

Fig. 4. Parapsyche cardis; 4A, tenth tergite, dorsal view. 

Fig. 5. Parapsyche almota; 5A, tenth tergite, dorsal view. 

Fig. 6. Dolophilus strutus; 6A, ninth and tenth tergites, dorsal view. 

Fig. 7. Homoplectra alseae. 

Fig. 8. Hydropsyche protis; 8A, aedeagus. 

Fig. 9. Hydropsyche ambiis; 9A, aedeagus; 9B, tenth tergite, dorsal view. 

Fig. 10. Stenophylax Indiana , aedeagus; 10A, clasper, caudal view; 10 B, ninth 
and tenth tergites, dorsal view; 10C, eighth tergite, dorsal view. 

Fig. 11. Limnephilus aretto; 11 A, aedeagus. 

Fig. 12. Micrasema bactro; 12A, apex of abdomen, dorsal view. 

Abbreviations. 

6T, 7T. . .10T—Sixth to tenth tergites, respectively. 

9s—Ninth sternite. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 PLATE 12 



[ 123 ] 




































PLATE 13 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 



[ 124 ] 
































PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 125 


TWO NEW GENERA OF MYRMELEONIDAE. 

By Nathan Banks. 

Among the ant-lion flies of the National Museum collection 
I have found two new genera. One fine and large species from 
South America is somewhat like the rare Ripalda insignis Rbr., 
but differs at once in the strongly sinuate hind margin of the 
front wings. 

The other from Africa, from which such a great number of 
genera have been made in recent years, is no less striking than 
the Neotropical form; it has two definite characters, unusual in 
African species, no tibial spurs, and a double series of costal 
cells. 


CAPOPHANES, gen. nov. 

Belonging to the Macronemurini; no tibial spurs; the costal area of front 
wings with two series of cells from near the base to or beyond the middle. One 
cross-vein in hind wing before the radial sector, latter arising a little before the 
cubital fork; in fore wing several cross-veins before radial sector, latter arising 
plainly beyond cubital fork; several of the cross-veins before radial sector 
connected, and many of those in the area above the first anal vein. The second 
anal usually connected to third anal for a short distance, third anal forked. 

Wings rather short and moderately broad, not broadened toward the tips, 
which are not acute; no distinct banksian lines; angle of cubitus and cubital 
fork, moderately wide. Legs not very stout, a little stouter than in Gymnoleon; 
tarsi long, first joint longer than fifth, second somewhat lengthened. Abdomen 
shorter than hind wings. 



Capophanes conspersa; a , part of fore wing; b , hind tarsus; c, anal veins of fore¬ 
wing of two specimens. 












126 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5 , MAY, 1938 


Of the African genera without spurs Banksius belongs to the 
Dendroleonini (a small Cymothales ), Obus belongs to the Gamini, 
Gibrella and Gymnoleon to the Macronemurini, but none of these 
genera have a two-celled costal area. 

Capophanes conspersa, sp. nov. 

Face pale; a dark interantennal mark, reaching below as a band across, and 
above to the front of the vertex, back of vertex also dark, thus leaving but one 
pale spot each side on vertex; palpi pale, last joint enlarged and dark. Pronotum 
almost as long as broad, sides almost parallel, with a broad dark median stripe, 
faintly divided with gray, a dark lateral stripe, and some dark dots in the pale 
pink area between; hair above short and black; long, curved white hairs on 
sides. Mesonotum dark, a pale spot each side on anterior lobe, two narrow 
pale stripes, each side, and two similar stripes on the mesoscutellum, and its 
lateral corners pale; metanotum wholly dark; pleura dark, with pale areas, and 
much long white hair. Abdomen black, a little pale at tip, hair above very 
short and black, that below scarcely longer. 

Legs yellowish brown, tarsi darker, with much white hair, very long on femora, 
bristles mostly black. 

Forewings with nearly parallel sides for some distance; venation black and 
white, longitudinal veins streaked with dark, the radius almost wholly dark; 
cross-veins sometimes wholly dark, sometimes only dotted with dark; stigma 
pale, dark at base, and a faint cloud at end of the anal vein and one at rhegma; 
costal margin pale, outer margin dark, dotted with pale, hind margin dark; 
almost every cell contains a small dark cloud or umbra. 

In the hind wing the subcosta is spotted with dark, the medius and first anal 
are almost wholly pale, the cubitus and radius almost wholly black, and the 
cubitus somewhat irregularly bordered with black, and a large dark cloud from 
the rhegma out, the outer veinlets being margined with dark. 

In the fore wing the venation is very dense, and the cross-veins are often 
irregular or crooked, the broad costal area for half way or more divided by 
oblique connecting veinlets; a few post stigmal cross-veins; five cross-veins 
before radial sector, several of them connected, the first anal is curved a little 
downward and the area above it mostly two-celled; seven branches of radial 
sector, six branches of anal to margin, one or two cross-veins from anal to 
cubital fork. 

Length of fore wing 26 mm., width 6 mm. 

Length of hind wing 22 mm., width 5.5 mm. 

From Mt. Brukkaros, S. W. Africa, 15 Sept., 28 Jan., and Tses, S. W. Africa, 
20 May. 

Type. —No. 52353, U. S. National Museum. 

Paratypes in U. S. National Museum and Museum of Com¬ 
parative Zoology. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 127 


ARAUCALEON, gen. nov. 

Belongs to the Glenurini. In the fore wing the second anal vein runs up close 
to the first, connected to the first by an oblique vein, then bends down to unite 
with the third anal for a long distance, one of them being forked; basal cubital 
fork with one cross-vein. Fore wings broad near the tip, hind margin strongly 
bisinuate; radial sector arises a little before the cubital fork, about nine cross¬ 
veins before the radial sector; the anal vein before connecting to cubital fork 
bends down and then up; costal area mostly narrow, with many simple veinlets, 
in stigmal area the costal area is greatly broadened, and here there is a con¬ 
necting series, near to the subcosta; apical field very densely veined; no trace of 
banksian lines. 

Hind wings a little longer than front pair, strongly falcate at tip, much as in 
Ripalda , much narrowed at base; three cross-veins before radial sector; no 
definite fork to cubitus; first anal ending before radial sector. 

Legs very slender, sense-hair at base of front femur not one-third of femur; 
spurs long, equal about two joints, a little curved near tip; basal tarsal joint 
about equal to fifth; pronotum much longer than broad; antennae long and but 
slightly clavate. 


This striking form is related to Ripalda insignis Rbr. Navas 
has published some notes on the broken type; the legs, head, 
pronotum and shape of hind wings are much as in Araucaleon, 
but the hind margin of the front wings is sufficient to distinguish 
the latter genus; and there are doubtless minor details; the apical 
field is probably not nearly so densely veined, and Ramburs’ 
figure does not show the swollen costal area near stigma. 



128 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 


Araucaleon inca, sp. nov. 

Head pale; a dark band above antennae, and a median spot below, vertex 
with an elongate dark spot each side near the middle, the anterior end of which 
reaches to the eye; palpi pale, antennae mostly dark brown, a broad pale band 
(about six joints) before the swollen tip; pronotum with a broad black band 
each side, leaving a narrow pale stripe between, and broad pale lateral stripes, 
hair above mostly long and black; rest of notum mostly black, anterior lobe of 
mesonotum with two pale spots, behind is a median pale stripe, and a lateral 
stripe each side above front wings; pleura mostly pale, a dark stripe just above 
coxae, latter partly dark; legs pale, but most of mid and hind femora dark, and 
base and tips of all tibiae dark, as well as the tips of the tarsal joints; front 
coxae with some long white hairs, elsewhere the hair and bristles are mostly 
black; abdomen brown above, pale beneath, with short black hair; the abdomen 
is much shorter than the hind wings. 

Apical part of both wings dull milky white, elsewhere hyaline with brown 
spots and dots. 

Fore wings with three irregular brown spots along the radius and subcosta, 
and some spots below the stigma, the enlarged costal area mostly brown, and a 
small white stigmal spot at its lower outer corner. There are four or five spots 
along branches of the anal vein, a brown streak obliquely up from end of cubital 
fork, and a large broad area along the outer margin to the whitish tip; through¬ 
out the middle area are various small brown spots; the veins (except in brown 
areas) are white. 

In hind wings there is a large brown spot before the whitish tip, narrow above, 
but elongate on hind margin, a brown spot on hind margin at widest part of 
wing, another above it on cubitus and medius, and another above that on the 
radius, a few other faint small brown spots; veins mostly white. 

In fore wings there are one or two cross-veins before radial sector connected, 



Araucaleon inca; hind border of fore wing; a , near base; £, near middle. 





PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 129 


and several between cubitus and anal; about ten branches of radial sector; most 
of the branches of anal are forked one or more times; above the medius and out 
to the stigmal area nearly all the cells are much higher than long. 

In hind wings nine branches of radial sector, the anal does not reach out as 
far as the origin of the radial sector, and there are ten or twelve short simple 
branches of cubitus before there begins the series of connecting veinlets; none 
of these branches looks like a cubital fork. 

Length of fore wing 40 mm., width 11 mm. 

Length of hind wing 44 mm., width 8 mm. 

From Huachi, Bolivia, Sept. 1925. 

Type. —No. 52694, U. S. National Museum. 


A NEW PHYLLOPHAGA FROM NEVADA (COLEOPTERA: 
SCARABAEIDAE). 

By Lawrence W. Saylor, 

Bureau of Biological Survey , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The following new species comes from an interesting region 
of the West, and has been awaiting description for some time. 






2b 



lb 


Explanation of Text Figures. 

Figure 1. Phyllophaga sociatus (Horn). Fig. 2. Phyllophaga stohleri Saylor. 

a. Ventral view of male genitalia. 

b. Side view of idem. 

c. Side view of aedeagus. 







130 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 


Phyllophaga stohleri Saylor, new species 

Male .—Rufous to rufocastaneous above, head and thorax strongly shining, 
elytra and part of the pygidium strongly pruinose. Head with front very 
rugosely and coarsely, contiguously punctured, with short erect yellowish hairs; 
clypeal suture subarcuate, nearly subtruncate at middle, not impressed; clypeus 
short, very broad, coarsely densely shallowly punctured, apex a very little 
reflexed and center of apex slightly, shallowly emarginate, angles broadly 
rounded. Antennae 9-segmented, club ovate and slightly shorter than funicle. 
Thorax with sides very coarsely crenate in front of the lateral dilation and finely 
crenulate behind the latter; hind angles evident but very obtuse, front angles 
sharp but obtuse, basal and front margins entire and thickened, especially the 
latter; disc glabrous but all margins with very long, dense yellowish hair, that 
of the lateral margins the longest; disc coarsely punctured, those at center of 
disc separated by one to two times their diameters, denser at sides and base, 
much denser along frontal margin, and less dense each side of median discal 
area. Elytra without obvious striae except sutural and these last widest at 
middle, noticeably tapering towards each end, and entirely obsolescent just 
before apex of elytra; surface of disc finely sparsely punctured, glabrous, side 
margins of elytra with long fine hairs. Pygidium pruinose in basal two-thirds, 
apical third shining; disc finely, very densely punctured, with dense short 
erect hair. Abdomen polished at middle, very finely sparsely punctured; fifth 
segment at middle densely finely punctured, declivious just before apical margin, 
with a f^w short erect hairs; sixth segment nearly as long as fifth, greatly trans¬ 
versely flattened, with sparse short, erect hair. Front tibiae tridentate, tarsi 
with small sharp tooth at inner apex of segments one to three. Hind tarsi 
about as long as their tibiae. All tarsal claws with a small acute tooth just 
above the middle. Hind femora very densely finely punctured with dense, 
erect long hair. Meso- and metasternum with dense, long, yellowish-white 
Hair. Hind spurs free. 

Female .—Exactly similar to male except: the antennal club is a little shorter, 
and the abdomen is slightly convex, polished, with the fifth and sixth segments 
nearly on the same plane, the fifth segment being one-third longer than the 
sixth. Length 12.5 to 14.5 mm. Width 6.5 to 8.0 mm. 

The Holotype male and Allotype female, also one Paratype 
male, are from the White Rock Springs, Nye County, Nevada, 
collected in May, 1931, by Dr. R. Stohler, who presented the 
specimens to the author. The holotype and allotype will be 
deposited in the collections of the U. S. National Museum, 
while the male paratype remains in the author’s collection. 

The present new species is closely related only to Phyllo¬ 
phaga sociatus (Horn) and the following key, as well as the very 
different male genitalia, will assist in separating the two species: 

Pygidium of both sexes usually in great part pruinose and with the 
punctures very close together and almost touching, the hair very 
dense, short ana erect; sutural striae of elytra widest at middle, 
noticeably narrower towards base and apices of elytra ... stohleri 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 131 


Pygidium of both sexes usually without pruinosity, the punctures com¬ 
monly separated by 2 to 3 times their diameters, the sparse hair 
much finer than in above species and subprocumbent; sutural striae 
of elytra nearly the same width throughout, except immediately 
adjacent to the scutellum...... ...sociatus 

P. sociatus has heretofore been included in Listrochelus by 
most authors, but during the studies of Dr. E. A. Chapin and 
the author in a forthcoming revision of the subgenus Listrochelus , 
we have found it necessary to remove this species from the 
latter. The specimens of P. sociatus used by the author for 
comparison herein had been compared with the type by Dr. 
Chapin in 1934. 


MINUTES OF THE 491ST REGULAR MEETING OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 491st meeting of the Society was held at 8 p. m., Thursday, April 7, 1938, 
in Room 43 of the National Museum. Vice-President Snodgrass presided and 
32 members and 9 visitors were present. The minutes of the previous meeting 
were read and approved. 

The following people, whose applications had been approved by the Executive 
Committee, were recommended by F. W. Poos for membership in the Society 
and unanimously elected: 

Floyd Andre, Division of Insect Identification, Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, Washington, D. C. 

W. V. King, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Orlando, Florida. 

H. H. Stage, Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals, Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Portland, Oregon. 

H. E. Ewing called attention to the recent interest in the speed of insects 
during flight and mentioned some important literature containing pertinent 
examples of insects whose speed had been recorded by scientific methods. 

E. N. Cory presented a note concerning a reference discovered in some 
historical entomological files suggesting the use of poisonous gas in capital 
punishment. 

The regular program was in the form of a symposium on cotton insects. The 
first talk was by R. W. Harned, entitled “Work of the Division of Cotton 
Insect Investigation.” 

Dr. Harned discussed briefly the organization and work of the Division of 
Cotton Insect Investigations. There are four projects: boll weevil, pink boll- 
worm, thurberia weevil, and miscellaneous cotton insect investigations. The 
latter includes the bollworm, cotton leaf worm, cotton flea hopper, tarnished 
plant bug and other mirids; stink bugs, aphids, thrips and other insects in¬ 
jurious to cotton. The Division maintains headquarters at Washington and has 
eleven field stations in cooperation with the State Agricultural Experiment 
Stations at Florence, S. C.; Tifton, Ga.; Gainesville, Fla.; State College and 
Stoneville, Miss.; Tallulah, La.: College Station, Port Lavaca, and Presidio, 




132 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY, 1938 


Texas; Tucson and Mesa, Arizona. The damage caused to cotton by pentato- 
mids and mirids, especially in Arizona and Texas, was discussed and the recent 
experiments indicate that this damage may be reduced by dusting the cotton 
fields with mixtures of sulphur and calcium arsenate and sulphur and paris 
green. 

Discussion followed by Muesebeck, Loftin, Wood, Poos, Becker and Fuller. 

The second talk, “Cotton insect investigations in Puerto Rico,” was pre¬ 
sented by L. C. Fife. 

The nature and extent of injury of the major pests of Sea Island cotton in 
Puerto Rico were discussed. These included the following species: Pink boll- 
worm, cotton leafworm, plant bugs, scale insects, mealybugs, cotton aphis, 
thrips, leaf and snout-beetles, etc. The problems of controlling these pests were 
summarized as follows: Since the standard of living is generally low, farmers 
do not have money for the purchase of insecticides for the control of injurious 
insects. The ecological approach, therefore, seems most desirable, i. e., to 
determine the environmental conditions that make it possible for the pest to 
maintain a high population density from year to year. We then must try to 
alter the insect’s environment in order to prevent it from becoming abundant. 
The methods indicated were as follows: Uniform seasons of cotton production, 
eradication of favorable alternate host plants, a uniform dead season of at least 
three months in duration, seed treatment, destruction of crop remnants im¬ 
mediately after the harvest, early varieties, and the elimination of companion 
cropping between cotton and other crops. 

U. C. Loftin addressed the Society on “Pink Boll Worm investigations.” 

Mr. Loftin discussed the history of the distribution and rapid spread of the 
pink bollworm from its original home in southern Asia to all of the major cotton 
countries of the world. The pink bollworm is particularly adapted to spread 
through commerce because long cycle or resting stage larvae are formed within 
cotton seed which may remain quiescent for over two years and transform to 
adults when moisture conditions become favorable. Collections of pink boll¬ 
worm moths on airplane traps at 3,000 feet elevation and on tanglefoot screens 
near the ground, the infestations in trap plantings of cotton isolated 25 to 65 
miles from other infestations in four of the five years, the direction of the wind, 
and the correlation between the total wind movement during September in the 
heavily infested Laguna section of Mexico and the increase in population in 
western Texas, all indicate that the moths fly or are involuntarily carried by the 
wind for long distances. 

Busck, Cory, Becker, Harned and Ditman discussed Mr. Loftin’s paper. 

The last talk of the regular program was by B. D. Burks, entitled “Some 
chalcidoid parasites of cotton insects.” Dr. Burks stated that with the excep¬ 
tion of the hemipterous pests, all cotton insects are attacked by some species of 
chalcidoid parasites. None of these chalcidoids is, however, the most important 
parasite of any given cotton pest. Occasionally, in restricted areas, these 
parasites are sufficiently numerous to be important factors in controlling cotton 
insects, but due to the fact that many of them are or may be secondary para¬ 
sites, it is necessary to distinguish the species carefully. Brief comments were 
made by Gurney. 

Mr. Cushman spoke informally of the early work on cotton insects conducted 
by the Bureau of Entomology and of many personal recollections of entomolo¬ 
gists and other people associated with him in Texas during the period 1906-1909. 

Upon invitation from Mr. Snodgrass, the Rev. Edward Guedet of Napa, Cal., 
spoke briefly of his work with the Lepidoptera and of his pleasant and profitable 
visit at the Museum for the purpose of identifying his collection. 

J. V. Schaffner, Jr., of New Haven, was introduced to the Society and made 
a few remarks. 

Adjournment at 10.00 p. m. Ashley B. Gurney, 

Recording Secretary. 


Actual date of ■publication , May 27 , 1938. 



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CONTENTS 


BANKS, NATHAN—TWO NEW GENERA OF MYRMELEONIDAE .. 125 

ROSS, HERBERT H.—DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW NORTH AMERICAN TRICHOPTERA . 117 
SAYLOR, LAWRENCE W.—NEW PHYLLOPHAGA FROM NEVADA (cOLEOPTERA*. 

scarabaeidae) .... 129 




JUNE, 1938 



JUNE, 1938 No. 6 

PROCEEDINGS MN28 v * " 


OF THE 






ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 




Published Monthly Except July, August and September 
by the 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., under 
Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 


OF WASHINGTON 

Organized Mai?.ch 12 , 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum on the 
rirst Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p. m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
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OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1938. 

Honorary President . L. O. Howard 

President . E. A. Back 

First Vice-President . R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President . Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary . Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary . D. J. Caffrey 

Treasurer . H. E. Ewing 

Editor . W. R. Walton 

Executive Committee . . . B. A. Porter, S. B. Fracker, N. E. McIndoo 
Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences . C. F. W. Muesebeck 


PROCEEDINGS 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 JUNE, 1938 No. 6 


THE NORTH AMERICAN EMPOASCAN LEAFHOPPERS OF THE 
ASPERSA GROUP (HOMOPTERA-CICADELLIDAE). 

By P. W. Oman, 

Division oj Insect Identification , 
and 

Nancy H. Wheeler, 

Division of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

In the course of examination of a considerable amount of 
accumulated leafhopper material belonging to the genus 
Empoasca , there were found a large number of specimens super¬ 
ficially resembling Empoasca aspersa Gillette and Baker. 
Upon preparation and examination of the internal male genitalia 
of these specimens, 17 different species were segregated. Since 
but 4 species belonging to the aspersa group have been 
described from North America, 1 of these from the female sex 
only, and since further studies have shown that E. aspersa 
G. & B. has been commonly misidentified, the need for a critical 
study of the species involved in this complex is apparent. 

The members of the aspersa group range from slightly less to 
slightly more than 3 millimeters in length, and have the crown 
bluntly rounded and relatively broad although not parallel 
margined. The color is greenish white to yellowish green, 
usually more or less mottled with fuscous, producing in most 
species a mosaic appearance. Although distinct from other 
members of the genus in color pattern and external characters, 
these species are, in most cases, as difficult to distinguish from 
one another as those of the fabae group, and the characters of 
the internal male genital structures must be relied upon for 
accurate determination. 

The aspersa group belongs in the subgenus Hebata DeLong, 
and its relation to the typical members of that subgenus is 
indicated by vastitatis , n. sp., which is somewhat intermediate 
in character between E. aspersa and E. nigra Gillette and 
Baker, the type of Hebata. 

The species treated in this paper are all from the western part 
of the United States, although some of these or related species 
probably occur in adjacent portions of Mexico and Canada. 






134 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 

In distribution the group appears to be limited to the Artemisia 
belt, and the constant association of the various species with 
species of Artemisia suggests that the plants of that genus are 
their normal hosts. 

The drawings included in this paper all show approximately 
the same enlargement and were made on coordinate paper with 
the aid of a micrometer disk ruled in squares and placed in the 
ocular of a binocular microscope. Since the genital capsules of 
members of the group are somewhat membranous and conse¬ 
quently subject to considerable variation in shape, they have 
little taxonomic value and are illustrated in outline by broken 
lines. The more constant and taxonomically important internal 
structures are shown by solid lines in most cases. The length of 
the sternal apodemes is given in terms of the abdominal seg¬ 
ments, which, when the abdomen has been treated with caustic 
potash, are usually relaxed and elongated beyond the normal 
condition, with the result that such measurements are only 
relative. The size and shape of the sternal apodemes are 
relatively constant, and, as indicated by Poos, 1 are often of 
considerable aid in separating species. Three illustrations of 
each species are presented, namely, a lateral view of the male 
genital capsule, a ventral view of the male genital capsule, and a 
ventral view of the sternal apodemes of the male. Since these 
drawings are arranged on the plates from left to right in the 
order mentioned, the plates need no explanation. 

No satisfactory characters have been found for the separation 
of the females of this group with che exception of vastitatis , 
which may be distinguished by the lack of the fuscous mottling 
on the fore wings, and medora and vermispina, the females of 
which have a pair of rounded emarginations in the posterior 
margin of the seventh sternite. The following key to the males 
is purely artificial and is included only in order to emphasize 
the more important structures used for the separation of species 
in the group. 

Key to the Species of the Aspersa Group (Males). 

1. Fore wings without fuscous mottling. Sternal apodemes large 

and unpigmented .-... 1 . vastitatis , n. sp. 

Fore wings mottled with fuscous. Sternal apodemes either 

small or pigmented....:.......2 

2 (1). Lateral process, in lateral view, abruptly narrowed from dorso- 
cephalic margin just before tip, and terminating in a slender, 
curved, fingerlike process____2. medora DeL. 

Lateral process, i n lateral view, not abruptly narrowed from 

dorso-cephalic margin.........3 

1 Poos, F. W. Four new species of Empoasca (Homoptera : Cicadellidae). 
Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 35 : 174, 1933. 







PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 135 


3 (2). Lateral process, in lateral view, distinctly broadened just before 

apex........4 

Lateral process, in lateral view, not distinctly broadened just 

before apex (usually tapering gradually to a pointed tip)_7 

4 (3). Dorsal spine long, slender, and sinuately curved_ 

3. vermispina , n. sp. 

Dorsal spine not long and slender...............5 

5 (4). Dorsal spine somewhat boot-shaped in lateral view.____ 

4. aspersa G. & B. 

Dorsal spine not at all boot-shaped in lateral view_6 

6 (5). Lateral process extending first caudad, then bent abruptly dorso- 

caudad, with distal portion directed caudad. Dorsal spine 

blunt...........12. pelecana , n. sp. 

Lateral process extending dorso-caudad from base, distal portion 
directed caudad. Dorsal spine pointed...16. xerophila , n. sp. 

7 (3). Lateral process, in lateral view, with a narrow incision in the 

caudo-ventral side about the middle..5. neaspersa , n. sp. 

Lateral process without an incision.........8 

8 (7). Dorsal spine long, slender, and spirally curved ...13, varaspina , n. sp. 

Dorsal spine not spirally curved (usually short and relatively 
stout).......-.....9 

9 (8). Dorsal spine with a broad, blunt lobelike protuberance directed 

downward from the caudal margin basally.14. spiculata , n. sp. 

Dorsal spine simple___10 

10 (9). Lateral process with a shallow, rounded, median emargination on 

the dorsal margin.........11 

Lateral process without a median emargination dorsally__...12 

11 (10). Distal portion of lateral process, in ventral view, strongly 

curved mesad.....8. indenta , n. sp. 

Distal portion of lateral process not curved mesad.... 

15. ensiformis, n. sp. 

12 (10). Lateral process, in ventral view, with margins nearly parallel or 

gradually converging on distal half_____13 

Lateral process, in ventral view, with margins not nearly parallel 

on distal half, but irregularly converging and diverging___15 

13 (12). Lateral process with apex curved mesad....6. similis DeL. & D. 

Lateral process with apex not curved mesad____14 

14 (13). Distal third of lateral process, in lateral view, distinctly narrower 

than middle portion....'......11. amblacantha , n. sp. 

Distal third of lateral process, in lateral view, not distinctly 
narrower than middle portion....7. decora DeL. & D. 

15 (12). Dorsal spine, in lateral view, short and strongly curved... 

10. sinuata , n. sp. 

Dorsal spine not strongly curved.... .16 

16 (15). Lateral process, in lateral view, subangularly bent near base_ 

9. calyxa , n. sp. 

Lateral process, in lateral view, curved but not subangularly 
bent . .17. fuscoviridis, n. sp. 





























136 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6 , JUNE, 1938 


1. Empoasca vastitatis, n. sp. 

Somewhat intermediate in character between the nigra group and the aspersa 
group, but placed with the latter because of its larger size and general habitus. 
Distinguishable from other species of the aspersa group by the absence of smoky 
mottling on the fore wings. Length 3-3.25 mm. 

External characters. —General form distinctly more robust than in aspersa , 
crown broad but slightly produced medially. Color uniformly greenish white 
with greenish-yellow mottling on head and pronotum; fore wing hyaline apically, 
veins obscure except in hyaline area. Posterior margin of seventh sternite of 
female produced and broadly rounded. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 14.) Lateral process long and slender, with 
sides parallel to near pointed apex, distal portion slightly sinuate in both lateral 
and ventral views. Style long, relatively broad, with tip bent laterad. Dorsal 
Spine broad basally, strongly curved first caudad, then ventrad and cephalad, 
broadly indented on central caudal margin and faintly serrate along caudo- 
ventral margin, with a pointed, fingerlike projection extending ventrad and 
mesad from cephalic margin. Aedeagus slender distally, portion for muscular 
attachment at nearly right angles to shaft. Sternal apodemes large and sack¬ 
like, rounded apically and reaching almost to base of fifth segment. 

Holotype male, allotype female, and one male and five female paratypes 
from White Sands, N. Mex., June 7, 1933 (Oman). Type, U. S. National 
Museum No. 51619. 


2. Empoasca medora DeLong. 

Empoasca medora DeLong, Ohio Jour. Sci. 32(4) : 397, 1932. 

A pale, mottled, relatively robust species with the lateral process terminating 
in a slender, crooked, fingerlike projection. Length 3 mm. 

External characters. —General color pale greenish white, smoky markings on 
fore wings faint. Seventh sternite of female long, posterior margin with a 
narrow, rounded emargination on each side of a broad, shallowly notched median 
lobe. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 14.) Lateral process stout, curved upward in 
lateral view, becoming stouter distally, abruptly narrowed and truncated from 
dorso-cephalic margin near tip, remainder slender, tapering, and slightly sinu¬ 
ate; sides in ventral view comparatively straight and nearly parallel margined, 
broader distally and terminating in a crooked, pointed projection. Dorsal 
spine stout, slightly curved cephalad and bluntly pointed. Aedeagus slender. 
Sternal apodemes fuscous, rounded apically and extending almost to base of 
fifth segment. 

Originally described from five females from Medora, N. Dak. (Ball). The 
male of this species is here described and figured for the first time, the descrip¬ 
tion and figures being based on a male from McCone County, Mont., July 27, 
1927, E27-124 (no collector). Other specimens at hand are from Billings, 
Custer, Helena, and Sanders, Mont, (no collector); Lusk, north of Lusk, Pierre, 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 137 

and Wall, S. Dak. (Oman); and Cross Mountain, Colo. (Knowlton). Type in 
the collection of E. D. Ball. 

3. Empoasca vermispina, n. sp. 

Superficially identical with medora but with a long, slender, sinuately curved 
dorsal spine. Length 3 mm. 

External characters. —Head, pronotum, and scutellum pale greenish white, 
irregularly marked with pale greenish yellow; fuscous markings on fore wings 
faint, veins of fore wings greenish white and usually distinct. Seventh sternite 
of female like that of medora but with emarginations of posterior margin much 
broader and median lobe more produced and rounded. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 14.) Lateral process curved upward in lateral 
view, enlarged just before apex; in ventral view with a distinct bulge on inner 
margin near apex, beyond this curved mesad. Style long and slender, with 
apex bent laterad. Dorsal Spine long and sinuately curved, relatively broad 
basally but abruptly narrowed from cephalic margin, tip bluntly pointed. 
Aedeagus broad distally in lateral view. Sternal apodemes fuscous, compara¬ 
tively long and slender, converging distally and extending to middle of fifth 
segment. 

Holotype male, allotype female, and 4 male and 24 female paratypes from 
Macdoel, Calif., July 1, 1935 (Oman). Type, U. S. National Museum No. 
51620. Four paratypes deposited in collection of the entomological laboratory, 
Arlington Experiment Farm, Arlington, Va. 

4. Empoasca aspersa Gillette and Baker. 

Empoasca aspersa Gillette and Baker, Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 31 : 107, 1895. 

A pale, greenish white species with greenish yellow marks on the head and 
pronotum and the fore wings faintly mottled with fuscous. Dorsal spine 
somewhat boot-shaped in lateral view. Length 2.7-3 mm. 

External characters. —Seventh sternite of female with posterior margin pro¬ 
duced and shallowly notched medially and with a shallow, rounded emargina- 
tion near each lateral angle. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 14.) Lateral process in lateral view curved 
slightly dorsad, distinctly broader just basad of pointed apex, which is directed 
caudad; in ventral view with inner margin of apical third sinuate and broadly 
concave. Dorsal spine broad, terminating in a pointed toelike projection which 
is directed ventrad and cephalad,'entire spine somewhat boot-shaped in outline. 
Aedeagus broad distally, shaft short and stout. Sternal apodemes broad, 
fuscous distally, and extending beyond base of fourth segment. 


The original description of aspersa was based upon six females 
and two males from Colorado, and of this material apparently 
only four females and one male, now in the collection of the 
Colorado State College, are extant. These five specimens have 
been examined through the courtesy of Dr. M. T. James, and 
the male from Steamboat Springs, Colo., July 12, 1894 (Baker), 


138 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6 , JUNE, 1938 


labeled “Colo. 1687,” 2 is designated lectotype. The identity 
of the female specimens is uncertain. 

This is not the same species as that described and figured by 
DeLong 3 in 1931. The specimen in the National Museum which 
DeLong refers to as type is a female collected at Ft. Collins, 
Colo., in September, on Chrysothamnus (Baker), but is not one 
of the original series and therefore can not be the type. 

In addition to the lectotype we have examined a long series 
of specimens from east of Laramie, Wyo., July 20, 1935 (Oman). 

5. Empoasea neaspersa, n. sp. 

Empoasca aspersa DeLong (nec Gillette and Baker, 1895), U. S. Dept. Agr. 

Tech. Bull. 231 : 34, 1931. 

Resembling aspersa superficially, but with shorter dorsal spines and incised 
lateral processes. Length 2.9-3.2 mm. 

External characters. —Head, pronotum, and scutellum greenish white mottled 
with pale greenish yellow. Fore wings with distinct fuscous mottling, veins 
pale greenish white and usually distinct. Seventh sternite of female with 
posterior margin slightly produced and faintly notched medially and next each 
lateral angle. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 15.) Lateral process long, stout medially, 
distal portion sinuous and tapering to pointed apex; in lateral view with a narrow 
incision in caudo-ventral margin near middle. In the large series of specimens 
examined there was noted some variation in the shape of the lateral process, 
but the illustrations represent what seems to be the normal condition. Dorsal 
spine rather small, tapering from base to bluntly pointed tip. Aedeagus not 
so broad distally as in aspersa. Sternal apodemes relatively broad basally, 
broadly rounded and fuscous distally, extending to base of fifth segment. 

Holotype male, allotype female, and 6 male and 22 female paratypes from 
Pasco, Wash., July 8, 1935 (Oman). There are also at hand numerous specimens 
from various localities in Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, 
Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, and Washington. Type, U. S. National Museum 
No. 51621. Four paratypes deposited in collection of the entomological labora¬ 
tory, Arlington Experiment Farm, Arlington, Va. 

6 . Empoasca similis DeLong and Davidson. 

Empoasca similis DeLong and Davidson, Ohio Jour. Sci. 35(1) : 37, 1935. 

Resembling aspersa in general appearance, but with the lateral process, in 
lateral view, tapering gradually from base to slender tip. Length 2.7-3 mm. 

2 The specimen from Steamboat Springs, Colo., July 12 (Baker), is recorded 
by Gillette and Baker as being collected on Artemisia tridentata , but Dr. James 
informs us that according.to the Colorado list of numbers, 1687 was “on Carex.” 
Since the preceding number in the list, i. e. 1686, has “swept from Artemisia 
tridentata ” as part of the collection data, it seems probable that this discrepancy 
was due to an error in copying the data. 

3 DeLong, Dwight M. A revision of the American species of Empoasca known 
to occur north of Mexico. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 231 : 30 and 34, 1931. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 139 


External characters. —Pale greenish white with the fore wings and sometimes 
the pronotum also mottled with smoky fuscous. Seventh sternite of female 
with posterior margin produced and rounded. 

Male internal structures. —(PL 15.) Lateral process, in lateral view, with distal 
third bent upward, tip pointed and slightly recurved; in ventral view tip slender 
and curved slightly mesad. Dorsal spine short. Aedeagus rather slender 
basally, distal portion relatively broad in lateral view. Sternal apodemes 
fuscous, broad, rounded distally and extending nearly to base of sixth segment. 

Although the original description contains remarks concerning 
the female sex, the authors state that the species was described 
from five male specimens from Carson City, Nev. (Beamer). 
Specimens at hand are from Cajon Pass, Calif. (Oman) and 
Arimo, Idaho (Oman). Type in collection of the University of 
Kansas. 

7. Empoasca decora DeLong and Davidson. 

Empoasca decora DeLong and Davidson, Ohio Jour. Sci. 35(1) : 33, 1935. 

A common and widely distributed species, resembling neaspersa in general 
appearance but without incised lateral processes. Length 2.5-3 mm. 

External characters. —Somewhat variable in color; the head, pronotum, and 
scutellum usually pale greenish white mottled with sordid greenish yellow. 
Posterior margin of seventh sternite of female produced and broadly rounded. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 15.) Lateral process tapering gradually from 
base to pointed tip, distal portion slightly recurved in both lateral and ventral 
views. Dorsal spine small and blunt. Aedeagus relatively slender, distal portion 
not so broad as that of neaspersa. Sternal apodemes broad, rounded distally, 
extending well beyond base of fourth segment, distal two-thirds usually fuscous. 

The illustrations of decora which accompany this description 
were made after examining a great many specimens from various 
localities and represent what seems to be the typical condition. 
DeLong and Davidson described decora from specimens from 
Otero County, N. Mex. (Painter), Alpine, Calif. (Beamer), Cedar 
City, Utah (Beamer), and Carson City, Nev. (Beamer), the 
type being from the first-named locality. There are specimens 
at hand from a great many localities in California, Colorado, 
Idaho, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Loca¬ 
tion of type not stated in the original description. 

8. Empoasca indenta, n. sp. 

Resembling neaspersa but with fewer and less definite markings on head and 
pronotum, and with a shallow dorsal emargination about the middle of the 
lateral process. Female unknown. Length 3 mm. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 15.) Lateral process with a shallow, rounded 
emargination on the dorsal margin about the middle, posterior half bladelike 
in lateral view; in ventral view process stouter medially, with apex curved 


140 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


mesad. Dorsal spine relatively stout and blunt, extending first ventrad, then 
curved cephalad and mesad. Aedeagus similar to that of decora. Sternal 
apodemes relatively small, bluntly rounded and converging apically, distal 
portion fuscous and extending to base of fourth segment. 

Holotype male from Blue Beach, Utah, August 17, 1935, on Artemisia 
tridentata (Knowlton). Type, U. S. National Museum No. 51622. 

9. Empoasca ealyxa, n. sp. 

Resembling decora but with lateral process, in ventral view, more slender and 
curved laterad distally. Female unknown. Length 2.8 mm. 

External characters. —Head irregularly marked with orange or yellow, pro- 
notum marked with sordid greenish yellow and frequently with a pair of small 
fuscous spots near anterior margin medially. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 15.) Lateral process slightly constricted near 
middle in lateral view, curving slightly upward and outward, and faintly emargi- 
nate dorsally near pointed apex; in ventral view curved mesad about middle, with 
distal portion curved laterad and both outer and inner margins sinuous. Dorsal 
spine stout and blunt, curving ventrad and slightly cephalad and mesad. Ae¬ 
deagus as in decora. Sternal apodemes comparatively small, distally fuscous 
and bluntly rounded, extending to base of fifth segment. 

Holotype male from Wolcott, Colo., Aug. 24, 1935 (Knowlton). Paratype 
males as follows: One, Bray, Calif., June 30, 1935 (Oman); two, Durango, Colo. 
July 2, 1933 (Oman); one, Spur, Tex., June 7, 1929 (Fletcher); one, Fruitland, 
Utah, July 18, 1935 (Oman); one, 7 miles southeast of Laketown, Utah, July 5, 
1935 (Knowlton); one, Virgin, Utah, July 18, 1936 (Knowlton); and one, St. 
George, Utah, June 6, 1935, light trap (Davis). Type, U. S. National Museum 
No. 51623. One paratype deposited in collection of the entomological labor- 
tory, Arlington Experiment Farm, Arlington, Va. 

10. Empoasca sinuata, n. sp. 

Resembling ealyxa but with the markings on the head pale greenish yellow 
and the tip of the lateral process curving mesad rather than laterad. Female 
unknown. Length 2.9 mm. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 16.) Lateral process, in lateral view, with 
margins nearly parallel, apex appearing blunt; in ventral view basal half broad, 
distal half with inner margin sinuous, apex sharply pointed and directed caudo- 
mesad. Dorsal spine broad basally, rather short, anterior margin sinuous, 
apex pointed and directed cephalo-mesad. Aedeagus simple and relatively 
slender. Sternal apodemes comparatively small, fuscous and bluntly rounded 
distally, extending to middle of third segment. 

Holotype male from La Salle, Utah, June 18, 1933 (Knowlton). Type, U. S. 
National Museum No. 51624. 

11. Empoasca amblacantha, n. sp. 

Resembling sinuata in general appearance, but with the dorsal spine blunt 
and lateral process not sinuous on inner margin distally. Female unknown. 
Length 2.9 mm. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 141 


Male internal structures. —(PI. 16.) Lateral process, in lateral view, curving 
upward and much more slender on distal third than basally; in ventral view 
long and relatively slender, margins nearly parallel, apex blunt. Dorsal spine 
broad and relatively short, directed ventrad and curved slightly cephalad and 
mesad, appearing bluntly pointed in lateral view. Aedeagus simple and rela¬ 
tively slender. Sternal apodemes fuscous and bluntly rounded distally, extend¬ 
ing to base of fifth segment. 

Holotype male and one male paratype from Bray, Calif., June 30, 1935 
(Oman). Type, U. S. National Museum No. 51625. 

12. Empoasca pelecana, n. sp. 

A greenish white, distinctly mottled species, with the lateral process very 
broad distally in lateral view. Female unknown. Length 2.9 mm. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 16.) Lateral process, in lateral view, extending 
first caudad, then obliquely dorso-caudad, with broad distal portion directed 
caudad, apex pointed; in ventral view the broad, flangelike, distal portion 
appearing much narrower, somewhat sinuous, and pointed. Dorsal spine broad 
and long, curving slightly cephalad distally. Aedeagus simple and relatively 
broad. Sternal apodemes large and sacklike, slightly fuscous, broadly rounded 
apically, and extending to base of fifth segment. 

Holotype male and one male paratype from Kremmling, Colo., July 17, 1935 
(Oman). Type, U. S. National Museum No. 51626. 

13. Empoasca varaspina, n. sp. 

Externally identical with neaspersa , but with the dorsal spine twisted and the 
lateral process long and crooked. Female unknown. Length 2.9 mm. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 16.) Lateral process, in lateral view, extending 
first caudad, then dorsad, and then caudad and slightly mesad, tapering gradu¬ 
ally from base to pointed apex. Dorsal spine stout basally, gradually tapering 
to pointed apex, basal portion extending directly downward, distal portion 
extending spirally inward, downward, and cephalad. Aedeagus much broad¬ 
ened apically in lateral view. Sternal apodemes rather small, narrowed and 
bluntly rounded apically, and just reaching to base of fourth segment. 

Holotype male and 22 male paratypes from Kremmling, Colo., July 17, 1935 
(Oman). There are also at hand two males from Durango, Colo., July 2, 1933 
(Oman) and one male from Indian Creek, Utah, July 27, 1932 (Knowlton). 
Type, U. S. National Museum No. 51627. Three paratypes deposited in collec¬ 
tion of the entomological laboratory, Arlington Experiment Farm, Arlington, Va. 

14. Empoasca spiculata, n. sp. 

Differing from other members of the aspersa group in the character of the 
dorsal spine, which has a blunt rounded projection on the caudal margin 
basally. Female unknown. Length 3 mm. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 17.) Lateral process relatively long and broad, 
in lateral view curved slightly dorsad and almost parallel margined to near 
apex, which is sharply pointed; in ventral view with inner margin slightly 
sinuous. Dorsal spine broad basally, with a short, blunt, lobelike projection 


142 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


on caudal margin; remainder of spine long, slender, and spikelike, directed 
ventrad and slightly mesad. Aedeagus simple and rather slender. Sternal 
apodemes fuscous, broad basally, broadly rounded apically, and extending 
beyond base of fourth segment.. 

Holotype male from Strawberry Dam, Utah, July 16, 1935 (Oman). Para- 
types, four males from Snyderville, Utah, July 16, 1935 (Oman). Type, U. S. 
National Museum No. 52788. 

15. Empoasca ensiformis, n. sp. 

A relatively robust species, with the distal portion of the lateral process 
somewhat sword-shaped in lateral view. Length 3.25 mm. 

External characters. —Head mottled with pale greenish yellow, pronotum with 
irregular spots of sordid greenish yellow and pale fuscous, fore wings distinctly 
mottled with fuscous. Posterior margin of seventh sternite of female almost 
truncate or occasionally faintly trisinuate. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 17.) Lateral process, in lateral view, with basal 
half extending caudad, distal half directed caudad and slightly dorsad; dorsal 
margin with a shallow, rounded emargination at about the middle; apex pointed. 
Dorsal spine broad and somewhat sinuous, curving slightly cephalad from base, 
then ventrad, with tip directed slightly cephalad and mesad. Aedeagus short 
and relatively stout. Sternal apodemes broad basally, apically fuscous and 
subtruncate, extending to base of fifth segment. 

Holotype male, allotype female, and 16 male and 16 female paratypes from 
south of Bend, Oreg., July 2, 1935 (Oman). Also two male paratypes from Bend, 
Oreg., and two male and five female paratypes from north of Bend, Oreg., all 
collected July 2, 1935 (Oman). Type, U. S. National Museum No. 52789. 
Six paratypes deposited in collection of the entomological laboratory, Arlington 
Experiment Farm, Arlington, Va. 

16. Empoasca xerophila, n. sp. 

Larger and darker than aspersa , and with both dorsal spine and lateral process 
sharply pointed in lateral view. Length 3.25 mm. 

External characters. —Head, pronotum, and scutellum sordid yellowish green 
to whitish green, without definite markings. Fore wings pale greenish white 
distinctly mottled with smoky fuscous; veins distinct. The seventh sternite of 
what appears to be the female of this species is slightly produced and rounded 
posteriorly, with a very shallow median emargination. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 17.) Lateral process, in lateral view, curved 
slightly dorsad, broadened before apex, and ending in a sharp point directed 
posteriorly; in ventral view with margins sinuous, inner margin swollen about 
one-third the distance from posterior extremity and concavely sinuate from 
there to apex. Dorsal spine stout, tapering to a sharp point, slightly twisted 
but extending directly ventrad. Distal portion of aedeagus much broadened. 
Sternal apodemes broad and relatively short, broadly rounded and fuscous 
distally. 

Holotype male and six male paratypes from Grizzly Creek, Colo., July 24, 
1896 (C. F. Baker No. 2158). Also three male paratypes from the same locality 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 


40 


PLATE 14 



4 ASPEPSA 


[143] 






























plate 15 


PROC. ENT. SGC. WASH., VOL. 40 



[ 144 ] 



















PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 16 



145] 






























PLATE 17 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 



[ 146 ) 







































PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 147 

but collected July 19, 1896, from Artemisia tridentata (C. F. Baker No. 2193). 
There are numerous females at hand from the above locality which are believed 
to be this species. There is also at hand one male of this species from Moran, 
Wyo., July 19, 1936 (Knowlton). Type, U. S. National Museum No. 52790. 

17. Empoasca fuscoviridis, n. sp. 

Related to, and superficially identical with, xerophila , but slightly more 
robust, with dorsal spine less sharply pointed, and lateral process more slender. 
Female unknown. Length 3 mm. 

Male internal structures. —(PI. 17.) Lateral process, in lateral view, rather 
slender, curving slightly upward, distal portion slightly recurved, tip pointed; 
in ventral view inner margin slightly sinuous and shallowly emarginate just 
before apex. Dorsal spine stout, slightly curved cephalad, and bluntly pointed. 
Posterior portion of aedeagus slightly broadened distally in lateral view. Sternal 
apodemes narrowed distally, obliquely truncate apically. 

Holotype male and two male paratypes from Grizzly Creek, Colo., July 24, 
1896 (C. F. Baker No. 2158). Also one male paratype from Ft. Collins, Colo., 
June 13,1895 (C. F. Baker No. 1563). Type, U. S. National Museum No. 52791. 


OBITUARY NOTICE : MAURICE CROWTHER HALL. 

By E. A. Chapin and J. S. Wade. 

Maurice Crowther Hall (1881-1938), American zoologist, 
parasitologist, educator, lecturer, and member of the Ento¬ 
mological Society of Washington since October 3, 1907, was 
born at Golden, Colorado, July 15, 1881. He was a son of 
George Hemingway Birtby and Marion Wallace (Crowther) 
Hall. He received his B. S. degree in 1905, from Colorado 
College, Colorado Springs, Colorado. He was graduated in 

1906, M. A., from the University of Nebraska; Ph. D. in 1915, 
and D. V. M. in 1916, from George Washington University. In 
1925 he received an honorary degree of D. Sc. from Colorado 
College. He married Lola May Davis of Colorado Springs, 
Colorado, June 18, 1906. Their children are (Mrs.) Marion 
Millicent (Holland), Winifred Lois and (Mrs.) Margaret Lola 
(McCormick). 

In 1904 he accepted a position as instructor of botany and 
physiology at Cutler Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 
and in 1905 became instructor of biology and chemistry in the 
Canyon City, Colorado, high school, where he continued until 

1907, when he entered the Zoological Division of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, as Junior 
Zoologist. In 1911 he was advanced to Assistant Zoologist and 
served until 1916. He was also professor of zoology and para¬ 
sitology in the College of Veterinarv Medicine of George Wash¬ 
ington University 1914-1916. During the period 1915-1916 he 
served as Assistant Zoologist on the U. S. Insecticide and 



148 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 

Fungicide Board, and from 1916-1918 was parasitologist in the 
research laboratory of Parke Davis & Company of Detroit, 
Michigan. In 1918-1919 he became 2nd Lieutenant and later 
1st Lieutenant in the Veterinary Corps, U. S. Army. In 1917 
he returned to the Zoological Division, serving as Senior 
Zoologist until 1925, when he became Principal Zoologist and 
Chief of Division. From April 1, 1936, until his death he was 
Professor of Zoology and Chief of the Division of Zoology, 
National Institute of Health, U. S. Public Health Service. 
From 1928 to 1931 he served as Assistant Custodian of the 
Helminthological Collections of the U. S. National Museum and 
subsequent to 1931 was its Custodian. In 1930 he was President 
of the Permanent International Commission of Parasitology of 
the International Zoological College, and in 1934 was President 
of the International Commission on Control of Parasites at the 
International Veterinary Congress. From 1929-1935 inclusive 
he was a member of the National Research Council. 

In addition to his membership in our Society he was a Fellow 
of the A. A. A. S., a member of the Helminthological Society of 
Washington (Secretary 1910-1916, 1919-1922, President 1922— 
1923); American Veterinary Medical Association (President 
1930-1931); American Society of Tropical Medicine; American 
Academy of Tropical Medicine; American Society of Parasi¬ 
tologists (President 1931-1932); American Asso. of Economic 
Entomologists; Entomological Society of America; Phi Beta 
Kappa; Sigma Xi; Foreign member of the Royal Academy of 
Agriculture, Turin, Italy. In 1915-1916 he was delegate to the 
2nd Pan American Scientific Congress, Washington. During 
the period 1907 to 1938 inclusive, he wrote three books— 
“Diagnosis and Treatment of Internal Parasites” (1st and 2nd 
editions 1923, 3rd edition 1924), “Worm Parasites of Domesti¬ 
cated Animals,” 1924, and “ Control of Animal Parasites,” 1936. 
In addition to above he was also author of 551 publications of 
varying length and scope dealing with parasitic forms from 
zoological, medical and economic standpoints, and especially 
with anthelminthic treatment. He proposed the carbon tetra- 
chlorid treatment and with Dr. J. E. Shillinger, the tetrachlore- 
thylen treatment for hookworm disease. Of special interest to 
members of this Society are his papers dealing with the control 
of insects affecting domestic animals and his compiled compend¬ 
ium of arthropod hosts of parasitic worms (1929. Smithsonian 
Misc. Coll., Vol. 81, #3024, pp. 1-77). 

Dr. Hall departed this life at Walter Reed Hospital on 
Sunday, May 1, 1938, and his ashes were interred on May 4th 
with full military honors at Arlington National Memorial 
Cemetery. For additional published biographical data con¬ 
cerning him see: Who’s Who in America, v. 19, p. 1075, 1936- 
37; American Men of Science, 5th ed., p. 458, 1933; Who’s 
Who in Government, v. 2, p. 597, 1932; Who’s Who in the 
Nation’s Capital, pp. 398-399, 1934-35; Who’s Who in the 
East, pp. 923-924, 1930; Rus, Who’s Who in Agriculture, 4th 
ed., p. 284, 1930. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 18 



MAURICE CROWTHER HALL 


[1491 






























’ 






PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 151 

NEW SPECIES OF CACTOPINUS SCHWARZ (COLEOPTERA: 

SCOLYTIDAE). 

By M. W. Blackman, 

Senior Entomologist , Division of Insect Identification , 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

The remarkable scolytid genus Cactopinus and the species 
C. hubbardi upon which it is based were described by Schwarz 1 
in 1899, from a series of several hundred specimens collected by 
H. G. Hubbard in December, 1896, in a single cavity made by 
birds in the trunk of a giant cactus ( Cereus ) Carnegiea gigantea 
(Englm.), B. & R., near Tucson, Ariz. Although many collectors 
have since attempted to find this species in giant cactus, there 
is no record of additional specimens having been obtained and 
it is believed that all now in collections are derived from this 
original lot collected by Hubbard. 

For many years, however, the National Museum has con¬ 
tained several undescribed species from other sources. Two of 
these species are represented by ample series taken by A. D. 
Hopkins from Pinus in Kern and Ventura Counties, and from 
Rhus in Ventura County, Calif., while another species is repre¬ 
sented by two specimens, a male and a female, collected by 
A. Koebele in the Argus Mountains, Inyo County, Calif. These 
new species are described in the present paper. 

It is hoped that the following key will be of service in separ¬ 
ating the four known species of the genus, although the writer 
realizes that references to average sizes or conditions will be of 
little use in the case of single specimens or small series. How¬ 
ever, specimens of Cactopinus , when found at all, will usually 
occur in colonies. One great difficulty, in making a practical 
key to the group, is due to the nearly universal presence of an 
incrustation which obscures, or even conceals, structures which 
otherwise would be of value in identification. 

Key to the Known Species of Cactopinus. 

A. Elytra very broadly, subtruncately rounded behind; the declivital 
sulcus deep and broad, originating near the middle of the 
elytral disc. 

B. Larger, averaging about 2 mm. in length; stouter, about two 
and one-third times as long as wide; epistomal horn of male 
averaging nearly a millimeter in length; in giant cactus, 
southern Arizona_____„„1. hubbardi Schwarz. 

BB. Smaller, maximum length 2 mm.; more slender, about two 
and two-thirds times as long as wide; epistomal horn of male 
averaging less than .5 mm. in length; in Pinus jeffreyi , 
southern California______2. pint, new species. 


1 Psyche, 8, suppl. 1 : 11-13. 







152 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


A A. Elytra moderately broadly rounded behind; the decli vital sulcus 
rather shallow, originating well behind the middle of the 
elytral disc. 

B. Declivital sulcus moderately shallow and narrow; lateral 
elevations more evidently granulate; strial punctures finer; 
setae finer; in Rhus ____3. rhois , new species. 

BB. Declivital sulcus shallower but wider; lateral elevations very 
finely granulate; strial punctures coarser; elytral setae 
coarser____4. koebelei, new species. 

Cactopinus hubbardi Schwarz. 

Cactopinus hubbardi Schwarz, Psyche 8, suppl. 1 : 11-13, 1899. 

The original description of this species is so excellent that there is no need of a 
redescription. However, it is desirable that certain data be supplied to serve 
as a basis of comparison with the additional species described herein. 

Cactopinus hubbardi is larger and stouter than the other species, being 1.6 to 
2.34 mm. in length, 2.34 to 2.37 times as long as wide, with the average length 
about 2 mm. The largest and smallest individuals seen are both females, but 
the average size is about the same for each sex. The epistomal horn of the male 
ranges from .2 to 1.1 mm. in length, the average being slightly less than 1 mm. 
The antennal club is wider than in the other species and the sutures are more 
easily discerned. The elytra are notably stouter than in any other known 
species. The declivital sulcus originates near the middle of the elytral disc as 
in C. pini. The setae are more slender than in other species and are relatively 
much shorter than in C. pini. 

In his original description Schwarz did not designate a holotype, but cited the 
entire series, which are therefore cotypes. It now seems desirable that a lecto- 
type be chosen from the long series of cotypes, and one has been chosen as 
follows: 

A male 2.14 mm. long, 2.34 times as long as wide, widest through the elytra, 
and showing the characters as described by Schwarz. The lectotype is reddish 
brown in color and therefore does not show the full adult coloration, but is 
chosen because such specimens are not so heavily incrusted as older ones and 
the setae are not abraded. 

Type locality. —Tucson, Ariz. 

Host. —( Cereus ) Carnegiea gigantea (Englm.) B. & R. 

Type material .—Lectotype and 319 paratypes, Cat. No. 4564, 
U. S. National Museum. 

The lectotype and all the paratypes were collected by H. G. 
Hubbard, December 31, 1896, at Tucson, Ariz., from a single 
cavity in a giant cactus. Twenty-six of the paratypes bear the 
labels of the Hopkins, West Virginia, Collection, and five 
paratypes are in the writer’s private collection, received through 
the kindness of Dr. Schwarz. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 153 


Cactopinus pini, new species. 

Similar to Cactopinus hubbardi, but slightly smaller in average size (1.5 to 2 
mm. in length), and distinctly more slender. The male with the hornlike 
process somewhat shorter and sometimes greatly reduced. 

Male. —Piceous to black, 1.6 to 2 mm. long (holotype 1.9 mm. long, 2.6 times 
as long as wide), with the body usually more or less completely covered with an 
incrustation that obscures and sometimes completely conceals the sculpture of 
the pronotum and elytra. 

Front of the head distinctly, broadly concave, its surface, where not concealed 
by the incrustation, shiny, finely, closely punctured, and with inconspicuous 
fine hairs. Eyes usually concealed by the retraction of the head, and by a 
dense fringe of coarse, cinereous hairs on the prothoracic margin. Antenna 
with scape shorter than funicle, expanded distally, with a few rather long, 
spatulate setae on the outer convex edge; funicle five-jointed, the pedicel urn¬ 
shaped, both longer and wider than the other joints, the two distal joints 
widened, especially the last one, with shorter spatulate setae; club small, 
ovate, scarcely wider than the scape (much smaller than in hubbardi ), the first 
two sutures distinctly constricted, the third indistinct, not constricted, the 
surface covered and obscured by long, coarse, appressed setae, which converge 
at the distal end of the club. Epistoma armed with a horn 2 very similar to, but 
shorter and usually stouter than, in hubbardi , extending upward and backward 
as far as the middle of the pronotum in the holotype, but in some paratypes so 
short as not to extend beyond the anterior edge of the pronotum. 

Pronotum slightly longer than wide (27 : 25), the sides arcuate, with the 
posterior angles strongly rounded; anterior margin very broadly rounded, with 
a dense fringe of coarse cinereous hairs on its cephalic margin; base more feebly 
rounded, but the true outline obscured by the backward extension of a strongly 
elevated area, occupying the median third of the disc and armed with strong 
tubercles or asperities. This elevation extends backward from near the anterior 
pronotal margin, reaches its greatest height in the posterior third of the pro¬ 
thorax, and posteriorly becomes narrower and extends freely as a lobe beyond 
the true posterior margin, over the scutellum. Surface of pronotum nearly 
always so covered by an incrustation as to conceal finer and to obscure coarser 
sculpture, causing the surface to appear dull, devoid of punctures, and nearly 
devoid of hairs. In cleaned specimens the surface is brightly shiny, very finely, 
densely punctured, and granulate on the lateral thirds of the disc; the entire 
surface, including the median elevation, with rather sparse, coarse, usually 
curved setae of moderate length. 

2 Schwarz’s description of this structure in Coctopinus hubbardi is so excellent 
and in general applies so well to that in C. pini that we can do no better than 
quote the following portions: The epistomal horn “is composed of two nearly 
cylindrical rods which are laterally connate and of equal width from the base 
to near the tip. The anterior and posterior sides of this horn are shining and 
more or less distinctly tuberculate, the lateral margins are densely tuberculate 
and apparently irregularly serrate and furnished with a fringe of moderately 
long hairs. Some distance from the tip each rod is angularly contracted later¬ 
ally, and only the inner half of each is prolonged into a shining, cylindrical 
prong-like process averaging about one-eighth the length of the horn. The 
prongs are distinctly separated from each other. . . 



154 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 

Elytra equal in width to the pronotum, 1.48 times as long as wide, the sides 
subparallel for three-fourths their length, very broadly rounded, subtruncate 
behind; the surface often covered by an incrustation, and then appearing dull, 
and with the finer sculptural details concealed or obscured. In cleaned speci¬ 
mens, the surface is brightly shiny, the striae hardly impressed, the strial 
punctures coarse and close; the interspaces narrower, somewhat convex, finely 
granulate-punctate, and ornamented with long, coarse, stiff, curved hairs, those 
on the sides and posterior angles being especially long, curved and directed 
backward at an angle. Sutural striae impressed anteriorly, posteriorly develop¬ 
ing into a broad sulcus involving both sutural striae and interspaces and becom¬ 
ing progressively deeper posteriorly; the declivity abrupt, steep, deeply and 
broadly sulcate, the lateral elevations high, the third interspaces forming its 
summits, strongly granulate. 

Female .—Averaging only slightly less in length; the allotype 1.7 mm. long, 
2.68 times as long as wide; front of head transversely impressed above the epis- 
stoma, convex above, very finely, rather closely punctured, with rather fine, 
short, cinereous hairs. Pronotum with base rounded, sides strongly arcuate, 
distinctly constricted before middle, the front very broadly rounded; posterior 
lobe of pronotal elevation not so strongly extended posteriorly. Elytra essen¬ 
tially similar to those of the male. 

There is considerable variation in the type series of 50 specimens studied. 
The size ranges from 1.5 to 2 mm.; the extent, shape, and degree of elevation of 
the asperate elevated area on the pronotum vary considerably not only between 
the sexes but in different individuals of the same sex; the hornlike epistomal 
process ranges in length from .17 to .57 mm.; and there is the usual range of 
variation in the pubescence, size of punctures, etc. 

Type locality. —Griffen, Kern County, Calif. 

Other locality .—Ventura County, Calif 
Host—Pinus Jeffreyi (“Oreg. Com.”). 

Type material. —Holotype, allotype, and 50 paratypes, Cat. 
No. 52794, U. S. National Museum. 

Described from 52 specimens. The holotype and 28 para¬ 
types were collected near Griffen, Kern County, Calif., by 
A. D. Hopkins, in Jeffrey pine, April 4, 1909. The allotype and 
22 paratypes were taken from old dead branches of Jeffrey pine, 
Ventura County, Calif., November 13, 1905, by A. D. Hopkins. 

Cactopinus rhois, new species. 

Similar to both Cactopinus hubbardi and C. pini , but smaller than either 
(1.34 to 1.8 mm. long), slightly more slender than the former, the epistomal 
horn in the male shorter than in either. 

Male .—Piceous to black, ranging from 1.4 to 1.78 mm. long; the holotype 
1.7 mm. long, 2.66 times as long as wide, with the surface structures more or 
less obscured by an incrustation covering all parts of the body. 

Front of the head broadly concave, in specimens in which it is not concealed 
by the incrustation, shiny, the punctures fine and close, the hairs cinereous, 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 155 


fine and short, slightly longer at the periphery; epistomal horn similar to that in 
hubbardi and pini but shorter than in either of these species, extending not more 
than one-fifth of the way back on the pronotum in the type, but sometimes very 
short, with the end not attaining the thoracic margin; general structure similar 
to that in the other species of the genus. Eyes finely granulate, usually partly 
or wholly concealed by the pronotal margin. Antenna larger than in pini, 
mounted specimens showing the scape as long as the funicle, flattened and 
expanded distally, the outer edge with coarse, rather long, spatulate setae; 
funicle five-jointed, with the urn-shaped pedicel comprising one-third of its 
length, the second, third, and fourth joints narrower, the fifth distinctly widened 
and applied closely to the base of the club, the coarse, spatulate setae of moder¬ 
ate length; club larger than in pini, distinctly wider than the scape, with the 
arrangement of sutures and setae similar to that in pini. 

Pronotum almost exactly as wide as long, posterior outline feebly arcuate, 
posterior angles strongly rounded, sides distinctly arcuate, very feebly con¬ 
stricted in front of middle, moderately broadly rounded on anterior margin, 
with a dense fringe of short, coarse, cinereous setae entirely surrounding head- 
socket; central third of surface occupied by an asperate area, similar to but 
somewhat less strongly elevated than in hubbardi and pini, arising back of 
anterior margin, highest in posterior third; narrowed posteriorly and forming 
a lobe which extends backward, slightly overlapping the true posterior margin. 
Surface of pronotum covered by an incrustation, not so abundant as in hubbardi 
and pini, but usually sufficient to conceal or obscure most of the sculptural 
details. In cleaned specimens the surface is brightly shiny, very finely, closely 
punctured on the lateral thirds, with sparse, rather coarse, moderately long, 
curved setae which are often abraded. 

Elytra very slightly wider than pronotum, 1.56 times as long as wide, the 
sides subparallel for two-thirds of their length, moderately rounded behind 
(more narrowly than in pini). Surface covered by an incrustation which con¬ 
ceals the finer details and causes the surface to appear dull. In cleaned speci¬ 
mens the surface is brightly shiny; the first striae impressed, the others punc¬ 
tate-striate, not impressed, the strial punctures moderate in size (finer than in 
hubbardi and pini) and close; interspaces narrower than striae, rugulose-granu- 
late, with very fine inconspicuous punctures, with moderately fine, moderately 
long, curved setae (much finer and shorter than in pini). Sutural area not 
broadly impressed on the disk as in hubbardi and pini. Declivity less abrupt 
than in the other species, the sulcus moderately wide, much more shallow than 
in hubbardi and pini, the lateral elevations less high, with a row of fine granules 
in both the second and third interspaces. 

Female. —Similar in size to the male; the allotype 1.6 mm. long, 2.54 times 
as long as wide, widest through the elytra; epistomal horn lacking; frons above 
very finely and densely punctured; pronotum with lobe of elevated area not 
extending beyond the true margin behind, declivity similar to that of male, with 
both second and third interspaces granulate, the latter more coarsely so. 

Exhibits about the same degree of variation as Cactopinus pini. The length 
ranges from 1.34 to 1.8 mm. The epistomal horn ranges in length from .11 to 
.31 mm. The elevated, asperate area of the pronotum varies to about the same 
degree as in other species of the genus. 


156 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


Type locality .—Ventura County, Calif. 

Host.—Rhus integrifolia (Nuttall) Bentham & Hooker. 

Type material. —Holotype, allotype, and 39 paratypes, Cat. 
No. 52795, U. S. National Museum. 

Described from 41 specimens. The holotype, allotype, and 
39 paratypes were taken from the bark of mahogany sumach 
cut the preceding winter, in Ventura County, Calif., by A. D. 
Hopkins, April 6, 1906, or later reared from this infested 
material. 

Cactopinus koebelei, new species. 

Similar in size to Cactopinus rhois , but intermediate in structure between this 
species and C. pini. 

Male. —Piceous in color, 1.7 mm. long, about 2.65 times as long as wide; 
body surface obscured by an incrustation as in other species of the genus; 
setae coarser than in C. rhois , but shorter than in C. pini. 

Front of the head concave, the surface shiny, finely, closely punctured, with 
fine, short hairs, more conspicuous at the sides. The hornlike process arising 
from the epistoma similar to those in other species, .46 mm. long in the holotype. 
Eyes finely granulate, partly concealed by the pronotal margin. Antenna with 
the scape expanded distallv and ornamented on its outer edge by stout, moder¬ 
ately long setae, funicle and club similar to those of C. rhois. 

Pronotum about as wide as long, posterior outline somewhat arcuate, posterior 
angles strongly rounded, sides arcuate, moderately broadly rounded in front, 
with a close fringe of cinereous setae entirely surrounding the head socket; 
details of structure of upper surface concealed by an incrustation, but doubtless 
essentially similar to those of other species; the median, elevated, asperate 
area as in other species, with the posterior portion forming a lobe which extends 
beyond the true posterior margin. 

Elytra slightly wider than pronotum, 1.55 times as long as wide, the sides 
subparallel on the anterior three-fourths, rather broadly rounded behind; 
surface shiny where the incrustation is lacking; the first striae moderately 
impressed anteriorly, very strongly impressed near the declivity, the other striae 
not impressed; strial punctures close, moderately coarse (coarser than in C. 
rhois) ; interspaces narrow, rugulose-granulate, with fine punctures, bearing 
setae that are coarser than in C. rhois and much shorter than in C. pini. De¬ 
clivity moderately sloping, the sulcus rather shallow, with the lateral elevations 
only moderate; second and third interspaces very finely granulate; suture 
moderately elevated and feebly granulate. 

Female. —Smaller, 1.37 mm. long, 2.52 times as long as wide, widest through 
elytra; frons transversely impressed above epistoma, convex above, very finely 
and closely punctured, the hairs for the most part abraded or hidden by the 
incrustation; pronotum with lobe of median, asperate elevation scarcely extend¬ 
ing beyond true posterior margin. Elytra with most of the surface details 
concealed by incrustation; declivity shallower and the setae shorter than in 
the male. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 157 


Type locality. —Argus Mountains, Inyo County, Calif. 

Host. —Unknown. 

Type material. —Holotype and allotype, Cat. No. 52796, 
U. S. National Museum. 

Described from two specimens, a male and a female, collected 
by A. Koebele in Inyo County, Calif., and bearing the labels, 
“Argus Mts., May, ’91; A. Koebele collector.” The Argus 
Mountains are near the western border of Death Valley, 20 to 30 
miles southeast of Owen’s Lake. 


NOTES ON THE LEGIONARY ANTS (ECITON, SUBGENUS 
ACAMATUS) WITH A RECORD OF NEW 
SPECIFIC SYNONYMY. 

By Marion R. Smith, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Fifteen species and one subspecies of legionary ants ( Eciton , 
subgenus Acamatus ) are recorded from America, north of 
Mexico. Unfortunately many of these are known only from a 
single caste. The remarkable differences that exist between 
the castes of the same species make determination extremely 
difficult. The queen is of gigantic size compared with the 
workers, and like them she is either blind or practically so, and 
apterous during her entire life. Unlike the workers, she possesses 
a single-segmented petiole instead of a two-segmented one. The 
males are large, elongate, wasplike insects with very large eyes, 
and characteristic mandibles and hypopygia. As the males are 
seldom taken in nests with the other castes, but are usually 
collected at lights, the problem of clearing up the association of 
males with workers has progressed very slowly. Since approxi¬ 
mately 1900, males have been found associated with workers in 
only four species: opacithorax Emery, carolinensis Emery, 
nigrescens (Cresson), and pilosum F. Smith. 

In general, the ants of this subgenus abound in the south¬ 
western section of the United States, but at least three species 
( opacithorax , carolinensis , and nigrescens ) range as far east as 
the Atlantic Seaboard and thence north to Virginia, and one 
species ( nigrescens ) extends at least as far north as Iowa. 

These ants are known as being predacious on termites, the 
brood of other ants, the larvae of flies, etc. Since many of the 
insects attacked are injurious to mankind, the legionary ants 
are on the whole beneficial. 



158 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


Table Showing the Various Species of Eciton (Acamatus) Recorded for 
the United States, Their General Distribution, and the 
Associated Castes of Each. 


SPECIES 

DISTRIBUTION 

WORKER 

QUEEN 

MALE 

E. ( A .) opacithorax Emery 

Tex. to Kans. and 
east to Fla. and Va. 

X 

X 

X 

E. {A.) carolinensis Emery 

Miss to Fla. and 
north to Va. 

X 

X 

X 

E. ( A .) pilosum F. Smith 

Mex. to Ariz. and 
east to Miss. 

X 

X 

X 

E. ( A .) nigrescens (Cress.) 

Tex. to Iowa, and 
east to Fla. and Va. 

X 

X 

X 

E. (A .) wheeleri Forel 

Tex. 

X 

- 

- 

E. {A.) wheeleri subsp. 
dubia Creight. 

Tex. 

X 

X 


E. {A.) pauxillum Whir. 

Tex. 

X 

- 

- 

E. ( A .) commutatum Emery 

Tex., Kans., Okla. 

X 

- 

-• 

E. {A.) californicum Mayr 

Calif., N. Mex. 

X 

- 

-• 

E. ( A .) leonardi Whir. 

Calif. 

X 

- 

- 

E. {A.) oslari Whir. 

Ariz. 

- 

- 

X 

E. (A.) minus (Cresson) 

Tex., Kans. 

- 

- 

X 

E. {A.) melsheimeri (Hald.) 

Tex., Utah 

- 

- 

X 

E. {A.) harrisi (Hald.) 

Tex., Utah, N. Mex, 
Ariz. 



X 

E. {A.) spoliator Forel 

Tex. 

- 

- 

X 

E. ( A .) arizonensis Whir. 

Tex., Ariz., N. Mex. 

- 

- 

X 


An examination of the table shows that there are five species 
and one subspecies of which the male is unknown or un¬ 
recognized: wheeleri, wheeleri dubia,pauxillum, commutatum, cali- 
fornicum, and leonardi; and six species known only from the male 
caste: oslari , minus, melsheimeri , harrisi , spoliator , and arizonen- 
sis. It is only natural to infer that some of the species now 
known only from males will later be associated with certain 
species at present known only from workers, and thus a number 
of specific names synonymized. It is not even improbable that 
the 12 specific names now representing both male and workers’ 
castes may eventually be reduced to six specific names, in 
which event the total known forms belonging to this subgenus 
in the United States would drop from 16 to 10. 

The primary purpose of this article, however, is to synonymize 
Emery’s schmitti with Cresson’s nigrescens. Cresson described 
nigrescens, in 1872, from a single male specimen collected by 
Belfrage in Bosque County, Tex. In 1908 Wheeler redescribed 
nigrescens from a male specimen in the United States National 
Museum collection bearing the label “ Kansas.” Wheeler 
stated that he considered this specimen to agree fully with 
Cresson’s description “except that the wings are paler and 
possibly faded with age.” In 1895 appeared the first complete 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 159 

description of E. {A.) schmitti based on workers sent to Emery 
by Theo. Pergande from Doniphan, Mo. The first mention of 
the species by Emery, however, was in a key to the workers of 
Eciton , subgenus Acamatus , which appeared in 1894. In 
November, 1899, Wheeler was fortunate enough to find on Mt. 
Bonnell, near Austin, Tex., a colony of schmitti containing 
numerous males. Specimens of these males were submitted to 
Emery, who on examining them wrote Wheeler he was inclined 
to regard them as nigrescens. Wheeler then sent specimens to 
Fox, who compared them with the type of nigrescens in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and wrote 
Wheeler that they were “too hairy for nigrescens , which is 
entirely brownish. The first segment of nigrescens is shorter 
and the wings light.” Fox’s comments led Wheeler and Long, 
in 1901, to consider schmitti distinct from nigrescens , and they 
therefore gave a very thorough description of the Mt. Bonnel 
males, calling them schmitti . From that date the two have 
continued to stand as distinct species, all castes of schmitti 
having been subsequently found and described, while nigrescens 
has been recognized only from the male. 

Recently, while examining and rearranging the species of 
Eciton , subgenus Acamatus , in the collection of the United 
States National Museum, the writer found two instances of the 
association of workers of schmitti and males of nigrescens: One 
male and several workers collected in a basement in Quincy, 
Ill., by T. E. Musselman; and one male concerning which the 
collector, L. G. Wesson, writes, “The male was taken with 
workers about the middle of November in a locality about 15 
miles from Nashville, Tenn. I noted no difference in form or 
behavior from the common schmitti." Also among specimens 
borrowed from the Department of Entomology of the Kansas 
State College were found several workers and a male bearing 
the label “Riley County, Kansas; Sept. 27; J. B. Norton; 
Acc. No. 1381.” The workers in each group were typical 
schmitti. The three males were compared by the writer with the 
type of nigrescens and show only the following variations from 
the type: 

The male from Quincy, Ill., differs only in that the head and 
thorax are darker, the pubescence longer and more yellowish, 
the ridge above each antennal fossa more pronounced, and the 
mandibles more elongate, with acute tips. 

The male from near Nashville, Tenn., is much darker than the 
type, this being especially true of the gaster; the ridge over the 
antennal fossa is more strongly developed than in either the 
type or the Illinois specimen, but the mandibles are more of the 
same shape as in the latter; the apical margins of the gastric 
segments are constricted, but not so reddish as in the type of 
nigrescens. 

The Kansas male also is darker than the type, but more 
similar to it in color than is either the Illinois or the Tennessee 


160 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


male; the ridge over the antennal fossa is also more strongly 
developed than in the type. 

After examining males which agree with Wheeler’s description 
of schmitti, the males mentioned above, and the type of nigres- 
cens, it is clearly evident that all of these should be referred to 
nigrescens , although there is considerable variation among the 
males in color, pilosity, shape of the mandibles, and shape of 
the vertex of the head. The hypopygium has three teeth, 
although the intermediate tooth is very small, and not easily 
seen unless the specimen is held at the proper angle. Mesonotal 
ridges are also present on all the males but they are more evident 
on the specimens having the least pubescence on the thorax. 
The male described by Wheeler and Long as schmitti represents 
a form possessing a lighter gaster, a more glabrous body, and 
longer and more yellowish pubescence. Cresson’s type, and the 
males from Illinois, Tennessee, and Kansas, represent other 
variants which have darker bodies, shorter and lighter pubes¬ 
cence, more pronounced ridges over the antennal fossae, and 
less elongate, acutely tipped mandibles. 

The synonymy of the two species is given below: 

Eciton (Acamatus) nigrescens (Cresson). 

Labidus nigrescens Cresson, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. 4, p. 194 (1872). Male . 
Eciton sumichrasti Mayr (part) (not Norton), Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien., 
Vol. 36, p. 440 (1886). Worker. 

Eciton {Labidus) nigrescens (Cresson), Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., Vol. 8, p. 261 
(1894). Male. 

Eciton ( Acamatus ) schmitti Emery, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., Vol. 26, p. 183 (1894). 
Worker. New. synonymy. 

Eciton {Acamatus) schmitti Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., Vol. 8, p. 258 (1895). 
Worker. 

Eciton sumichrasti Wheeler (not Norton), Amer. Nat., Vol. 34, pp. 563-574 
(1900). Queen A , Queen B. 

Eciton {Acamatus) schmitti Emery, Wheeler and Long, Amer. Nat., Vol. 35, 
p. 161 (1901). Male. 

Eciton {Acamatus) nigrescens (Cresson) Wheeler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Vol. 24, p. 417 (1908). Male. 

Eciton {Acamatus) schmitti Emery, Smith, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., Vol. 20, 
pp. 401-404 (1927. Worker. 

While examining material from Kansas the writer encountered 
some evidence that throws suggestive light on the possible 
synonymy of two other species, the male minus (Cresson) and 
the worker commutatum Emery. E. {A.) commutatum has been 
identified from Kansas specimens on several occasions. It is 
the smallest Eciton known from that State. The male minus 
is also the smallest Kansas Eciton known in that caste. It seems 
not at all unlikely that eventually it may be necessary to synony- 
mize commutatum with minus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 161 


DESCRIPTION OF THE LARVAE OF CHAETOCNEMA DENTI- 
CULATA (ILLIGER) AND CHAETOCNEMA PULICARIA 
MELSHEIMER (COLEOPTERA : CHRYSOMELIDAE). 

By W. H. Anderson, 

Bureau of Entomology and. Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The larvae of the genus Chaetocnema belong in that group of 
halticine chrysomelid larvae which have the dorsal side of the 
abdominal segments transversely divided into three areas, 
namely prescutum, scutum and scutellum. At present, too few 
of the species are known in the larval stage to permit of generic 
characterization. However, the larvae which have been de¬ 
scribed or figured seem to fall into two groups, one, consisting 
of C. aridula Gyllh. (Fig. 14), C. aridella Payk. (Fig. 15), and 
C. denticulata (Ill.) (Fig. 16), in which the scutal sclerites (S) 
are paired, the other, consisting of C. pulicaria Melsh. (Fig. 17) 
and C. concinna Marsh. (Fig. 18), in which the scutal sclerites 
are united across the mid-dorsal line. 

The differences between Chaetocnema pulicaria and C. denti¬ 
culata are considerable. The more important are the following: 
A difference in the comparative length of the epicranial sutures; 
the fact that the frontal sutures do not extend to the antennal 
rings in pulicaria whereas they do in denticulata; and the reduc¬ 
tion of the sclerites of the abdominal scuta to vestiges about 
the setae, in denticulata , as compared to their continuity across 
the mid-dorsal line in pulicaria. Of probably secondary signifi¬ 
cance are; the presence of urogomphi in pulicaria , which are 
lacking in denticulata , and the absence of pigment in the sclerites 
of the body in pulicaria and its presence in those of denticulata. 

It seems probable that when the larvae of more species of the 
genus Chaetocnema are known and critically studied, the two 
groups, of which C. denticulata is an example of one and C. 
pulicaria of the other, will be found worthy of at least sub¬ 
generic rank. 

The following descriptions are from larvae in the collection of 
the United States National Museum. 

Chaetocnema denticulata (Illiger). 

(Described from mature larvae in vial marked “Various stages of larvae, 
Arlington, Va. 1936. F. W. Poos. Reared.”) 

Full-grown larva. —About 7 mm. in length and 1 mm. in greatest width; 
legged, cylindrical and straight. Sides practically parallel, narrowed slightly 
anteriorly from metathorax and posteriorly from sixth abdominal segment. 
Body segments, with exception of prothorax and ninth and tenth abdominal 
segments, bearing small, regularly arranged, pigmented sclerites. Segments 
separated by grooves, no intersegmental belts or areas being distinguishable. 

Head capsule shining, light brown, darker along the postero-dorsal margin of 


162 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 6 , JUNE, 1938 


each epicranial half, endocarina 1 and margins of antennal rings, lighter along 
anterior border. Mandibles light brown. Postmentum (Fig. 11, Mt+Smt) 
nearly covered by a sclerite which is more heavily pigmented centrally. A 
narrow, light brown sclerotic band marking the posterior margin of prementum. 
Maxillary stipes bearing a large sclerite which is brown, becoming darker along 
outer and anterior margins. General ground color of body dirty white (in 
preserved specimens). Major portion of prothoracic tergum slightly lighter 
brown than head capsule; margins of former fading into the light color of exo- 
sclerotic integument and hence not readily distinguishable. Pygidial shield of 
the same shade of brown as prothoracic tergum, with anterior and lateral 
margins lighter. Thoracic episternal sclerites (Fig. 12, Es) light brown with 
more heavily pigmented lower margins which are comparable in color to extreme 
distal margins of coxae and proximal margins of trochanters. Otherwise 
sclerotized parts of legs having same general color as head capsule. Pulvilli 
or paronychial appendices (Fig. 12, Pp) hyaline. Small spiracular sclerites 
light brown. Prothoracic sternal plate mostly light brown, with an irregular 
darker central stripe, the latter broadening near posterior margin of plate. 
Remainder of body sclerites light tan; body setae brown. 

Head broadly oval, slightly longer than wide; somewhat retractile into pro¬ 
thorax, to which it compares in width as lyi to 4. Capsule with distinct, gently 
curving frontal sutures (Fig. 2, Fs), converging posteriorly. Epicranial suture 
(Eps) long, measuring slightly less than one-third the length of head capsule to 
base of clypeus. Each frontal suture extending anteriorly to posterior margin 
of antennal ring (Fig. 3, Fs). Frons divided by endocarina (Fig. 2, Enc), which 
is confluent anteriorly with epistomal thickening (Eps). Epicranial halves 
(Ep) with rounded, very slightly produced hind margins. Frons with three well 
developed setae on each side; two on an imaginary line connecting anterior 
margins of antennal rings, one of these, lateral, directly behind dorsal mandibular 
condyle, one median, about the same distance from endocarina as lateral one is 
from antennal ring; third seta slightly behind an imaginary line connecting 
posterior margins of antennal rings and on an imaginary line bisecting angle 
formed by endocarina and frontal suture. Dorsal epicranial half (Ep) bearing 
six well developed setae placed as follows: One about one-third epicranial 
width from, and slightly anterior to, union of frontal sutures; a second almost 
directly in front of the first and separated from it by a distance approximately 
equal to that between the first and the midline; a third slightly behind second 
but three-fourths the distance from endocarina to lateral margin of head; a 
fourth and a fifth close together and immediately behind antennal ring; a sixth 
slightly behind fifth on dorso-lateral margin of head capsule. Laterally on 
head one seta, about one-third the distance from antennal ring to posterior 
margin of epicranium. Five setae on ventro-lateral and ventral surfaces (Fig. 
11), as follows: One near pleurostomal margin; a second directly behind this 
seta but separated from it by a distance equal to one-half width of antennal 
ring; a third close to but slightly postero-dorsad of second; a fourth directly 
behind third and separated from it by the distance between first and third; a 

1 The term “endocarina” is here designated for the internal ridge (Fig. 2, 
Enc), common in coleopterous larvae, which extends partially or completely 
the length of frons along the mid-line, usually being more heavily pigmented. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 163 


fifth situated close to apex of angle formed by maxillary cardo and stipes when 
mouth parts are retracted. Clypeus (Fig. 1, Clp) about four times as broad as 
long, with a narrow sclerite at base from which rises a series of three or four 
pairs of minute setae. Labrum slightly narrower than clypeus and slightly less 
than three times as broad at base as long. From basal sclerite (Lm) arise two 
pairs of well developed setae, one near lateral margin, the other about one-third 
labral width from margin. Along anterior margin a rather dense series of setae 
varying in length and shape. 

A small pigmented spot (Fig. 3, Oc), representing ocellus, visible within head 
in vicinity of posterior limit of antennal socket. 

Antenna consisting of one article (Fig. 3, IAt) from which arise a large sensory 
appendix (Sap) and several papillae, one (2At) larger than the others and bifid, 
this being possibly a rudimentary second article. 2 Large sensory appendix 
cone-shaped, with a narrow sclerite at base and slightly less than twice as long 
as basal width. 

Mandible (Fig. 9) palmate, inner surface concave, with five distal teeth, of 
which the third, or median, is longest, the second and fourth subequal and about 
one-half length of third, and the first and fifth rather short. On inner margin 
a series of three stiff, rather straight, closely set bristles which decrease in length 
from the anterior to the posterior one. Exterior face of mandible with two well- 
developed setae. 

Maxilla with a simple transverse cardo (Fig. 7, Cd), a rectangular stipes (St), 
and a mala divided into lacinia (Fig. 10, Lc) and galea (Ga). Cardo bearing 
one seta on outer anterior margin near articulation with stipes, the latter with 
two setae along exterior margin. Lacinia visible in dorsal view of maxilla (Fig. 
10), armed on its distal surface with a tightly bunched group of strong setae, 
about six in number. Galea (Fig. 7) broad, bearing on its distal surface a group 
of short setae, among them one distinctly peg-shaped with a cylindrical basal 
piece (Pg). Palpiger (Pgr) furnished with a broad sclerotized base from which 
arise two setae. Palpus (Plp) consisting of three articles, of which the first and 
second are provided with narrow sclerotic bases. Second article slightly 
narrower and longer than first, third conical, about as long as, but narrower 
than second. Each article bearing one or two minute setae or pores, their 
arrangement being of no apparent taxonomic value. 

Labium (Fig. 11) rather distinctly set off from maxillae by posteriorly diverg¬ 
ing grooves. Center of postmentum (Mt+Smt) covered by a sclerite irregular 
in shape and degree of pigmentation, much lighter along margins. Two pairs of 
well-developed setae laterally on postmentum, one pair near posterior margin, 
the second almost directly in front of the first, about half-way between posterior 
and anterior borders. Near second pair a third pair of minute setae. Posterior 
boundary of prementum marked by a transverse double-arched sclerite, from 
which arises a pair of setae. Labial palpus consisting of two articles, the first 
broader than long, the second conical, longer than, and about half as wide as, 
basal article. Ligula indistinctly separated from prementum; and on its broad 

2 See: Patterson, Nellie F. Studies on the Chrysomelidae, Part II. The 
Bionomics and Comparative Morphology of the Early Stages of Certain Chryso¬ 
melidae (Coleoptera, Phytophaga). Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 879-949, illus. 
1931. 




164 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


anterior surface three pairs of small setae, in addition to a pair of small pores 
probably sensory in nature. 

Legs, each consisting of four articles and a claw (Fig. 12), well developed, 
widely separated; the imaginary lines connecting the coxae diverging posteri¬ 
orly. Legs of prothorax slightly smaller than others. Coxa of each leg articu¬ 
lated to the heavily pigmented lower margin of corresponding episternal sclerite. 

Spiracles normal in size, circular, each enclosed by a sclerite. The latter 
large on mesothorax and eighth abdominal segment, smaller and less con¬ 
spicuous on first seven abdominal segments. 

Prothorax (Fig. 5) about \p 2 times as wide as long, tergal shield rather flat, 
smooth, in the form of a broad escutcheon, divided along mid-dorsal line by a 
distinct and jaggedly sinuate whitish suture. Setae on shield arranged as 
follows: On each side a transverse row of four setae along anterior margin, and 
a series of three setae in an oblique, curved line from center of lateral margin to 
near posterior margin at mid-line. In addition several minute setae scattered 
over the tergal shield. Prothoracic spiracular area ( = parascutal area, Boving) 3 
inconspicuous. Sclerite of triangular laterotergum ( = epipleurum, Boving) 
well developed, bearing one seta. Presternal sclerite immediately behind pos¬ 
terior margin of epicranium well developed. Episternum large, bearing one 
well-developed seta and two very small ones. Epimeron bearing one seta. 
Eusternum and sternellum fused, a large sternal plate about twice as long as 
wide covering nearly half the common area. Two pairs of setae on plate, one 
pair approximately three-fourths, the other one-fourth the length of plate from 
posterior margin. Poststernellum not indicated. 

Mesothorax slightly wider than prothorax, and metathorax wider than 
mesothorax. Arrangement of meso- and metathoracic sclerites identical. These 
segments differ, however, in the presence of a functional spiracle 4 on the meso¬ 
thorax. The following description of sclerites and setae will apply to either 
segment: Tergum anteriorly divided by an obtusely curved, anteriorly concave 
impression or groove extending to about center of segment medially. Anterior 
to this impression is the prescutum (Fig. 5, Ps), the scuto-scutellum (S-Scl) 
lying posterior to it. Each area bearing three sclerites, a single median and a 
pair of lateral (Fig. 16). Prescutal median sclerite (1) with one pair of setae, 
each prescutal lateral sclerite (3) with one seta; scuto-scutellar median sclerite 
(2) with one pair of setae, and each scuto-scutellar lateral sclerite (4) with three 
setae, one well developed and two small. Spiracular area ( = parascutum, 
Boving) bearing two sclerites, a small anterior one (5) surrounding spiracle and 
a much larger posterior one (6). Anterior sclerite with one seta, posterior with 
three well-developed setae and one or two small ones. Laterotergite ( = epi- 
pleurum auct.) (Fig. 5, LaT and Fig. 16, 7), bearing one small seta placed near 
posterior margin of segment. Presternal sclerite (Figs. 16 and 17, Pst) small 

3 The morphological interpretation of these areas, with some changes in 
nomenclature, has been adopted from the following publication: Boving, Adam 
G. Beetle Larvae of the Subfamily Galerucinae, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
75, Art. 2 (Sep. No. 2773), 48 pp., illus. 1929. 

4 A vestigial spiracle to which a fine trachea can be traced is present on the 
metathorax in a position corresponding to that of the mesothoracic spiracle. 
Note small dot on sclerite No. 5, Figs. 16 and 17, representing its location. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 165 


but distinct. Episternum (Fig. 16, 8) smaller than on prothorax, bearing but 
two small setae. Epimeron with one seta. Eusternum marked with median 
sclerite bearing one pair of well-developed and one pair of very small setae. 
Sternellar sclerites (11) distinct and separated, each bearing one seta. Post- 
sternellum not distinguishable. 

Abdominal segments 1 to 7 subdivided into three transverse areas, the pre¬ 
scutum (Fig. 5, Ps), the scutum (S), and the scutellum (Scl). Grooves separ¬ 
ating the areas discernible, extending a short distance on either side of mid¬ 
dorsal line. Each area marked by a transverse row of pigmented sclerites; 
prescutum with a single median sclerite (Fig. 16, 1), and on each side a paired 
lateral sclerite (3); scutum with a paired sclerite (S) outside an imaginary 
longitudinal line between lateral margins of median sclerites of prescutum and 
scutellum: scutellum with a single median (2) and a pair of lateral sclerites (4). 
The median sclerite bears one pair of setae and each lateral sclerite one seta. 
Spiracular area with an anterior (5) and a posterior sclerite (6), each bearing 
one seta. Glandular openings absent on all of these sclerites. Spiracle between, 
but somewhat nearer to posterior than to anterior spiracular sclerite, partially 
surrounded by a sclerite (Sp). Laterotergite (7) large, bearing three setae, one 
of them very small. Pleuron (= hypopleuron, auct.) with one sclerite (8+9) 
bearing two setae. Eusternum with a median unpaired sclerite (10) bearing 
a pair of setae. Sternellum with a pair of sclerites (11) from each of which two 
setae arise. 

Eighth abdominal segment (Fig. 21) similar to preceding but with arrange¬ 
ment of sclerites slightly different; paired lateral sclerites of scutellum fused 
with median one to form a large sclerite (Fig. 21, 2+4) with two pairs of setae, 
and the spiracle situated in posterior sclerite of spiracular area (6), which bears 
three setae, two of them being small. 

Ninth abdominal segment (Figs. 5, 19 and 21) about three-fourths width of 
eighth and slightly shorter, its width to its length as 2 is to 1^+ Pygidial 
shield approximately saddle-shaped, without urogomphi, but with six well- 
developed setae on each side (Fig. 21), in addition to three or four minute setae 
or pores. Five primary setae arranged in an irregular row along margin of 
shield, two being slightly below margin. Sixth seta situated a little in front of 
center of shield and approximately one-half distance from mid-line to lateral 
margin. On ventral surface of segment a transverse unpaired sclerite immed- 
ately in front of pygopod (Fig. 21), bearing two pairs of setae. 

Tenth abdominal segment developed as a short, obliquely directed pygopod 
(Fig. 21, XAB). On each side a small pigmented sclerite which does not bear 
setae. Anal opening in center of under surface of pygopod. 

Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer. 

(Described from mature larvae in vial marked “Arlington, Va. 25 : X : 1936. 
F. W. Poos. Larvae No. 178, 173 and others. Reared.”) 

Smaller than denticulata, the full-grown larva measuring about 5 mm. in 
length and 0.5 mm. in greatest width. Body (Fig. 4) with regularly arranged 
but nonpigmented sclerites, and with prothorax and pygidial shield only slightly 
darker than remainder of body sclerites, 


166 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


Head (Fig. 6) broader posteriorly, with sides nearly straight. Frontal sutures 
(Fig. 6, Fs) straight, apparently 5 not extending to antennal rings. Epicranial 
suture short. Epicranial halves more produced posteriorly and roundly angu- 
late. Setal arrangement on head similar to that of denticulata except for the 
two median setae on epicranium, which are more widely separated and consid¬ 
erably farther in front of union of frontal sutures. Grooves separating labium 
from maxillae nearly parallel, giving to labium a rectangular shape (Fig. 13). 
Sclerome at base of prementum (Prmt) forming a simple, posteriorly curved 
arch bearing one pair of setae. 

Thorax with arrangement of sclerites and setae as in denticulata. 

Abdomen with each segment dorsally divided into three transverse areas; 
sclerites as in denticulata except that scutal sclerites are united across mid-dorsal 
line (Fig. 4, S). Setae on scuta in line with setae on median sclerites of prescuta 
and scutella. Pleuron with separate sclerites (Fig. 17, 8 and 9), each with one 
seta. 

Ninth abdominal tergum armed with small urogomphi (Figs. 20 and 22, Ur) 
directed upward and slightly backward. Pygidial shield on each side armed 
with seven primary setae (Fig. 20), five arranged along lateral and posterior 
margins, two on dorsal surface. Tenth abdominal segment without pigmented 
sclerites. 


Figure 

Figure 


Figure 


Figure 


Figure 

Figure 

Figure 

Figure 

Figure 


Explanation of Figures. 6 
Plate 19. 

1. Chaetocnema denticulata (Ill.). Clypeus and labrum. 

2. Chaetocnema denticulata. Head, dorsal view. Ant, antenna; 

Enc, endocarina; Ep, epicranium; EpS, epicranial suture; Eps 
epistomal thickening; Fs, frontal suture; Md, mandible. 

3. Chaetocnema denticulata. Left antenna. IAt, first article; 2At, 

rudimentary second article; BMb, basal membrane; Fs, frontal 
suture; Oc, ocellus; SAp, sensory appendix. 

4. Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsh. Mature larva, dorsal view. IAB, 

first abdominal segment; IXAB, ninth abdominal segment; 
LaT, laterotergite; Ps, prescutum; S, scutum; Scl, scutellum; 
SpA, spiracular area; S-Scl, scuto-scutellum. 

4A. Chaetocnema pulicaria. Body seta. 

4B. Chaetocnema pulicaria. Spiracle from typical abdominal segment. 

5. Chaetocnema denticulata. Mature larva, dorsal view. Lettering 

as in Fig. 4. 

5A. Chaetocnema denticulata. Body seta. 

5B. Chaetocnema denticulata. Spiracle from typical abdominal seg¬ 
ment. (Comparison with Fig. 4B will show difference in location 
of opening in spiracular sclerite in the two species.) 


5 Whereas in denticulata the frontal sutures are distinct and easily traced, 
in pulicaria they are vague and can be followed anteriorly only as far as indi¬ 
cated in the figure (Fig. 6). In the latter their clearness is somewhat exagger¬ 
ated. 

6 With the exception of figures 14 and 15 (from Blunck), and figure 18 (from 
Newton), the drawings were made by the author. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 6 , JUNE, 1938 167 


Figure 6. 
Figure 7. 

Figure 8. 
Figure 9. 
Figure 10. 

Figure 11. 

Figure 12. 


Figure 13. 


Chaetocnema pulicaria. Head, dorsal view. Lettering as in 
Fig. 2. 

Chaetocnema denticulata. Left maxilla, ventral view. Cd, cardo; 
Pg, peg-shaped seta of galea; Pgr, palpiger; Plp, palpus; St, 
stipes. 

Chaetocnema pulicaria. Right mandible, dorsal view. 

Chaetocnema denticulata. Right mandible, dorsal view. 
Chaetocnema denticulata. Right maxilla, dorsal view. Ga, galea; 
Lc, lacinia. 

Chaetocnema denticulata. Head, ventral view. Mt + Smt, post- 
mentum; Prmt, prementum. 

Chaetocnema denticulata. Left metathoracic leg, anterior view. 
Cl, claw; Cx, coxa; Epm, epimeron; Es, episternum; Fe, femur; 
Pp, paronychial appendix; Tr, trochanter; T-Ta, tibio-tarsus. 
Chaetocnema pulicaria. Head, ventral view. Lettering as in 

Fig. 11. 


Figure 14. 
Figure 15. 

Figure 16. 

Figure 17. 

Figure 18. 

Figure 19. 
Figure 20. 

Figure 21. 

Figure 22. 


Plate 20. 

Chaetocnema aridula Gyllh. 7 Metathorax and first abdominal 
segment, showing arrangement of sclerites and setae, es, 
episternum; pst, presternum; s, sclerite of scutum; sp, spiracle. 

Chaetocnema aridella Payk. 7 Mesothorax and first abdominal 
segment, showing arrangement of sclerites and setae. Lettering 
as in Fig. 14. 

Chaetocnema denticulata. Metathorax and first abdominal segment, 
showing arrangement of sclerites and setae. Lettering as in 
Fig. 14. 

Chaetocnema pulicaria. Metathorax and first abdominal segment, 
showing arrangement of sclerites and setae. Lettering as in 
Fig. 14. 

Chaetocnema concinna Marsh. 8 Metathorax and first abdominal 
segment, showing arrangement of sclerites and setae. Lettering 
as in Fig. 14. 

Chaetocnema denticulata. Ninth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 

Chaetocnema pulicaria. Ninth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
Ur, urogomphi. 

Chaetocnema denticulata. End of abdomen, lateral view. XAB, 
tenth abdominal segment. Remainder of lettering explained in 
text. 

Chaetocnema pulicaria. End of abdomen, lateral view. Lettering 
as in Fig. 21. 


7 Figures 14 and 15 adapted from Blunck’s figures 14b and 14c, respectively. 
Blunck, Hans. Zur Kenntnis der Lebensgewohnheiten und der Metamorphose 
Getreidebewohnender Halticinen. Zeit. f. Angewandte Ent., Band 19, pp. 
357-394, illus. 1932. 

8 Adapted from Newton’s figures 8 and 9. Newton, H. C. F. Observations 
on the Biology of some Flea-beetles of Economic Importance. Jour. S. E. Agr. 
Col., Wye, Kent, No. 26, pp. 145-164, illus. July, 1929. 





PLATE 19 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 





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170 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


NEW SPECIES AND SYNONYMY IN THE GENUS MACRO- 
CENTRUS (HYMENOPTERA : BRACONIDAE). 

By C. F. W. Muesebeck, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture . 

In mv revision of the Nearctic species of Macrocentrus 1 I 
expressed uncertainty concerning the identity of M. nigridorsis 
Viereck and M. pectoralis Provancher, not having seen the type 
of either species. Since that time, however, I have had an 
opportunity to examine these types. As a consequence it 
becomes necessary to suppress two names which were treated 
as valid in the revisionary paper mentioned. 

Macrocentrus nigridorsis Viereck. 

Macrocentrus nigridorsis Viereck, Can-. Ent., Vol. 56, p. 68, 1924. 

Macrocentrus harrisi DeGant, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 32, p. 164, 1930. New 
synonymy. 

On pages 19 and 52 of my revision, it was suggested that 
these two names might prove to apply to the same species. 
Examination of the type of nigridorsis , which is in the Canadian 
National Collection at Ottawa, shows this to be the case; 
harrisi DeGant, therefore, must be suppressed as a synonym of 
nigridorsis Viereck. 

Macrocentrus pectoralis Provancher. 

Macrocentrus pectoralis Provancher, Nat. Can., vol. 12, p. 173, 1880. 
Macrocentrus fuscipennis Muesebeck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80, Art. 23, 
p. 43, 1932. New synonymy. 

It was stated on page 52 of the same paper that, on the basis 
of the original description and other notes, pectoralis appeared 
to be very similar to pallisteri DeGant, and that the two might 
be found to be identical. They are not, however. Study of the 
type of pectoralis has convinced me that it is the species which 
I described under the name fuscipennis. The latter name, 
accordingly, is here placed in synonymy. 

Reared material of two new species of Macrocentrus is at 
hand, and since names are desired for these they are described 
below. 


Macrocentrus gravitarsis, new species. 

In the key contained in the Macrocentrus revision mentioned 
above this runs to couplet 33, and here agrees with the second 
alternate except for the shorter calcaria of posterior tibia and 
the absence of the transverse black band on vertex. In its 


1 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80, Art. 23, pp. 1-55, 1932. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 6 , JUNE, 1938 171 


short ovipositor it differs from all other known Nearctic species 
except uniformis Provancher; and from this species, as well as 
from all others, it is immediately distinguished by its unusually 
stout tarsi. It is, furthermore, the largest Nearctic species of 
Macrocentrus known. 

Female. —Length, about 14 mm. Head strongly transverse, barely wider 
than thorax; temples and cheeks receding, not convex; eyes very large and 
prominent, slightly divergent below; malar space as long as basal width of 
mandible; clypeus more than half as long as width of its apical truncature; 
ocellocular line barely longer than diameter of a lateral ocellus; maxillary palpus 
long, its longest segment about as long as first segment of antennal flagellum; 
antennae longer than body, 55-segmented in the type. 

Thorax short, smooth, and shining; middle lobe of mesoscutum prominent; 
scutellum strongly convex; metanotum long, with a sharp median longitudinal 
carina; propodeum weakly irregularly transversely aciculate; mesopleurum 
and metapleurum smooth and shining; metapleural tooth large and prominent, 
acute; posterior coxa very long; calcaria of posterior tibia stout, the longer one 
not more than half as long as metatarsus; all tarsi unusually stout; fourth 
segment of posterior tarsus about as broad as long; forewing large, broad; 
stigma elongate, emitting radius much beyond its middle; radial cell nearly 
attaining apex of wing; first cubital cell very large, its extreme length about that 
of first discoidal; second abscissa of cubitus as long as recurrent; submedian cell 
glabrous, its apical third abruptly widened; nervulus only slightly postfurcal; 
mediella considerably more than twice as long as lower abscissa of basella, 
which is not distinctly as long as nervellus; radiellan cell slightly narrowed at 
end of basal fourth but gradually broadening from that point to apex. 

Abdomen much longer than head and thorax combined, compressed apically; 
first tergite more than three times as long as broad at apex, not at all impressed 
at base, very weakly irregularly sculptured on middle third; spiracles of first 
tergite about at end of basal third, much farther from base of segment than 
from each other; second abdominal tergite considerably longer than broad, 
distinctly separated from third, with a little weak longitudinal sculpture on 
basal half; third tergite slightly longer than broad; ovipositor sheath thickly 
covered with long hair and not longer than apical truncature of abdomen. 

Reddish yellow; antennae yellowish; legs reddish yellow; wings faintly tinted 
with yellow, stigma deep yellow, veins brown. 

Type. —-U. S. Nat. Mus.. No. 51915. 

Type locality.— Berkeley, California. 

Three female specimens: The type reared from Halisidota 
argentata Pack, by W. H. Lange; one paratype reared July 17, 
1916, by Carl Heinrich, from Euschausia ingens (Hy. Edw.), 
taken on Pinus contorta in Gila National Forest, Mogollon, 
New Mexico, elevation 7200 ft.; and a second paratype from 
Michigan Bluff, Placer Co., California. The last-mentioned 
specimen is the property of the California Academy of Sciences 
and has been returned to that institution. 


172 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


Macrocentrus infumatuus, new species. 

This belongs among the group of gregarious species which 
have the submedian cell completely closely hairy and the 
scutellum short. In its completely rugose metapleura it re¬ 
sembles terminalis (Ashm.) but it differs widely in color, as well 
as in having the mesopleura smooth, the mandibles unusually 
short, and the basal abdominal tergites more coarsely sculptured. 
It can be immediately distinguished from all other North 
American species of this group by its strongly infumated wings 
and the black tibiae and tarsi of all the legs. 

Male. —Length, 4.5 mm. Face gently convex, much broader than eye height, 
finely but distinctly punctate; malar space shorter than clypeus; temples and 
cheeks receding strongly; ocellocular line nearly twice as long as the diameter of 
an ocellus; maxillary palpus as long as width of head, but labial palpus barely 
as long as face. Mandibles very short, not meeting at tips, and with the teeth 
unusually short, the outer tooth barely surpassing the inner one. Antenna 40- 
to 42-segmented, longer than the body, the second segment much longer than 
the longest segment of labial palpus. 

Thorax a little narrower than head; notaulices foveolate, meeting in a punc¬ 
tate groove which extends to apex of scutum; scutellum small, flat, much less 
than half as long as propodeum; propodeum and metapleurum completely rugose; 
mesopleurum polished; prepectus smooth; legs very slender; wings narrow; 
submedian cell completely closely hairy; nervulus postfurcal by less than half 
its length; radial cell short, ending much before apex of wing; radius from slightly 
beyond middle of stigma, its first abscissa usually a little longer than second; 
second abscissa of cubitus very short; mediella about twice as long as lower 
abscissa of basella, the latter much longer than nervellus. 

Abdomen narrow; first tergite closely longitudinally rugulose, with a con¬ 
spicuous impression at extreme base; second tergite slightly longer than broad, 
longitudinally striate; third tergite aciculate on basal half. 

Black; head black, including antennae; palpi piceous; thorax black except 
the mesopleura and mesosternum, which are honey yellow; mesoscutum some¬ 
times with small reddish markings; all coxae and trochanters, and the femora 
except for blackish apices, concolorous with mesopleura; all tibiae and tarsi 
entirely black; wings conspicuously fuscous; stigma and veins dark brown, the 
former with a small pale spot at base; abdomen black above and below. 

Type. —U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 52850. 

Type locality .—Douglas Lake, Cheboygan Co., Mich. 

Host .—Probably Schoenobius melinellus (Clem.). 

Described from 4 male specimens reared by W. Carrington 
Frohne in July and August, 1936. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 173 

MINUTES OF THE 492ND REGULAR MEETING OF THE ENTO¬ 
MOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 492nd meeting of the Society was called to order by President Back at 
8 p. m., Thursday, May 5, 1938, in Room 43 of the National Museum, with 47 
members and 11 visitors present. The minutes of the previous meeting were 
read and approved. 

H. S. McConnell presented the name of Charles S. Wilson, Division of Insects 
Affecting Man and Animals, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
Washington, D. C., who, being recommended by the Executive Committee, 
was elected to membership in the Society. 

President Back announced the deaths of Dr. Maurice C. Hall and Mr. 
Warren Knaus, both members of the Society. J. S. Wade and E. A. Chapin 
were appointed to prepare an obituary of Dr. Hall, and H. S. Barber and W. S. 
Fisher were similarly appointed to draw up an obituary of Mr. Knaus. 

President Back reported that the Executive Committee had recently decided 
to consider the publication by the Society of larger scientific papers than those 
now appearing in the Proceedings. A committee appointed by the President, 
consisting of C. F. W. Muesebeck, Chairman, W. R. Walton, R. A. Cushman, 
H. E. Ewing and D. J. Caffrev, met and made the following recommendations, 
which were approved by the Executive Committee: 

I. That our Society establish a publication series to be known as the Memoirs 
of the Entomological Society of Washington, publications in this series to be 
issued irregulary as conditions permit. 

2. That the Memoirs shall be financed entirely out of the publication funds 
of the Society according to the provisions of the constitution and the restrictions 
placed on such funds by their donors, and that the money obtained from the 
sale of these Memoirs be returned to a fund which shall be used for publication 
of future numbers of the Memoirs. 

It was suggested by the President that the matter be fully discussed at the 
June meeting. 

Under notes and Exhibition of Specimens, A. B. Gurney briefly discussed an 
important paper by Dr. E. M. Walker, entitled “Grylloblatta, a living fossil” 
(Proc. and Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, ser. 3, sect. 5, v. 31, pp. 1-10, 1937). The 
paper is not primarily taxonomic, but brings together in a concise manner the 
more important facts concerning the Grylloblattidae. In addition to summar¬ 
izing previous knowledge, some new information is included, especially regarding 
biology. (Author’s abstract.) 

The regular program consisted of a symposium on cereal and forage insects. 
The first speaker, C. M. Packard, spoke on “The work of the Division of Cereal 
and Forage Insect Investigations.” 

[Annual value of these crops is 5 to 8 billion dollars with annual loss due 
to insects estimated about 500 to 800 million dollars. Low acre values 
limit control measures mostly to low-cost cultural type and increase 
difficulty of finding practical ones. About 75 research men now employed 
by Division on these insects, at 24 stations in all parts of the United 
States, on many different insects and crops, including grasshoppers, 
Mormon crickets, chinch bug, corn earworm, corn borers, sugarcane borer 
and insect vectors of sugarcane mosaic, white grubs, wireworms, hessian 


174 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 6, JUNE, 1938 


fly, jointworms and sawflies, greenbug and other aphids, cutworms and 
army worms, stink bugs attacking rice, plant bugs and other insects in¬ 
juring alfalfa seed, leafhoppers as pests of legumes, flea beetles as vectors of 
corn wilt, and many insect pests of stored grains and grain products. 
Accomplishments recently completed or in progress are cheaper baits for 
grasshopper control; successful sprays for corn borer control in early market 
sweet corn and dahlias; ear fumigation and oil spray for earworm in sweet 
corn; varieties of wheat resistant to hessian fly, alfalfa resistant to pea 
aphid, and corn resistant to corn borer; early cutting for alfalfa weevil; 
cultural practices and sprays for plant bugs attacking alfalfa seed crop; 
control of leafhoppers on peanuts by spraying; and improvements in 
fumigation for control of stored grain and mill insects.] (Author’s abstract.) 

The second speaker, George W. Barber, gave an illustrated talk, entitled 
“New developments in Corn Earworm control.” 

[Control of the corn ear worm ( Heliothis obsoleta F.) has unusual diffi¬ 
culties in that to protect a given ear of corn not a single larva can be per¬ 
mitted to enter it. Exploration of possible means of protecting ears showed 
that this could be accomplished by placing a barrier at the ear tip, through 
which larvae could not penetrate. It was necessary to protect the ears 
against every larva, but to do this at a cost that growers could afford to 
expend, and by means which would not injure the appearance of the ears 
or affect in any way their use by consumers. The desired results were 
obtained by two means, fumigation and oiling. 

[In fumigation a pressed tablet of hexachlorethane containing .5 gram 
of the material was inserted into the ear just after fertilization had been 
accomplished. A wire clip was then placed about the tip of the ear above 
the fumigant to retain the evaporating gas. Larvae were killed as they 
tried to penetrate through the barrier of gas thus formed. This control 
has given more than 90 per cent of uninfested ears at harvest, at a cost of 
about 3 cents per dozen ears. 

[A less expensive control consists of applying light mineral oil of vis¬ 
cosity between 100 and 200 Saybolt to tips of ears just after fertilization. 
Application at a rate of about 1 cc., per ear, at a cost of not more than 1 
cent per dozen ears, protected up to 79 per cent. 

[Both these control measures have valuable features such as: a single 
treatment per ear, effectiveness in any weather conditions, no change in 
appearance or in flavor of ears, effectiveness under any populations of the 
insect, and no danger to consumers of roasting ears.] (Author’s abstract.) 

This paper was discussed by Muesebeck and Back. 

The program was concluded by a motion picture, entitled “The Long-Winged 
Grasshopper and control operations” which was introduced by W. R. Walton. 
The picture was especially concerned with Dissosteira longipennis (Thomas), 
which in 1937 was exceedingly abundant and destructive in Colorado and other 
Western States. 

Adjournment at 9.40 p. m. Ashley B. Gurnet, 

Recording Secretary. 


Actual date of publication , June 24 , 1938. 



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Address: Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , 
Washington , D. C. 














CONTENTS 


ANDERSON, W. H.—DESCRIPTION OF THE LARVAE OF CHAETOCNEMA DENTI- 
CULATA (iLLIGER) AND CHAETOCNEMA PULICARIA MELSHEIMER 
(COLEOPTERA *. CHRYSOMELIDAE). 161 

BLACKMAN, M. W.-NEW SPECIES OF CACTOPINUS SCHWARZ (COLEOPTERA: 

scolytidae) . 151 

CHAPIN, E. A. AND WADE, J. S.-OBITUARY NOTICE*. MAURICE CROWTHER 

HALL. 147 

MUESEBECK, C. F. W.—NEW SPECIES AND SYNONYMY IN THE GENUS MA- 

crocentrus (hymenoptera : braconidae). 170 

OMAN, P. W. AND WHEELER, NANCY H.—THE NORTH AMERICAN EMPOASCAN 

LEAFHOPPERS OF THE ASPERSA GROUP (hOMOPTERA-CICADELLIDAe) . 133 

SMITH, MARION R — NOTES ON THE LEGIONARY ANTS (ECITON, SUBGENUS 

ACAMATUS) WITH A RECORD OF NEW SPECIFIC SYNONYMY. 157 










OCTOBER, 1938 


No. 7 


1 

I 

VOL. 40 




PROCEEDINGS Otce v *a 


u -s. 


OF THE 




^58 




ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



Published Monthly Except July, August and September 
by the 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., under 
Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 



THE 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum on the 
nrst Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p. m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1938. 

Honorary President .L. O. Howard 

President ..E. A. Back 

First Vice-President . .. R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President .Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary .Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary . D. J. Caffrey 

Treasurer .H. E. Ewing 

Editor .W. R. Walton 

Executive Committee . . . B. A. Porter, S. B. Fracker, N. E. McIndoo 
Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences .C. F. W. Muesebeck 


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PLATE 21 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 



EDWARD MEYRICK, F. R. S. 


H76J 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 OCTOBER, 1938 No. 7 


EDWARD MEYRICK, F. R. S. 

1854-1938. 

The Nestor and central figure among Microlepidopterists in 
the past fifty years, Edward Meyrick, of “Thornhanger, ” 
Marlborough, England, died March 31 of this year after a short 
illness. His death leaves a void which it is difficult for his 
numerous students and correspondents all over the world to 
realize. For fifty years we have sought his help, always so 
generously extended. When we did not know, we asked Meyrick 
and we were sure of a prompt and authentic solution of our 
problem. 

Edward Meyrick was born in Wiltshire, England, and here he 
lived all his life with the exception of ten years (1877-1886), 
which he spent as schoolmaster in Australia and New Zealand. 

His father, grandfather and great grandfather were vicars in the 
neighboring village of Ramsburg, where Meyrick was born and 
where he is buried. He had a classical education in Marl¬ 
borough College and in Trinity College in Cambridge. On his 
return from Australia he became Master of Marlborough College 
and President of the Marlborough Natural History Society, and 
remained as such until he retired in 1914. His arduous work 
as a strict but beloved teacher is pleasingly mencioned by the 
Director of Kew, Sir Arthur Hill, in the school magazine, “The 
Marlburian” for May, 1938. It is interesting to note that the 
classics, Latin and Greek, were Meyrick’s vocation, while 
Natural Sciences and particularly Systematic Entomology, by 
which he won world fame, was an avocation, until his school 
work ended. 

Though interested in Lepidoptera long before he went to 
Australia, the wealth of new forms he encountered there and 
from which he collected eagerly, gave him the impetus for his 
astonishing work, which covered the entire globe and made him 
the authority for students in all parts of the world. His 
prodigious work covers Australia, New Zealand, America, Asia, 
Europe, Africa and the South Pacific Islands. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher estimates that Meyrick described some 
20,000 new species of Lepidoptera besides hundreds of new 
genera and several families; double that number is probably 
nearer the truth. His numerous descriptions were published in 






178 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 

various entomological journals for many years, but when he 
gave up his school work in 1914 and was able to devote his entire 
time to entomology he found it necessary in addition to issue 
his own publication, “Exotic Microlepidoptera,” which he 
described as “a spasmodic Entomological Magazine on one 
subject by a single contributor. ” Of this, four volumes and part 
of a fifth appeared, covering 2722 pages with an average of 3 
descriptions of new species per page, besides definitions of 
numerous new genera and families. Some conception of 
Meyrick’s astonishing productivity is gained when it is con¬ 
sidered that he at the same time continued to contribute lengthy 
descriptive papers to various journals with other thousands of 
new species, and yet found time to do the laborious revisional 
work necessary for his many volumes contributed to Wagner’s 
“Lepidopterorum Catalogus” and Wytzman’s “Genera In- 
sectorum.” 

Meyrick’s “Handbook British Lepidoptera” 1895 and the 
revised edition (1928) is probably his best known work; in it he 
broke away radically from the older classifications and estab¬ 
lished his system with the wing venation as principal character 
for the separation of families and genera. It created a storm 
of protest among the leading entomologists of the day and 
adverse reviews of the book were numerous, but the system still 
remains and will remain fundamentally sound though subject to 
modifications by the study of the genitalia and early stages of 
Lepidoptera, to which Meyrick paid scant attention. 

Meyrick’s extensive and intimate knowledge of the Micro¬ 
lepidoptera of the world led his active and logical thinking to 
daring conclusions about their origin and their geographical 
distribution, involving original speculations on prehistoric land 
connections between now isolated continents. A classical 
example is his description and naming of the large South Pacific 
archipelago Palaeonesia, now submerged 12,000 feet and 
represented only by a few small islands thousands of miles aprat; 
and it is very characteristic of Meyrick that this new name and 
description was published in a paper (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 
p. 490, 1928) in which on the next page he named and described 
a new little moth with an alar expanse of 10 mm. 

It was a great privilege to know Mr. Meyrick either as a cor¬ 
respondent or a guest in his hospitable home, “Thornhanger, ” 
which became a Mecca for entomolgists from all parts of the 
world. The name of this Mecca was rather significant of the 
man, who till his death retained something of the stern school¬ 
master. He could be sharp enough in his conversation or in his 
replies to correspondents if his opinions were questioned with¬ 
out, what he considered, sufficient grounds, but when you came 
to know him well, either by letters or by personal contact, you 
found him, especially in his later years, a most charming, genial 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 179 

personality and personal friend, always ready to discuss dif¬ 
ferences of opinion and to share liberally his immense fund of 
knowledge as well as any specimens he could spare. 

Meyrick’s exceedingly valuable collection, consisting of more 
than 100,000 specimens, including the great majority of his tens 
of thousands of types, was given by him to the British Museum 
of Natural History. A few of his types, and more than a 
thousand paratypes and other authentic specimens determined 
by him, are in the U. S. National Museum, and others are in the 
Berlin and Vienna Museums. 

Our friend is gone and his many younger coworkers, who for 
years have depended on his encouraging help in their studies, 
will sorely miss him, but his monumental work will remain a 
sound foundation for further work with the Microlepidoptera. 

August Busck, 

By order of the Society. 



THORNHANGER 




180 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 

NORTH AMERICAN MITES OF THE SUBFAMILY MYOBIINAE, 
NEW SUBFAMILY (ARACHNIDA). 

By H. E. Ewing, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture . 

This paper deals with a group of degenerate, parasitic mites 
that have for over a century been included in the genus Myobia 
Heyden (1826). They are peculiar arachnids, adapted for a 
parasitic life in the fur of certain mammals by having the front 
legs greatly shortened and transformed into hair claspers, and 
the palpi reduced to small hook-biearing cones. These degene¬ 
rate mites feed at the bases of the hairs on the secretions in the 
hair-follicles, seldom, if ever, sucking blood. Members of this 
group have a restricted range in their host distribution, being 
found only on mammals of three orders,—Rodentia, Insectivora, 
and Chiroptera. Their absence from other mammalian groups 
gives rise to certain theoretical speculations, concerning which 
the present writer will have some facts to present at a later date. 

Although greatly modified by adaptation, the structure of 
these mites shows clearly that they belong to the family Chey- 
letidae, a group composed chiefly of free-living species. In this 
paper the genus Myobia Heyden is divided into four genera 
which are grouped together under the new subfamily name 
Myobiinae. 

Subfamily Myobiinae, new subfamily. 

Body flattened; skin soft, with little or no pigment. Eyes absent. Mouth 
parts greatly reduced; palpi minute to vestigial, typically two-segmented; 
chelicerae needlelike, thrust from apex of small, conelike capitulum during the 
process of feeding. Leg I greatly modified for hair clasping; segments I and II 
very stout, short; segment III bearing a large, clawlike, clasping tubercle; 
segments IV and V usually anchylosed with segment III, but distinct in one 
genus. Tarsi of legs II, III and IV provided with either one or two claws. MHes 
smaller than females, with fewer and differently shaped and differently arranged 
dorsal setae. Penis internal, sclerotized. 

Type genus.—Myobia Heyden (1826). 

The family Cheyletidae is in need of a thorough taxonomic 
overhauling. That its elements constitute a harmonious 
phylogenetic unit appears probable, yet such wide diversity in 
habits and structure exists between species of certain of the 
included genera as to make evident the need for subgroups 
within the family. Such genera as Syringophilus Heller and 
Sarcopterinus Railliet, composed of parasitic species, should 
never be put in the same subfamily with genera composed of 
free-living cheyletids. A start is here made toward breaking 
up the family into subfamilies by erecting a new one for the 
aberrant Myobia and its generic derivatives. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 181 

Generic characters in the Myobiinae. 

Characters recognized as good generic ones in nearly all 
families of the Acarina have been mentioned by some acarolo- 
gists in dealing with Myobia , but usually they have been over¬ 
looked. Even descriptions of many species contain few if any 
references to them. Basically the most important character, 
yet the hardest to interpret, is the variation in the number of 
segments in the modified first pair of legs. Of almost equal 
importance is the presence of either one or two claws on each 
tarsus of the last three pairs of legs. 

A careful study of the American species of Myobia shows that 
the number of segments in leg I ranges from three to five. This 
does not take into account the coxa, which is never a freely 
movable segment in any of the legs, and may not always be in 
evidence. 

Tarsus II of the type species of Myobia , M. musculi 
(Schrank), is armed with a single claw. Yet in several of the 
described species, such as M. claparedei Poppe, this tarsus is 
armed with two claws. The two claws of tarsus II may be 
equal or unequal in size, similar or dissimilar in structure, such 
variations furnishing excellent specific characters. 

Tarsi III and IV, like tarsus II, may each be furnished with 
either one or two claws. In some species one of the two claws 
of tarsus III or IV is so small that these tarsi may, by mistake, 
be regarded as single clawed. 

Specific characters in the Myobiinae. 

The chaetotaxy of the dorsal surface of the body (see Fig. 1) 
has been used not only as the chief specific character in this 
group of parasitic mites, but by some workers almost exclusively. 
In the females of all species and in the males of most species the 
dorsal setae, with the exception of a few minute ones near the 
tip of the abdomen, are arranged in somewhat irregular trans¬ 
verse and longitudinal rows. Of the former there are six, to 
which Radford (1934) has applied the terms series I, series II, 
series III, etc.; of the latter there are four, two submedian and 
two lateral. In the present paper each dorsal seta is named 
according to its position in a longitudinal row. Thus the first 
seta in a submedian row is called submedian I; the second in the 
same row, submedian II, and so on. The first seta in a lateral 
row is called lateral I; the second in the same row, lateral II, 
and so on throughout the row. In the males of certain species 
a single median seta may supplant either submedians III, IV or 
V. The median setae are known according to their position in 
the row as median I, median 11, or median III. 

Positive identification of the dorsal setae in certain species 
is rather difficult where several are missing, and where those 
present occupy rather unusual positions. However, if a few 


182 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


chel i-cerae palpus 



Fig. 1.—Dorsal view of Myobia musculi (Schrank) with parts labeled. Greatly 
enlarged. In labeling the dorsal setae the word seta has been omitted. 



















PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 183 


facts in regard to their general arrangement and the common 
types of variation are kept in mind, the dorsal setae usually can 
be properly identified. Of all the dorsal setae, lateral I (see 
Fig. 1) probably is the most easily recognized, since it is in¬ 
variably present and usually is very large. It is situated at or 
near the base of leg I. The submedians III, IV, and V are 
peculiar in that they frequently are very similar to each other, 
yet different from all of the other setae. Sometimes these three 
pairs of setae are peglike, sometimes spinelike, and sometimes 
foliaceous. Submedian I is frequently minute; lateral IV (see 
Fig. 1) is usually missing; and finally submedian VI and lateral 
VI, if present, usually are not large enough or in a proper 
position to be identified. 

Among the other characters of specific importance are the 
length and shape of the tarsal claws, the shape of the clasping 
tubercle of leg I (see Fig. 1), the position and length of the 
terminal abdominal setae, the shape of the penis, the position 
of the genital opening in the male, the chaetotaxy of the nymphs, 
and the size, segmentation, shape, and armature of legs III and 
IV in both the protonymph and deutonymph. 

Key to the Genera of Myobiinae. 

A. Leg I composed of five distinct segments and bearing distally a tarsal 

claw; tarsus II with two claws___ Protomyobia , new genus. 

AA. Leg I composed of three or four segments and without tarsal claw; 
tarsus II with one or two claws. 

B. Tarsus II with two claws. 

C. Legs of first pair equal; capitulum symmetrical__ 

Radfordia , new genus. 

CC. Legs of first pair unequal, one being dwarfed; capitu¬ 
lum asymmetrical___ Amorphacarus , new genus. 

BB. Tarsus II with one claw____ M'yobia Heyden. 

Genus PROTOMYOBIA, new genus. 

Legs of the first pair equal, each composed of five segments; segment I 
unmodified; segment II with lateral tubercle; segment III swollen, with lateral, 
hooklike tubercle; segment IV much broader than long; segment V smallest, 
with apical tubercle terminating in a minute claw. Leg II unmodified, armed 
with two claws. Legs III and IV each armed with a single claw. None of dorsal 
setae peglike or foliaceous. 

Type species.—Myobia claparedei Poppe. 

Remarks .—In Protomyobia the legs of the first pair not only 
retain five distinct segments, but distally there is a minute claw, 
which must represent the tarsal claw. By studying the series 
of species of Myobiinae represented in our North American 
fauna it is easily observed how the number of segments in leg 
I has been reduced from five to three. The two small distal 
segments (IV and V) as represented in leg I in Protomyobia 






184 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


become greatly shortened and anchylosed in Myobia elongata 
Poppe (made the type of a new genus in this paper), although in 
this species segments III and IV are distinct. In some species 
of Myobia (sensu stricto ) the fused segments IV and V become 
flattened and disclike, IV being anchylosed with III so as to 
form a thumb in apposition to the clasping tubercle. Finally 
in a species o i Radfordia, described in this paper as R. inaequalis , 
new species, this thumb disappears. 

Protomyobia includes only the type species among the North 
American representatives of Myobiinae. Probably a restudy 
of certain Old World species would show that other species 
belong to the genus. 

V 

Protomyobia elaparedei (Poppe). 

Myobia clapar'dei Poppe, Zool. Anz., Bd. XIX, s. 342, figs. 15, 16, 17, 1896. 
Myobia clapar'dei Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Bd. Ill, Lief. VII, 
s. 56, 1929. 

Myobia clapar'dei Radford, North Western Nat., 1935, p. 250, figs. 6, 7, 8, 1935. 

Female .—Leg I stout, extending beyond tip of palpus by one-third its length; 
first free segment, or trochanter, broader than long; segment II twice as broad 
as long, with ventrolateral, striated tubercle; segment III equal to segment I 
in width, armed ventrolaterally with curved, striated clasping tubercle and 
ventromedially with spinelike tubercle; segment IV twice as broad as long and 
armed ventrally with conspicuous, striated, spinelike tubercle; segment V very 
small, broader than long, armed distally with sharp, curved claw. Claws of 
tarsus II unequal, posterior being only about one-half as long as anterior, less 
curved and provided with ventral tooth. Tarsus III and IV each provided with 
a single, long, curved claw. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian I minute, in 
usual position; submedian II minute, situated more posteriorly than lateral II; 
submedians III-V subequal, each flattened for about its basal half; laterals 
I—III very long, subequal, each slightly flattened basically; laterals IV-VI 
absent. Outer pair of posterior marginal setae as long as body, situated on 
tubercles; inner pair of posterior marginal setae minute, each situated more than 
its length from anal slit. 

Length of female, 0.47 mm., width, 0.32 mm. 

Male .—Leg I as in female. Tarsal claws as in female except that tooth on 
posterior claw of tarsus II is vestigial. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian I 
very minute, situated close to median line; submedian II absent; submedian III 
minute, situated near but posterior to lateral III; submedians IV and V very 
small, situated near each other and slightly posterior to genital opening; laterals 
as in female except that lateral III is somewhat longer. Genital opening at 
middle of dorsum, unaccompanied with sclerotizations. Penis stout, pigmented, 
sinuous, about one-third as long as body, blunt at apex. 

Length of male, 0.35 mm.; width, 0.22 mm. 

Type host.—Sorex vulgaris , now S. araneus. 

Type locality. —Central Europe. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 7 , OCT., 1938 185 


Types. —Located ? 

Remarks. —Described from five females and one male taken 
from Blarina brevicauda captured along the Northwest Branch 
of Anacostia River, near Washington, March 29, 1932, by Rav 
Greenfield; three females taken from Sorex fumeus, Ossipee, 
New Hampshire, July 20, 1927, by Francis Harper (No. 511); 
and one male taken from “little short-tailed shrew,” Wilming¬ 
ton, North Carolina, April 1, 1933, by H. S. Peters (Bishopp 
No. 20739). 


Genus RADFORDIA, new genus. 

Legs of the first pair equal, each composed of three or four visible segments; 
segment I unmodified; segment II either unmodified or with one or two ventral 
tubercles; segment III with powerful, hook-like, clasping tubercle; segment IV 
always anchylosed with segment V and sometimes with III also; segment V 
usually bearing a claw in form of spinelike process. Tarsus II with two claws; 
tarsi III and IV each with either one or two claws. Some of dorsal setae inflated 
or subfoliaceous. 


Type species.—Myobia ensifera Poppe. 

Besides the type species this genus includes Myobia lemnina 
Koch, M. affinis Poppe, M. chiropteraiis Michael, M. ingens 
Vitzthum, M. ewingi Fox, M. trouessarti Poppe, M. rollinati 
Poppe, and three new species described in this paper. Doubtless 
a restudy of other described species will show that some of them 
belong in this new genus. 

Key to the North American Species of Radfordia. 

A. Claws of tarsus II equal. 

B. Submedian seta I of female large, inflated, overreaching 

submedian II__.__ R. lemnina (Koch). 

BB. Submedian seta I of female never reaching beyond one-half 
the distance to submedian II. 

C. Submedian seta I of female with lateral spur; tarsus II 
of female longer than broad. On a harvest mouse.. 

R. subuliger , new species. 

CC. Submedian seta I of female simple, without spur. 

D. Submedian setae III to V of usual setiform 

shape___ R. floridensis, new species. 

DD. Submedian setae III to V much broadened and 

flattened, with margins subparallel_ 

R. ensifera (Poppe). 

A A. Claws of tarsus II unequal. 

B. Tarsi III and IV of female each provided with two unequal 

claws. Parasitic on a bat. R. inaequalis , new species. 

BB. Tarsi III and IV of female each provided with a single claw. 






186 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


C. Posterior claw of tarsus II about as stout as anterior; 
penis spinelike, scarcely reaching to level of coxae II. 

On house mouse___ R. affinis (Poppe). 

CC. Posterior claw of tarsus II much more slender than 
anterior; penis very slender, flagelliform, reaching 
to level of coxae II. On jumping mouse../?, ewingi (Fox). 

Radfordia lemnina (Koch). 

Dermaleichus lemninus C. L. Koch, Deu. Crust. Myr. Arachn., fasc. 33, t. 5, 
1841. 

Myobia lemnina Poppe, Zool. Anz., Bd. XIX, s. 332, fig. 4, 5, 6, 1896. 

Myobia lemnina Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Bd. Ill, Lief. VII, s. 
56, 1929. 

Myobia lemnina Radford, North Western Nat., 1935, p. 251, figs. 9, 10, 11, 1935. 

Female. —Leg I stout, extending beyond tips of palpi by about one-third its 
length; first movable segment with heavy, recurved, hooklike, ventrolateral 
tubercle; segment II with two ventral and one inner tubercles; segment III 
with outwardly directed, transversely striated, hooklike clasping tubercle and 
flattened, striated, disclike thumb bearing a straight, stout spine. Claws of 
tarsus II equal, toothless. Tarsus III with a single, curved, toothless claw. 
Tarsus IV with a single claw, subequal to that of tarsus III. Dorsal setae as 
follows: Submedian I large, striated, with lateral barb, extending beyond base 
of submedian II; submedian II similar to submedian I but longer; submedians 
III-V subequal, each much smaller than submedian II and without barb; 
lateral I largest of all dorsal setae, striated, with lateral barb, extending 
slightly beyond base of lateral II; lateral II similar to lateral I but somewhat 
smaller; lateral III subequal to lateral II; lateral IV similar to lateral III but 
slightly smaller; lateral V small, without barb. Outer pair of posterior marginal 
bristles flagelliform, fully as long as body; inner pair of posterior marginal 
bristles very small, each situated its length from anal slit. 

Length of female, 0.41 mm.; width, 0.24 mm. 

Male. —Leg I as in female. Tarsal claws as in female. Dorsal setae as follows: 
Submedian I small, without lateral barb, situated more than its length from 
lateral I; submedian II about twice as long as submedian I, greatly displaced 
laterally, being very near and anterior to lateral II; submedians III-V absent, 
their place being taken by two long, unbarbed median setae; median I absent; 
median II situated slightly posterior to level of lateral III and submedian III 
situated at level of coxae IV. Genital opening situated above base of mouth 
parts; penis slender, almost straight, slightly pigmented and about one-third as 
long as body. 

Length of male, 0.32 mm.; width, 0.19 mm. 

Type host.—Lemmus arvalis, now Clethrionomys glareolus. 
Type locality. —Germany. 

Types. —Located ? 

Remarks. —Described from three females and one male taken 
from Microtus pennsylvanicus (C. P. 43) at College Park, 
Maryland, April 6, 1932, by Ray Greenfield. The presence of 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 187 


two large median setae (medians II and III) on the dorsum of 
the male easily identifies this species. 

Radfordia subuliger, new species. 

Female .—Leg I stout; segment I without tubercles; segment II with a small, 
ventral, spinelike tubercle situated near its middle and a much larger, flattened, 
broadly-forked tubercle situated on inner ventral aspect; segment III with 
large, lateral, longitudinally-striated, hooklike process and strongly hooked, 
terminal, clasping tubercle. Claws of tarsus II equal, toothless. Tarsi III and 
IV each with a single, slender, slightly curved, toothless claw. Dorsal setae as 
follows: Submedian I very small, with lateral barb, reaching scarcely one-half 
the distance to base of submedian II; submedian II large, obliquely striated, 
with lateral barb, extending to base of submedian III; submedians III-V sub¬ 
equal, each long and obliquely striated but without barb; lateral I much the 
largest of all the dorsal setae, longitudinally striated, with conspicuous barb; 
lateral II subequal to submedian II; lateral III like submedian II but slightly 
smaller; lateral IV absent. Outer pair of posterior marginal setae about as long 
as the body, situated on tubercles; inner pair of marginal setae situated about 
three-fourths their length from anal slit. Femur II, trochanter III, and tro¬ 
chanter IV, each bears a very long, whiplike seta on its dorsal side. 

Length of female, 0.45 mm.; width, 0.23 mm. 

Male. —Unknown. 

Type host. —Small-eared harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys 
humulis impiger. 

Type locality. —College Park, Maryland. 

Type slide. —U. S. National Museum No. 1280. 

Described from two females taken on type host from type 
locality, April 6, 1932, Ray Greenfield collector; and from one 
female taken from southern golden mouse, Peromyscus nuttalli 
aureolus, Wilmington, North Carolina, April 1, 1933, by H. S. 
Peters. This species is nearest R. lemnina (Koch), but females 
differ from those of Koch’s species in having submedian seta 

I only about half as long and in the absence of lateral seta IV. 

Radfordia floridensis, new species. 

Female .—Leg I very short and stout; segment I broader than long, broadest 
segment; segment II as broad-as long, with ventral, recurved, spinelike tubercle; 
segment III anchylosed with IV, bearing strongly curved, outwardly directed, 
clasping tubercle and flattened, striated, spine-bearing thumb. Claws of tarsus 

II equal, toothless. Tarsi III and IV each with a single, toothless, strongly 
curved claw. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian I simple, without spur, not 
reaching base of submedian II; submedian II long, setiform, extending beyond 
base of submedian III; submedians III to V setiform, long, simple, subequal; 
lateral I large, spinelike, without barb or striations, extending slightly beyond 
base of lateral II; laterals II and III long, simple, setiform, in usual positions; 
lateral IV absent. Outer pair of posterior marginal setae broken off; inner pair 


188 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


of posterior marginal setae minute. Femur II, trochanter III, and trochanter 
IV each bearing a long, tactile dorsal seta. 

Length of female, 0.43 mm.; width, 0.28 mm. 

Male. —Unknown. 

Type host. —Free-tailed bat, Tadarida cynocephala. 

Type locality. —Leon County, Florida. 

Type slide. —U. S. National Museum No. 1281. 

Remarks. —Described from a single female taken from type 
host at type locality, August 27, 1934, by E. V. Komarek 
(Bishopp No. 22334). This species is particularly characterized 
by having all the dorsal setae setiform and simple (without barb 
or striations). 


Radfordia ensifera (Poppe). 

Myobia ensifera Poppe, Zool. Anz., Bd. XIX, s. 341, figs. 12-14, 1896. 

Myobia ensifera Fahrenholz, Abh. Nat. Ver., Bremen, Bd. XIX, Fteft 3, Taf. 
XVI, XVII, 1909. 

Myobia ensifera Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Bd. Ill, Lief. VII, 
s. 56, 1929. 

Myobia ratti Skidmore, Can. Ent., Vol. LXVI, p. 112, 1 fig., 1934. 

Myobia ensifera Radford, North Western Nat., p. 358, figs. 7, 8, 9, 1934. 

Female. —Leg I with first segment broader than long; segment II slightly 
broader than long, with ventrolateral tubercle; segment III composed of com¬ 
pletely fused segments III to V, bearing the outwardly directed, clawlike, 
clasping tubercle and the broad flattened thumb (fused segments IV and V), 
with its apical, blunt-pointed spine. Claws of tarsus II equal, toothless. Tarsi 
III and IV each bearing a single, long, curved, toothless claw. Dorsal setae as 
follows: Submedian I extending to base of submedian II, with lateral barb; 
submedian II very long, extending slightly beyond base of submedian III, with 
minute lateral barb; submedians III to V broad, flattened into blades, subequal; 
lateral I very stout, with lateral barb, and longitudinally striated; lateral II 
slender, slightly longer than lateral I, with barb; lateral III similar to lateral 
II but smaller; lateral IV absent. Outer pair of posterior marginal setae longer 
than body; inner pair of posterior marginal setae situated about their length 
from anal slit. 

Length of female, 0.31 mm.; width, 0.19 mm. 

Male. —Not observed by the writer. According to the original description and 
figure by Poppe (1896) the male has no bladelike dorsal setae and the penis is 
straight, rodlike, and about two-fifths as long as the body. 

Length of male, 0.27 mm.; width, 0.17 mm. (according to Poppe). 

Type host.—Mus decumanus, now Rattus norvegicus. 

Type locality. —Europe. 

Types, —Location unknown. 

Description based upon a female sent to the writer by Skid¬ 
more (1934), being a part of the material upon which the 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 189 

description of Myobia ratti Skidmore was based. In view of the 
difficulty which both the present writer and Skidmore have had 
in trying properly to identify the material which the latter 
obtained from the white form of Rattus norvegicus in Nebraska, 
it should here be stated that the figures given of this species by 
Poppe (1896) and by Radford (1934), are decidedly different in 
certain respects. Poppe shows lateral seta I of the female with a 
barb and extending to the base of lateral II; while Radford 
figures lateral I of the female barbless and extending only about 
half wav to base of lateral II. Poppe illustrates submedians 
III to V of female as being much longer than shown by Radford 
and as being sharp-pointed at their tips. In regard to the 
characters here mentioned, the single female which the present 
writer has, agrees more with Poppe’s figures than with those of 
Radford. 


Radfordia inaequalis, new species. 

Female .—First segment of leg I broader than long, without ventral tubercle; 
segment II broader than long and armed apicaily with a large, curved, striated, 
ventrolateral tubercle; segment III bearing short, stout, clawlike, clasping 
tubercle, but no flattened, spine-bearing thumb, the latter being represented by 
swollen terminal portion of the segment. Tarsi II, III, and IV each armed with 
two claws, a strongly curved, toothless anterior one and a similar but much 
smaller posterior claw. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian I very large, without 
barb, obliquely striated, extending for almost one-half its length beyond base of 
submedian II; submedian II similar to submedian I, but slightly smaller; sub¬ 
medians III—VI subequal, similar to submedian II, except smaller, each may bear 
a lateral barb; lateral I similar to submedian I, but slightly smaller; lateral II 
like submedian II; lateral III similar to lateral II, but may bear barb; lateral IV 
and V absent. Outer pair of posterior marginal setae flagelliform, longer than 
body; inner pair of posterior marginal setae situated about their length from 
anal slit. 

Length of female, 0.42 mm.; width, 0.25 mm. 

Male. —Unknown. 


Type host.- —Free-tailed bat, Tadarida cynocephala. 

Type locality. —Leon County, Florida. 

Type slide. —U. S. National Museum No. 1282. 

Remarks. —Described from three females taken from type 
host at type locality, April 27, 1934, by E. V. Komarek (Bishopp 
No. 22331). This species differs somewhat from the other 
American members of its genus in having each tarsus of the last 
three pairs of legs provided with two unequal claws and in 
being without the flattened, spine-bearing thumb (fused 
segments IV and V) on segment III of the modified first leg. 


190 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


Radfordia affinis (Poppe). 

Myobia affinis Poppe, Zool. Anz., Bd. XIX, s. 337, figs. 7, 8, 9, 1896. 

Myobia affinis Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Bd. Ill, Lief. VII, s. 56, 
1929. 

Myobia affinis Radford, North Western Nat., p. 248, figs. 1, 2, 3, 1935. 

Female .—Unknown to the writer. According to the original description and 
figure of the female by Poppe, submedian I is provided with a barb and extends 
beyong the base of submedian II; lateral I is very stout, longitudinally striated, 
and with a barb; lateral IV is absent. 

Length of female, 0.34 mm.; width, 0.19 mm. (according to Poppe). 

Male .—Segment I of first leg about twice as broad as long, without tubercles; 
segment II about as long as broad, without tubercles; segment III bearing the 
very strongly curved clasping tubercle and flattened, striated thumb, w ich 
apparently is without spine. Claws of tarsus II strongly curved, toothless, 
subequal; tarsi III and IV each provided with a single, very strongly curved, 
sharp, toothless claw. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian I small, toothless, 
reaching scarcely one-half the distance to base of submedian II; submedian II 
equal to submedian I, situated between genital opening and lateral II; sub¬ 
median III-V absent, but represented by medians I—III, which are small, 
simple, subequal, and situated posterior to base of penis; lateral I long, slender, 
with barb, and extending beyond base of lateral II; lateral II and III subequal 
to lateral I. Genital opening situated slightly behind level of attachment of 
second legs. Penis slender, almost straight, sharp-pointed, one-third as long 
as body. 

Length of male, 0.24 mm.; width, 0.14 mm. 

Type host. —House mouse, Mus muscuius. 

Type locality. —Europe. 

Type. —Location ? 

Remarks. —Described from a single male found in company 
with specimens of Myobia musculi Schrank on the common 
house mouse, Mus musculus , taken at Takoma Park, Maryland, 
November 30, 1933, by the writer. It may prove to be a rather 
rare species in America, for in eight lots of M. musculi taken at 
six different localities (in Delaware, Maryland, District of 
Columbia, Virginia, and Peru) only a single specimen of affinis 
was found. 

Radfordia ewingi (Fox). 

Myobia ewingi Fox, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. XXXIX, p. 227, figs. 1-4, 1937. 

Female .—First segment of leg I broader than long, without tubercles; segment 
II as broad as long, strongly concave on side next to capitulum, and bearing a 
ventral, spinelike tubercle; segment III bearing the strongly curved, somewhat 
twisted, clasping tubercle and the spine-bearing, flattened, striated thumb. 
Claws of tarsus II slender, strongly curved, toothless, posterior claw more 
slender than anterior; tarsi III and IV each provided with a single, slender, 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 191 


strongly curved, toothless claw. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian I rather 
small, longitudinally striated, without barb, reaching to base of submedian II; 
submedian II very long and slender, longitudinally striated, without barb, 
extending by about one-half its length beyond base of submedian III; submedians 
III-V subequal, all similar to submedian II but shorter; lateral I much enlarged 
near base, longitudinally striated, with vestigial barb; lateral II exceedingly 
long and slender, reaching to tip of lateral III; lateral III similar to submedian 
III but smaller; laterals IV and V absent. Outer pair of posterior marginal setae 
about equal to body in length; inner pair of posterior marginal setae straight, 
situated about their length from anal slit. Vulva flanked by a pair of backwardly 
directed, converging tubercles, each bearing at its apex a strongly incurved, 
simple seta. 

Length of female, 0.40 mm.; width, 0.24 mm. 

Male .—Leg I as in female. Tarsal claws as in female, except first claw of 
tarsus II is somewhat shorter and stouter. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian 
I small, simple; submedian II small, simple, situated very near and immediately 
in front of lateral II; submedians III-V absent. Genital opening situated far 
forward, on capitulum! Penis exceedingly slender, flagelliform for most of its 
length, about three-fifths as long as body. 

Length of male, 0.34 mm.; width, 0.13 mm. 

Type host. —Carolina jumping mouse, Zapus hudsonius 
americanus. 

Type locality. —Suitland, Maryland. 

Type slides. —U. S. National Museum No. 1279. 

Remarks. —Described from female holotype, female paratype, 
and male allotype. This species is unusual in that the genital 
opening of the male is situated on the capitulum. This is 
farther forward than in any other mite species known to the 
writer. 


Genus AMORPHACARUS, new genus. 

Legs of first pair unequal, one being dwarfed; segment I longer than broad, 
inner margin concave; segment II much broader than long, with dorsal tubercle; 
segment III distinct from IV, bearing large clasping tubercle; segment IV broad¬ 
er than long, rounded distally. Capitulum asymmetrical. Tarsus II with two 
claws; tarsi III and IV each with one claw. Some of dorsal setae inflated or 
foliciaceous. 

Type species.—Myobia elongata Poppe. 

Only the type species is included in this new genus. This 
species is remarkable in the asymmetry of the anterior part of 
the body. One of the legs of the first pair is about twice as large 
as the other, which is dwarfed. The dwarfing of the smaller 
leg is accompanied by a reduction in size of that half of the 
capitulum on its side and also a reduction in the development of 
that part of the cephalothorax on its side and in front of the 
second leg. 


192 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 

Amorphacarus elongatus (Poppe). 

Myobia elongata Poppe, Zool. Anz., Bd. XIX, s. 344, figs. 18, 19, 20, 1896. 
Myobia elongata Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Bd. Ill, Lief. VII, s. 

56, 1929. 

Myobia elongata Radford, North Western Nat., p. 252, figs. 12-14, 1935. 

Female .—Segments of right front leg as follows: Segment I largest, longer than 
broad, with inner anterior angle produced; segment II about twice as broad as 
long, with conspicuous, flattened, dorsolateral process; segment III twice as 
broad as long, with short, curved, clawlike, clasping tubercle; segment IV 
distinct from III but completely fused with V so as to form broadly rounded, 
striated, terminal element of leg. One front leg, usually the left, about half as 
large as other but otherwise similar. Claws of tarsus II unequal, the posterior 
being only about one-half as long as anterior, both strongly curved, toothless. 
Tarsi III and IV each with a single, long, slender, curved, toothless claw. Dorsal 
setae as follows: Submedian I considerably smaller than lateral I, flattened 
towards its base and situated much more anteriorly than lateral I; submedian II 
smaller than submedian I, situated near lateral II but more posteriorly; sub¬ 
medians III-V subequal, each flattened and somewhat foliaceous and with 
imperfect lateral barb; lateral I flattened, extending by one-third its length 
beyond lateral II; lateral II exceedingly long and slender, extending by more 
than one-half its length beyond base of lateral III; lateral III likewise very 
long, reaching almost to tip of abdomen; lateral IV absent. Outer pair of 
posterior marginal setae almost straight, longer than body; inner pair of poster¬ 
ior marginal setae straight, situated less than their length from anal slit. 

Length of female, 0.44 mm.; width, 0.22 mm. 

Male .—Unknown to the writer. The male of this species is peculiar, according 
to both Poppe and Radford, in that the penis is twice looped near its middle. 

Length of male, 0.35 mm.; width, 0.15 mm. (according to Poppe). 

Type host.—Sorex vulgaris , now S. araneus. 

Type locality. —Europe. 

Types. —Located ? 

Remarks. —Radford, in his description of elongata , states that 
it is the left front leg which is the larger of the first pair. In the 
case of two of the three females before the writer the right leg 
of the first pair is the larger. This is also true in both of the 
nymphs. Only in the case of one individual (a female) out of 
these five American specimens is it the left leg which is the 
larger. 

Description based on three females, two taken from Sorex 
cinereus cinereus collected at Chimney Pond, Mt. Katahdin, 
Maine, August 27, 1927, by Francis Harper and one taken 
along with two nymphs from the same host at Lakes of the 
Clouds, Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, June 28, 1927, by 
Francis Harper (No. 566). 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 193 

Genus MYOBIA Heyden, 1826. 

Myobia Heyden, Isis, Bd. XIX, Heft 6, s. 613, 1826. 

Dermaleichus , C. L. Koch, Ubers. Arachnid., Heft 3, s. 122, 1842 (in part). 
Myobia Gervais, In Walckenaer’s Hist. Nat. Insects, T. Ill, Apteres, p. 265, 
1844. 

Myobia Megnin, Jour. Anat. et Phys., T. XIV, p. 430, 1878. 

Myobia Michael, Jour. Quekett Micr. Club, Vol. II, Ser. II, p. 1, 1884 (in part). 
Myobia Canestrini, Prosp. Acarof. Italiana, Pt. II, p. 170, 1886 (in part). 

Myobia Berlese, Acari Myriopoda et Scorpiones Ital. Rep., Fasc. LVI, n. 1, 
1889 (in part). 

Myobia Trouessart, Bui. Soc. Ent. France, No. 8, p. ccxiii, 1895 (in part). 
Myobia Poppe, Zool. Anz., Bd. XIX, s. 327, 1896 (in part). 

Myobia Banks, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXVIII, p. 19, 1905 (in part). 
Myobia Banks, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXXII, p. 597, 1907 (in part). 
Myobia Fahrenholz, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, Bd. XIX, Heft 3, s. 359, 1909 
in part). 

Myobia Banks, U. S. Dept. Agr., Of. Sec., Rept. 108, p. 27, 1915 (in part). 
Myobia Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Bd. Ill, Lief. VII, s. 56, 1929 
(in part). 

Myobia Ewing, Manual of External Parasites, p. 80, 1929 (in part). 

Myobia Radford, North Western Nat., p. 356, 1934 (in part). 

Legs of first pair equal, each composed of three or four segments; when four 
segments are present, segment III partly anchylosed with IV. Segment III 
provided with a large, lateral, hooklike, clasping tubercle and a terminal, 
flattened, spine-bearing thumb. Tarsus II with a single claw; tarsus III usually 
with a single claw; tarsus IV with a single claw. Dorsal setae variously modified. 

Type species. — Pediculus musculi Schrank. 

Besides the type species this genus includes at least three other 
described species, Myobia brevihamata Haller, M. poppei Troues¬ 
sart, and M. caudata Banks, as well as two species described in 
this paper as new. 

Key to the North American Species of the Genus Myobia Heyden. 

A. Large, clawlike, clasping tubercle of leg I moves horizontally or 

almost so; some of dorsal setae inflated and striated ..... 

M. musculi (Schrank). 

AA. Large, clawlike, clasping tubercle of leg I moves almost vertically. 

B. Most of dorsal setae inflated and striated; body very slender. 

On a bat......... M. longa , new species. 

BB. None of dorsal setae inflated or striated; body of usual pro¬ 
portions. 

C. Segment II of leg I with a prominent lateral, down¬ 
wardly-hooked striated process. On shrews.. 

M. simplex , new species. 

CC. Segment II of leg I without any such hook. On a bat.... 

M. caudata Banks. 





194 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


Myobia musculi (Schrank). 

Pediculus muris musculi Schrank, Enum. Insect. Aust. Indig., p. 501, 1781. 
Myobia coarctata Heyden, Isis, Bd. XIX, Heft 6, s. 613, 1826. 

Myobia musculina Gervais, In Walckenaer’s Hist. Nat. Insectes, T. Ill, Apteres, 
p. 265, 1844. 

Myobia musculi Claparede, Zeitsch. f. Wissensch. Zool., Bd. XVIII, s. 519, 1869. 
Myobia musculi Megnin, Jour. Anat. Phys., T. XIV, p. 432, PI. XXXI, 1878. 
Myobia musculi Canestrini, Prosp. Acarof. Ital., Pt. II, p. 176, PI. XI, fig. 1, 
1886. 

Myobia musculi Poppe, Zool. Anz., Bd. XIX, s. 330, figs. 1, 2, 3, 1896. 

Myobia musculi Banks, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXXII, p. 597, 1907. 
Myobia musculi Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Bd. Ill, Lief. VII, s. 
56, 1929. 

Myobia musculi Radford, North Western Nat., p. 357, figs. 1-6, 1934. 

Female. —First segment of leg I broader than long; segment II as long as 
broad, with low ventral tubercle; segment III with curved, somewhat twisted, 
sharp-pointed, clasping tubercle and flattened, striated, well sclerotized thumb. 
Tarsi II, III, and IV each armed with a slender, curved, toothless claw, the one 
on tarsus II the shortest. Dorsal setae as follows: Submedian I broad, longi¬ 
tudinally striated, with barb, extending almost to base of submedian II; sub¬ 
median II with or without barb, extending beyond base of submedian III; 
submedians III-V each without barb, IV longer than III, V longer than IV; 
lateral I much stouter than other dorsal setae, longitudinally striated, with 
conspicuous barb, and extending slightly beyond base of lateral II; lateral 
II slender, with barb; lateral III similar to lateral II but stouter; lateral 
IV considerably shorter than lateral III, with barb. Outer pair of posterior 
marginal setae slightly longer than body; inner pair of posterior marginal setae 
situated less than their length from anal slit. 

Length of female, 0.36 mm.; width, 0.19 mm. 

Male. —Leg I as in female. Tarsal claws as in female. Dorsal setae as follows: 
Submedian I very small, with barb, extending about half way to base of sub¬ 
median II; submedian II with barb, about one-half as long as lateral II and 
situated between the latter and median line; submedians III and IV much 
reduced, each with barb and situated near each other at lateral border of 
genital area; submedians V and VI absent but in their stead two medians 
situated much behind genital opening; lateral I not enlarged, with barb, extend¬ 
ing slightly beyond base of lateral II; laterals II and III very long, subequal, 
each with barb; lateral IV absent. Genital opening situated at level of second 
pair of legs; penis very long and slender, basal half somewhat bent and rodlike, 
distal half flagelliform, becoming threadlike towards its tip. (In one male 
specimen this threadlike tip of penis is protruded through the genital opening, 
forward to the base of the capitulum.) 

Length of male, 0.27 mm.; width, 0.16 mm. 

Type host .—House mouse, Mus musculus. 

Type locality. —Austria. 

Types .—Location unknown. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 195 


Remarks .—Although only the adult male and female are here 
described, all stages are represented in the material at hand. 
This species has been taken only from Mus musculus in North 
America. From this host we have records as follows: Ft. 
Dupont, Delaware, April 13, 1933, by H. S. Peters; Silver 
Spring, Maryland, July 17, 1930, bv H. E. Ewing; Takoma 
Park, Maryland, August 11, October 20, November 30, all in 
1933, by H. E. Ewing; District of Columbia, November, 1891; 
Virginia Beach, Virginia, July 16, 1928, by C. East and H. E. 
Ewing. 

Myobia longa, new species. 

Female .—Capitulum very short, much broader than long; palpi reduced, each 
composed of two partly anchylosed segments and a terminal recurved claw. 
Leg I four-segmented; segment I much enlarged, being the largest and broadest 
segment, with a vertical spine on anterodorsal margin; segment II about twice 
as broad as long, with conspicuous, obliquely striated, upturned, lateral process; 
segment III small, not as large as the swollen, upwardly-curved, transversely- 
striated, clasping tubercle it bears; segment IV much broader than long, dis¬ 
tinctly separated from III and bearing a conspicuous, stout, procurved, ventral, 
spinelike process. Tarsi II, III and IV each bearing a single, slender, strongly- 
curved, toothless claw, the one on tarsus II being the shortest and the one on 
tarsus IV the longest. Dorsal setae all semifoliaceous, longitudinally striated 
and without barb; submedian I more spinelike than any of the others; reaching 
to base of submedian II; submedian II with sides subparallel for most of its 
length, but ending in a flagelliform tip; submedian III similar to submedian II, 
but shorter; submedians IV and V subequal, the shortest of the dorsal setae; 
submedian VI similar to V but slightly larger; lateral I similar to submedian I 
except that it is flagelliform toward its tip; laterals II and III subequal and very 
similar to submedian II; laterals IV and V absent. Outer pair of posterior 
marginal setae longer than body and situated near median line. 

Length of female, 0.63 mm.; width, 0.21 mm. 

Male. —Capitulum, leg I and tarsal claws as in female. Dorsal setae all 
longitudinally striated and without barbs; submedian I much smaller than 
lateral I and situated more posteriorly; submedian II on right side large, 
reaching to submedian III, and situated adjacent to genital opening; submedian 
II on left side very minute, almost invisible; submedian III short, foliaceous; 
submedian IV longer than submedian III, but not so broad; submedians V and 
VI absent; lateral I large, straight, extending to base of lateral II; lateral II 
subequal to lateral I; lateral III' largest of all dorsal setae, curved strongly 
toward median plane. Large posterior marginal setae longer than body and 
situated on a single, cylindrical, median tubercle. Genital opening situated 
behind level of second pair of legs and accompanied by strongly sclerotized, 
asymmetrical, internal armature: penis very slender, flagelliform for most of its 
length, about one-half as long as body. 

Length of male, 0.51 mm.; width, 0.21 mm. 

Type host .—A bat, Tadarida mexicana, 

Type locality. —Berkeley, California. 


196 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 

Type slide. —U. S. National Museum No. 1283. 

Remarks .—Described from one female and one male taken 
from type host at type locality October 12, 1934. This species 
is unusual in certain respects, particularly in the great reduction 
of the capitulum and its palpi, also in the great enlargement of 
segment I of leg I. The asymmetrical nature of the internal 
genital armature adjacent to the genital opening is also unusual. 

Myobia simplex, new species. 

Female. —Leg I four-segmented; segment I as broad as long, without tubercle; 
segment II about twice as broad as long, with large, curved, striated, hooklike, 
lateral tubercle; segment III with clasping tubercle short, down-curved, trun¬ 
cate, and transversely striated; segment IV three to four times as broad as long, 
terminal, striated, with convex anterior surface. Tarsi II, III, and IV each 
armed with a single, slender, strongly-curved, toothless claw, the one on tarsus 
IV slightly the largest. Dorsal setae not striated; submedian I small, without 
barb, reaching less than half distance to base of submedian II; submedian II 
similar to submedian I but smaller, situated very near to lateral II, but more 
posteriorly; submedians III-V small, simple, V longer than other two; lateral 
I long, slender, without barb; extending backward beyond bases of lateral II 
by almost one-half its length; lateral II longest of dorsal setae, reaching to tip 
of submedian V; lateral III long, slender, extending to tip of abdomen; laterals 
IV and V absent. Outer pair of posterior marginal setae about as long as body. 

Length of female, 0.54 mm.; width, 0.29 mm. 

Male. —Unknown. 

Type host. —Short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda talpoides. 

Type locality .—Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. 

Type slide. —U. S. National Museum No. 1284. 

Remarks .—Described from three females taken from type 
host at type locality in 1931 by R. L. Boke (B8) and three 
females collected from Blarina brevicauda taken at Terra Cotta, 
District of Columbia, November 24, 1924, by Paul Bartsch. 
The last-named females were accompanied by females and a 
male of Protomyobia claparedei (Poppe). M. simplex has the 
front legs four-segmented and of a type similar to the front legs 
of the bat-infesting Myobia longa , new species, but otherwise the 
two species are very different. 

Myobia caudata Banks. 

Myobia caudata Banks, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. XI, p. 134, 1909. 

Myobia canadensis Banks, Ibid., p. 143, 1909. 

Myobia canadensis Banks, U. S. Dept. Agr., Of. Sec., Rept. 108, p. 29, 1915. 
Myobia caudata Radford, North Western Nat., p. 150, 1936. 

The writer has never seen a specimen of this species, hence the original 
description given by Banks is here quoted: 

“Body about twice as long as broad, broadest behind coxae IV, plainly 
constricted behind coxa I and behind coxa II, abdomen behind hind legs broadly 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 197 


rounded. Dorsum with a submedian row of long, slender bristles, at tip of 
abdomen a pair of very long bristles arising from small tubercles, in fact longer 
than the entire body. Legs short and stout, tapering to the tip, each with 
various short hairs and a few larger bristles, usually near the tip; first pair 
modified as usual, the claw at tip is rather more curved than in M. musculi; 
claws at tips of other tarsi are rather shorter and more curved than in M. 
musculi. 

“Length, 0.2 mm. 

“Guelph, Ontario, Canada, on little brown bat. 

“Differs from M. musculi in more elongate form, slender dorsal bristles, 
longer bristles near tips of legs, shorter claws, etc.” 

Remarks .—In this original description there is no indication of 
the sex. Under the name of Myobia canadensis , Banks (1915), 
published a figure of this species. Unfortunately this figure is 
of the ventral aspect, thus revealing none of the characters 
indicating the sex. Because females are much more abundant 
than males there is a strong presumption that the description 
applies to the first mentioned sex. The shape of the body and 
also that of the first pair of legs as revealed by Banks’s figure are 
typical for a bat-infesting species. 


i A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF ANOPLURA FROM 
THE PECCARY. 

By O. G. Babcock and H. E. Ewing, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

During the winter of 1932 a month-old peccary (javelina) was 
captured about midway between Juno, Tex., and the Pecos 
River, in one of the few remaining areas where this animal still 
roams wild. An examination of this individual revealed that it 
was heavily infested with a sucking louse. The lice were 
abundant on the sides and back, while the forequarters and 
shoulders were even more heavily infested. Attached to the 
bristles down very close to the skin were many eggs, a very 
small percentage of which were unhatched. 

This louse represents a new genus and species and is the first 
anopluran to be recorded from the peccary. 

PECAROECUS, new genus. 

Head long and slender; fore head somewhat narrower than hind head; tem¬ 
poral region necklike; antenna five-segmented, segment I much broader than 
the others, segment V reduced but distinctly separated from IV. Eyes distinct, 
each with a well-developed cornea and ocular seta. Thorax only slightly reduced, 
longer than broad as viewed from below; thoracic spiracles dorsal; notum 
obliterated. Legs large, somewhat semicircular; leg I with femur swollen and an 



198 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


enormous tibial thumb; legs II and III subequal, each with a large tarsus and a 
very large, toothed, tarsal claw. Abdomen long, rather slender, lobed laterally; 
laterotergal plates small, oval, well sclerotized; a single transverse row of dorsal 
setae to a segment; spiracles on segments III to VIII. Last abdominal segment 
in female strongly bilobed. Genital armature of male with clasperlike para- 
meres; penis absent; pseudopenis V-shaped. 

Type species.—Pecaroecus javalii, new species. 



Figure 1 .—Pecaroecus javalii , new genus and species. Dorsal view of female, 

X 18. 

This genus is most nearly related to Microthoracius Fahrenholz, 
from which it differs in having the last segment of the antenna 












PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 199 


always distinct, the thorax only slightly reduced, the first pair of 
legs modified, the abdomen lobed laterally and provided with 
distinct laterotergal plates. The dorsal setae in Pecaroecus are 
arranged, for the most part, in a single transverse row per 
segment, while in Microthoracius they are not arranged in rows. 
Finally, in this new genus the last segment of the abdomen is 
strongly bilobed in the female, while in Microthoracius it is 
practically unlobed. Also, there are differences between the 
two genera in the plan of the male genital armature. Pecaroecus 
shares with Haematopinus Leach the lateral lobing of the 
abdomen, the presence of small, oval, laterotergal plates, and a 
similar arrangement of the abdominal setae, but otherwise these 
two genera are very different. Pecaroecus stands as the most 
generalized anopluran genus yet reported from ungulates. 

Pecaroecus javalii, new species. 

Male .—Conical forehead slighdy broader than long. Antennae much shorter 
than head, each situated in a broad, lateral, cephalic emargination; segment I 
much broader than long, II longer than I but only about one-half as broad, 
III slightly longer than II and of about the same width, IV slightly shorter and 
slightly broader than II, V about one-half as long as IV, with a single sensory 
pit situated posteroventrally at base. Hind head constricted behind the large, 
broad, ocular tubercles and again near its base, which overlaps the thorax 
dorsally to some extent. Thorax as broad as first two (fused) abdominal seg¬ 
ments, broadest near middle; thoracic spiracles pear-shaped in outline, situated 
dorsal to mid-coxae. Femur I slightly longer than broad, very strongly swollen 
posteriorly; tibia I with enormous thumb which is as long as the segment itself 
and bears subapically two stout spines; tarsus I as long as tibia I and bearing 
distally a tarsal claw. Tarsal claw of each leg with a row of transverse ridges 
and many teeth on its inner surface. Abdomen long, not swollen toward middle; 
each spiracle of the six pairs present, situated at the base, and on anterior side 
of its corresponding laterotergal plate. Oval laterotergal plates situated 
laterally on segments III to VIII. Basal plate of genital armature from three 
to four times as long as broad, much thickened toward lateral margins, which 
are incurved; parameres about three-fifths as long as basal plate, flattened, 
each ending in a stout, heavily, pigmented, outcurved hook; dorsal endomere 
forming V-shaped pseudopenis; ventral endomere complicated, extending 
forward much beyond bases of panameres as a broad, bilobed process and back¬ 
ward to tip of pseudopenis as a platelike process. 

Length of male 6.30 mm., width, 1.40. 

Female .—Similar to male except for size and structure of terminal segments of 
abdomen. Last segment of abdomen ending in a pair of large dorsolateral 
lobes, each of which has an outwardly curved lateral margin and an almost 
straight inner margin. Gonopophyses large, flat, subtriangular, arising from 
posterior margin of abdominal segment VIII, each with a brush of straight setae 
near outer border. Genital plate large, pigmented; lateral margins rounded; 
posterior margin straight. 

Length of female 6.90 mm., width 1.45 mm. 


200 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


Figure 2 .—Pecaroecus javalii, new genus and species. Dorsal view of first instar, 
greatly enlarged. (Photo by Babcock.) 


First nymph .—In addition to its smaller size, it differs from the adult as 
follows: Body much smaller in proportion to legs; head broader in proportion to 
length; laterotergal plates undeveloped; body as a whole less sclerotized and 
pigmented. 

Length of first nymph 2.30 mm., width, 0.65 mm. 




Figure 3 .—Pecaroecus javalii, new genus and species. Egg attached to hair of 
peccary, greatly enlarged. (Photo by Babcock.) 

Egg. —Large, elongate elliptical, whitish in color; attachment sheath of 
cement cup without pedicel, in length equal to about one-third length of egg; 
operculum much less in diameter than egg; nodular area more than one-half the 
diameter of operculum and composed of many small cellulae. 

Length of egg 2.54 mm., width) about one-third of length. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 201 

Type host.—Pecari angulatus, collared peccary. 

Type locality .—Western Texas. 

Type slides. —U. S. National Museum No. 52758. 

Different instars described from many specimens taken from 
type host between Juno, Tex., and Pecos River, January 29, 
1932, by O. G. Babcock. 

This unusually large and rather peculiar louse deserves, and 
undoubtedly will receive, additional study, which should throw 
further light on the phylogeny of ungulates and their sucking 
lice. 

Inside many of the attached eggshells of this new louse were 
found mites of a species of Sarcoptidae. Why the mites enter 
these shells is not known. However, one of us (Babcock) 
suggests a possible explanation. It is believed that the mites 
enter the eggshells to get protection during a quiescent stage. 
Such protection would be needed, since peccary bristles are very 
coarse and very scattering, giving little protection to a scab 
mite that does not actually burrow into the skin. It should be 
added that no mites were found on the skin itself. 


THREE NEW REARED SPECIES OF APANTELES FROM 
CALIFORNIA (HYMENOPTERA : BRACONIDAE). 

Bv C. F. W. Muesebeck, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The following descriptions are presented at this time in order 
to provide the senders of the specimens with names for the 
species involved. 


Apanteles insignis, new species. 

In my key to the Nearctic species of this genus 1 the present 
form will run to couplet 73 and is most similar to neomexicanus 
Mues. It may be immediately distinguished from that species, 
however, by its much broader and shorter second tergite, 
smoother propodeum, broad metatarsus, and straight ovipositor. 

Female. —Length about 3 mm. Face smooth and shiny; malar space a little 
shorter than clypeus; temple narrow but not strongly receding; antenna slightly 
shorter than body, the four preapical segments at least as broad as long. 

Mesoscutum minutely ana shallowly punctate, strongly shiny, the punctures 
gradually fainter caudaa; disk of scutellum longer than broad, smooth and shiny; 
propodeum smooth and shiny, with a strip along each lateral margin, and a 
broad median area, finely rugulose; mesopleurum mostly polished, with only 
indistinct punctures anteriorly; metapleurum mostly smooth, rugulose apically; 

1 Proc. U. S. National Museum 58 •. 483-576, 1920. 




202 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 

posterior coxa polished outwardly, an elongate punctate area on upper edge at 
base; inner calcarium of hind tibia conspicuously longer than outer but not 
extending quite to middle of metatarsus; metatarsus unusually stout; stigma 
short and broad, definitely shorter than metacarpus; first abscissa of radius 
perpendicular to anterior margin of stigma and not, or barely, longer than 
intercubitus; a short but conspicuous stub outwardly at junction of radius and 
intercubitus. 

Abdomen fully as long as thorax; sclerotized plate of first tergite narrowing 
very gradually caudaa but still twice as broad at apex as greatest length of 
second tergite, very finely rugulose; plate of second tergite more than three 
times as broad as long, smooth and shiny on more than the middle third, finely 
rugulose and dull laterally; hypopygium large, its apex attaining apex of last 
tergite; ovipositor sheath as long as posterior tarsus, very slender at base, but 
broadening conspicuously toward apex. 

Black; antennae entirely black; tegulae bright yellow; legs yellowish brown, 
including anterior and middle coxae; posterior coxa black, extreme apex of hind 
femur above, apical third of hind tibia, and most of hind tarsus infuscated; 
wings hyaline, stigma black, veins brown; membranous margins of first and 
second tergites brownish yellow. 

Male .—Like the female in all essential characters. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52888. 

Type locality .—Half Moon Bay, Calif. 

Host.—-Platyptilia acanthodactyla (Huebner). 

Described from four specimens reared by W. H. Lange. The 
type female was reared December 13, 1937, the allotype Decem¬ 
ber 5, and the two female paratypes December 18, 1937, and 
January 31, 1938, respectively. 

Apanteles langei, new species. 

This runs to couplet 130 in the key 1 mentioned under the 
preceding species, but it is altogether unlike either of the two 
species included there. It much more closely resembles 
pyraustae Viereck, but differs in having black legs, even shorter 
antennae in the female, and distinct longitudinal sculpture 
across the base of the third tergite. 

Female .—Length about 2 mm. Face minutely punctate, shiny; malar space 
a little longer than clypeus; antenna very short, not longer than head and thorax 
combined; most of the flagellar segments as broad as, or broader than, long. 

Thorax a little depressed, being slightly broader than high; mesoscutum with 
separate punctures, the punctures confluent in a short oblique area on each side 
of the middle toward apex; scutellum polished; propodeum completely, strongly 
rugose and dull; mesopleurum distinctly punctate anteriorly, otherwise polished; 
posterior coxa mostly smooth, with a flattened elliptical area at base above 
weakly punctate; inner calcarium of posterior tibia definitely more than half 
as long as metatarsus; stigma shorter than metacarpus; radius directed outward, 
strongly angled with the intercubitus and only slightly longer than the latter. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 203 

Abdomen not longer than thorax; plate of first tergite large, broadening 
behind, entirely rugulose and dull; second tergite much shorter than third, its 
sclerotized plate entirely, finely rugulose; third tergite very finely, longitudinally 
aciculate at base, otherwise polished like the following tergites. 

Black; antennae entirely black; wings hyaline, stigma and veins brown; legs 
black, with apices of fore femora, fore and middle tibiae entirely, and posterior 
tibiae, except toward apices, reddish brown. 

Male .—Like female except for elongate antennae, which are at least as long 
as the body. 

Type .—U. S. National Museum No. 52889. 

Type locality .—Half Moon Bay, Calif. 

Host.—Pyrausta subsequalis Guenee. 

Described from six females and one male reared September 
22, 1936, by W. H. Lange. 

Apanteles dignus, new species. 

Runs to couplet 65 in my key 1 and is most similar to sesiae 
Vier., from which it is distinguished especially by the much 
smoother mesoscutum and first and second tergites, the strongly 
oblique lateral grooves of second tergite, and the yellow posterior 
coxae and shorter ovipositor sheath of the female. 

Female .—Length about .2 mm. Head thin anteroposteriorly, temple 
narrow and receding; face faintly punctate and shiny; malar space about as 
long as clypeus; antenna at least as long as body, all flagellar segments elongate. 

Thorax slightly broader than high; mesoscutum very minutely punctate, 
shiny; disc of scutellum smooth and shiny; propodeum smooth and shiny, with 
a prominent and complete median longitudinal carina; mesopleurum and meta- 
pleurum entirely smooth and polished; inner calcarium of posterior tibia 
distinctly longer than the outer but barely half as long as metatarsus; stigma 
a little shorter than metacarpus; first abscissa of radius and the intercubitus 
subequal. 

Abdomen as long as thorax; sclerotized plate of first tergite narrowing gradu¬ 
ally from base to apex, with a median longitudinal impressed line on basal two- 
thirds, smooth except for a little weak sculpture on apical third; plate of second 
tergite strongly transverse, shorter than that of first tergite is broad at apex, 
defined at each side by a strongly oblique groove, smooth and shiny; lateral 
membranous margins of first and second tergites very broad; ovipositor sheath 
at least as long as posterior femur. 

Black; clypeus and mouth area, also scape of antenna, reddish yellow; tegula 
pale yellow; wings hyaline; stigma and veins transparent yellowish, the former 
margined with light brown; legs, including all coxae, honey yellow, with only 
extreme apex of posterior tibia and the posterior tarsus infuscated; sides of 
abdomen and the broad membranous margins on first and second tergites 
bright yellow; sclerotized plate of first tergite more or less reddish yellow or 
brown on basal half, apical half darker; following tergites varying from brown 
to blackish. 


204 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 


Male .—Like the female except that posterior coxae are black, posterior tibiae 
more broadly infuscated apically, and abdomen darker, the first tergite being 
entirely blackish. 


Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52890. 

Type locality. —Santa Ana, Calif. 

Host.—Gnorimoschema lycopersicella (Busck). 

Described from five females and four males. The type, 
allotype, and four paratypes reared by J. C. Elmore and A. F. 
Howland at the type locality, the type and three paratypes on 
June 27, 1936, and the allotype and one paratype on October 28, 
1936. One of the remaining paratypes is from Vista, Calif., 
reared November 25, 1936; one from Long Beach, Calif., reared 
November 22, 1937, and one from Irving, Calif., reared Decem¬ 
ber 6, 1937. In addition to the type series I have before me 
three females and two males, unquestionably of the same species, 
reared from Gnorimoschema gudmannella (Wlsm.) at St. Croix, 
Virgin Island, in March, 1922. 


ANCYLODERES, A NEW GENUS OF SCOLYTIDAE. 

By M. W. Blackman, 

Bureau oj Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

In a revisional paper published in 1931 1 the writer removed 
the form originally described as Cryphalus pilosus Lee. from the 
genus Pseudopityophthorus , where it had been placed by Swaine 
(1918), 2 but did not assign it to another genus. This rather 
unsatisfactory action was taken because, while an earlier 
examination had indicated that pilosus did not belong to any of 
the genera to which it had been assigned, a reexamination of the 
type was desirable before definitely disposing of the species. 
This reexamination shows that Leconte’s species represents an 
undescribed genus, a description of which, accompanied by a 
redescription of a cotype and a description of a closely allied 
species, is presented here. 

The species in question was described by Leconte (1868) 3 in 
the genus Cryphalus Er. In his key to the species on page 154 
Leconte refers to it as pilosus and it is so named in the list of 
species on page 178. However, in looking up these references, 

1 A Revisional study of the genus Pseudopity ophthorus Sw. in North America, 
M. W. Blackman, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXI : 223-236, 1931. 

2 Canadian Bark Beetles, J. M. Swaine, Canada Dept. Agr. Ent. Branch Bull. 
14, pt. 2 : 1-142, 1918. 

3 Appendix to Zimmermann’s Synopsis of Scolytidae, J. L. Leconte, Trans. 
Amer. Ent. Soc. II : 150-178, 1868. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 205 


one by species number and the other by page number the writer 
finds the name heading the description to be C. pilosulus. 
The first name used in the key by which the species in question 
is distinguished from all the others discussed is pilosus, and in 
the writer’s opinion this name should stand in spite of the fact 
that Leconte in a later paper (1876) 4 refers it to the genus 
Pityophthorus under the name of pilosulus . 

ANCYLODERES, new genus. 

Generic characters. —Body form slender, cylindrical; front of the head plano¬ 
convex, finely, convergently aciculate; antennal club nearly 1.5 times as long as 
the five-jointed funicle, broad oval, first segment nearly as wide as others, with 
three sutures, the first two chitinized; pronotum with dorsal outline evenly 
convex, the summit not elevated, anterior margin extended and with broaa low 
serrations, anterior area with broad, very low asperities, rather closely and 
deeply punctured behind; elytral punctures fine, confused. Allied to Gnatho- 
trichus Eichh. but differing in pronotal, antennal, and other characters. 

Type species.—Cryphalus pilosus Leconte. 

Ancyloderes pilosus (Leconte). 

Cryphaius pilosus Leconte, Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans. 2 : 154, 178, 1868. 
Cryphalus pilosulus Leconte, Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans* 2 : 166, 1868. 
Pityophthorus pilosulus (Leconte), Amer. Phil. Soc. Proc. 15 : 350, 351, 1876; 

^ Swaine, N. Y. State Mus. Bull. 134 : 136, 1909. 

Pseudopityophthorus pilosulus (Leconte), Swaine, Canada Dept. Agr. Ent. 

Branch Bull. 14, pt. 2 : 94, 1918. 

Redescription of Cotype. —Light reddish brown; 2.11 mm. long, 3.08 times as 
long as wide. 

Front of the head not visible in the type, but in the cotype and in specimens in 
author’s collection, finely convergently aciculate with a few fine punctures 
interspersed. Antenna slightly lighter in color, the club 1.48 times as long as 
funicle, 1.3 times as long as wide, broad oval, segments 2 and 3 subequal in 
width and segment 1 but slightly narrower, the first two segments comprising 
more than half the length of club, the first two sutures chitinized, weakly 
arcuate. Rye short oval, the inner line moderately emarginate. 

Pronotum 1.25 times as long as wide, the sides subparallel (feebly arcuate) on 
the posterior half, then evenly narrowed, and broadly rounded in front; the 
margin slightly extended over the head and armed with about ten very low, 
broad serrations; the anterior *-wo-fifths ornamented with very fine low asperi- 
ities, becoming finer posteriorly and passing over into punctures at the summit; 
summit not elevated above the even contour of pronotum; posterior area 
finely, evenly, deeply, moaerately closely punctured, the median line impunc- 
tate, not elevated, the basal marginal line very feeble and incomplete. 

4 The Rhynchophora of America North of Mexico, J. L. Leconte and G. H. 
Horn, Amer. Phil. Soc. Proc. 15 : 445 pp., 1876. 



206 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 

Elytra equal in width to pronotum, 1.83 times as long as wide; the sides nearly 
straight, subparallel, moderately rounded behind; surface moderately shining, 
rugulose, very finely punctured, with no indication of striae on the disc, the 
punctures bearing fine short hairs. Declivity rounded, with the sutural area 
feebly flattened, with a few extremely fine granules in the third interspace; the 
hairs considerably longer and more abundant. 

The type series consists of two specimens both collected in 
California. The second specimen agrees with the type in all 
essentials but is slightly darker in color. Two specimens in the 
author’s collection taken in flight by him at Northfork, Calif., 
October 4, 1926, also agree in all essentials. No sexual dif¬ 
ferences were noted in the four specimens. Nothing is known 
regarding the habits and host. 

Ancyloderes saltoni, new species. 

Chestnut-brown; 2.4 mm. long, 3.23 times as long as wide. 

Front of the head feebly flattened, finely convergently aciculate-punctate, the 
median line finely carinate. Eye short oval, the inner line emarginate. Antenna 
similar to that of pilosus , the septi of the first two sutures subtransverse, 
pigmented. 

Pronotum 1.3 times as long as wide, widest near the middle, the sides evenly 
arcuate, rather broadly rounded in front; the anterior margin extended over the 
head and armed with about twelve broad low serrations; anterior area with fine, 
rather broad and low asperities, the summit not elevated, posterior area closely 
and finely punctured except in the smooth median line; posterior marginal line 
not complete. 

Elytra not wider than pronotum, 1.92 times as wide as long, the sides sub¬ 
parallel, rather narrowly rounded behind, the surface moderately shining, 
finely rugulose, rather finely, confusedly punctured, with the hairs on the disc 
fine, shorter, and less abundant than in pilosus. Declivity arched, rather abrupt; 
the sutural area feebly subsulcate; the suture not elevated, third interspace 
distinctly, but not strongly elevated and armed with a sparse row of fine gran¬ 
ules; the hairs much longer and more abundant than on the disc, and more 
abundant than in pilosus. 

Type Locality. —Flagstaff, Arizona. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52849. 

The type bears the data “Flagstaff, Ariz., 8-14-20; R. C. 
Salton, Collector; Lot No. 1210.” It was taken as it, together 
with specimens of other scolytids, settled upon objects about 
camp. 

We thus have no record of a host plant for either of the species 
of Ancyloderes , but both the single specimen of this species and 
the two specimens of pilosus taken by the writer at Northfork, 
Calif., were in flight in a forest of yellow pine, Pinus ponderosa. 
It is not believed this tree is the host, however, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, OCT., 1938 207 


MINUTES OF THE 493D REGULAR MEETING OF THE ENTO¬ 
MOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 493d meeting of the Society was held at 8 p. m., Thursday, June 2, 1938, 
in Room 43 of the National Museum. President Back presided and 47 members 
and 12 visitors were present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read 
and approved. 

In accordance with the suggestion made by the President at the May meeting, 
an opportunity was given for discussion of the proposed Memoirs of the Ento¬ 
mological Society of Washington. No discussion occurred, however, and it was 
voted that the recommendations of the committee, as presented at the May 
meeting, be adopted. 

E. H. Siegler called attention to a picnic being given by the Insecticide 
Society of Washington. In response to the invitation, it was voted to join with 
the Insecticide Society at this picnic. 

The regular program consisted of a symposium on Insect Control and in¬ 
cluded the following papers by members of the Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine: 

1. Outline of the work of the Division of Control Investigations. 

L. A. Hawkins. 

2. Physiology of insects. J. F. Yeager. 

3. Toxicology of insects. E. R. McGovran. 

4. Nicotine as an insecticide. H. H. Richardson. 

NICOTINE AS AN INSECTICIDE. 

(. Abstract .) 

Some insects were very remarkably susceptible to nicotine in the gaseous 
stage, while others were very resistant. They may be classified roughly in 
groups in the order of increasing resistance to nicotine as (1) aphids, Hymenop- 
terous parasite, silkworm larvae, whitefly, and codling moth adult; (2) leaf- 
hoppers; (3) thrips and lst-instar southern armyworm; (4) the red spider mite 
and 2d-instar southern armyworm; (5) housefly, tobacco flea-beetle, American 
cockroach; (6) 4th-instar southern armyworm; (7) honeybee; (8) 6th-instar 
southern armyworm. The first three groups with the exception of the thrips on 
chrysanthemum (Thrips nigropilosus) might be termed the nicotine-susceptible 
groups. The majority of these could be killed by concentrations of nicotine 
varying from 0.005 to 0.025 mg. nicotine per liter (approximately 1 to 4 parts 
per million) in a 30-minute fumigation at 25° C. (77° F.). It is against these 
insects that nicotine probably offers the most promise in practical control. The 
aphids were found to vary greatly among themselves in susceptibility, some of 
these needing four times the concentration of nicotine needed to kill others. 
The aphids may be placed in the following order of increasing resistance: 
(D the bean aphid, the strawberry root aphid, green peach aphid on nasturtium; 
(2) lettuce aphid; (3) chrysanthemum aphid, green peach aphid on climbing 
dahlia; (4) pea aphid, rose aphid; (5) cabbage aphid; (6) green peach aphid on 
turnip. The four species of thrips varied widely also. The gladiolus thrips and 
the onion thrips ( T . tabac'i) on horsebean were about equally susceptible. The 
sugarbeet thrips ( H.femoralis ) was more resistant, and the thrips ( T. nigropilo¬ 
sus) on chrysanthemum was most resistant, requiring over three times the 
nicotine concentrations needed to kill the first two, 


208 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 7, NOV., 1938 


The susceptibility of the green peach aphid, M. persicae , was found to vary 
greatly on three different host plants, it being greatest on nasturtium, inter¬ 
mediate on climbing dahlia, and least on turnip. On the other hand, that of the 
sugarbeet thrips did not appear to vary much whether reared on cucumber, 
chrysanthemum, or horsebean. 

The slopes of the toxicity curves (data plotted with concentration against 
mortality) for the various insects were by no means parallel so that the 50 
per cent or median lethal concentrations could not be used to forecast the 
practical value of the fumigant; i. e., concentration needed to kill 95-100 per 
cent of the insects. It would seem advisable to make comparison of the relative 
practical value of insecticides or relative susceptibility of insects in a higher 
mortality range even though it is recognized that a greater number of insects 
must be used in order to obtain the accuracy of the 50 per cent or median lethal 
concentration. 

Studies on the relation of exposure time and concentration on the efficiency 
of nicotine fumigation were made with 3 different aphids and the codling moth 
adult. The nicotine concentration was decidedly more important in influencing 
effectiveness—the product of concentration times the square root of time giving 
an approximately constant value for various exposure periods, or K (effective¬ 
ness) = C V T = CT- 5 . This relation differed somewhat with the different 
insects (from K = CT- 38 to K = CT* 64 ) but the general trend was K = CT- 5 . 
Thus for a four-fold increase in exposure period the nicotine concentration needed 
would be reduced not by yi but by only x / 2 . 

Nicotine appeared to be much more toxic to several species of insects than 
hydrocyanic acid. The weight of nicotine necessary to kill the bean aphid, 
chrysanthemum aphid, a thrips and the American cockroach was only 1, 1.3, 6, 
and 8 per cent, respectively, of the weight of hydrocyanic acid needed under 
quite similar conditions (the values for HCN being those of other workers 
reported in the literature). On a molecular basis the difference would be six 
times greater. It is questionable whether these differences would hold under 
practical conditions because of the great absorption of nicotine by fumigated 
materials, moisture, and other factors. 

The concentration of nicotine obtained in greenhouse fumigations with 
nicotine products was distinctly higher under dry conditions than under damp 
conditions. Various methods of nicotine fumigation were tried and it was 
found that under favorable conditions in the greenhouse the nicotine concentra¬ 
tion rises rapidly to a maximum of 25-55% of the dosage in 7-10 minutes; then 
falls rapidly away to 3-15% at the end of an hour. The highest nicotine con¬ 
centrations were obtained by (1) the vaporization of nicotine in the exhaust of a 
gasoline engine and (2) the pressure-can method of vaporization. The very fine 
atomization of acetone solutions of nicotine gave somewhat lower concentra¬ 
tions. Tobacco powder smudge was next and nicotine-impregnated papers were 
slightly lower. (Author’s abstract.) 

Discussion followed by Back, Hawkins, and Muesebeck. 

R. E. Snodgrass and H. E. Ewing presented brief notes regarding the poison¬ 
ous properties of native millipedes. 

Adjournment at 10 p. m. Ashley B. Gurney, 

Recording Secretary. 


Actual date of publication , October 27 , 1938. 



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CONTENTS 


BABCOCK, O. G., AND EWING, H. E.—A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF ANO- 

PLURA FROM THE PECCARY . 197 

BLACKMAN, M. W.—ANCYLODERES, A NEW GENUS OF SCOLYTIDAE .... 204 
BUSCK, AUGUST-EDWARD MEYRICK, F. R. S. 177 

EWING, H. E.-NORTH AMERICAN MITES OF THE SUBFAMILY MYOBIINAE, 

NEW SUBFAMILY (ARACHNIDA). 180 

MUESEBECK, C. F. W.-THREE NEW REARED SPECIES OF APANTELES FROM 

CALIFORNIA (hymenoptera : braconidae) . 201 







VOL. 40 NOVEMBER, 1938 

PROCEEDINGS 

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No, 8 




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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 NOVEMBER, 1938 No. 8 

NOTES ON SOME GENERA AND SPECIES OF CHALCIDOIDEA 
(HYMENOPTERA). 

By A. B. Gahan, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

These notes, which involve some generic and specific syn- 
nonymy, several generic transfers, and some new distributional 
records for several species, are published at this time in order to 
make clear the use of the names in identifications furnished to 
economic workers. 


Family CHALCIDIDAE. 

Brachymeria femorata (Panzer). 

Chalcisfemorata Panzer, Faun. Insect. German., VII, p. 84, T. 16, 1801. 

Chalcis koebelei Crawford, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. II, p. 207, 1910. (New 
synonymy.) 

A specimen from Potsdam, Germany, identified by F. Ruschka 
as Chalcis jemorata Panzer has been compared with the type 
specimens of C. koebelei Crawford and seems to be the same. 
The hind femur of the specimen from Germany has the black 
transverse band somewhat narrower than do the types of 
koebelei , and the wings slightly infuscated, but there appears to 
be no structural difference of any kind. The color of the femur 
is somewhat variable in the material at hand, and the infusca- 
tion of the wing is of such a character that it is not believed to be 
of any specific significance. 

Besides the specimen from Germany and the types of koebelei 
which were from Hong Kong, China, the following material of 
this species has been seen: Two specimens from Hungary col¬ 
lected by Chas. Sajo (these specimens now in the collection of 
the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History at Urbana, 
Ill.); one specimen from Baguio, Philippine Islands, reared from 
Pieris sp. by A. G. Toquero; one specimen from Manila, P. I., 
collected by R. C. McGregor; one specimen from Kolambugan, 
Mindanao, P. I.; and one specimen from Buitenzorg, Java, 
reared from a pupa of a nymphalid by K. W. Hammerman. 

This material has been carefully compared with Panzer’s 
original description and figure, and Ruschka’s identification of 
the species seems to be undoubtedly correct. 






210 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


Family EURYTOMIDAE. 

Eurytoma monemae Ruschka. 

Eurytoma monemae Ruschka, Ent. Mitt., vol. 7, p. 161, figs. 1-2, 1918. 
Eurytoma parasae Gahan, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., vol. 56, p. 514, 1919. (New 
synonymy.) 

Two paratypes of Eurytoma monemae Ruschka, secured 
through the kindness of Dr. Walther Horn of the Deutsches 
Entomologisches Institut, Berlin-Dahlen, Germany, have been 
compared with the type series of E. parasae Gahan and found 
to agree. Ruschka’s specimens were reared from cocoons of 
Monema flavescens Walker collected at Tientsin, China, while 
the specimens composing the type series of parasae were reared 
from Parasa lepida Cram, and Thosea sp. in South India. 

Eurytoma nesiotes Crawford. 

Eurytoma fulvipes Crawford, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., vol. 38, p. 129, 1910. 
(Preoccupied by fulvipes Fitch, 1865.) 

Eurytoma nesiotes Crawford, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., vol. 41, 1911, p. 273. (For 
fulvipes Crawford, not fulvipes Fitch, 1865.) 

Eurytoma denticoxa Gahan, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., vol. 56, p. 515, 1919. (New 
synonymy.) 

Eurytoma dentipectus Gahan, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., vol. 56, 516, 1919. (New 
synonymy.) 

The type of Eurytoma nesiotes Crawford, described from the 
Philippines, is apparently not distinguishable from that of 
E. denticoxa Gahan, described from Coimbatore, South India. 
Likewise a careful restudy of the series of specimens upon which 
I based the description of E. dentipectus has demonstrated that 
the characters mentioned in the description as distinguishing 
this species from denticoxa are not constant and this species 
must also be relegated to synonymy with nesiotes Crawford. 

Family ENCYRTIDAE. 

Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead. 

Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashm., Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. I, p. 304, 1904. 
Tachinaephagus austraiiensis Gir., Ins. Inscit. mens, vol. 5, p. 142, 1917. 
Stenoterysfulvoventralis Dodd, in Froggatt, Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales, vol. 32, 1921, 
p. 730, figs. (New synonymy.) 

Australencyrtus giraulti Johnston & Tiegs, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, vol 33, 
pp. 107, 118, figs. 11-17, 1931. (New synonymy.) 

That Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashm. and T. austraiiensis 
Girault are identical was pointed out by Gahan and Fagan in 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 211 


the list of type species of the genera of Chalcidoidea (U. S. 
Natl. Mus. Bull. 124, p. 141, 1923). Both names are based on 
the same type specimens. 

Tachinaephagus giraulti Johnston & Tiegs and Stenoterys 
julvoventralis Dodd were declared to be identical by Ferriere 
(Rev. Suisse Zool., vol. 40, p. 637, 1933). Ferriere also stated 
that T. giraulti was very similar to T. zealandicus Ashmead but 
pointed out certain minor details in which they seemed to differ, 
these supposed differences apparently based on comparison of 
specimens of giraulti with Girault’s description of zealandicus 
(= australiensis). 

I have compared the Ashmead and Girault types of zealandicus 
with specimens reared from blowflies at Brisbane, Australia, by 
G. H. Hardy and also with a series of specimens reared by D. 
Miller from Sarcophaga milleri Johnston in New Zealand and 
found them to agree exactly. These specimens have also been 
compared with the original descriptions of Australencyrtus 
giraulti and Stenoterys Julvoventralis and found to agree. The 
supposed differences doubtfully pointed out by Ferriere are 
not apparent or are plainly covered by variation. I am quite 
certain that giraulti is a synonym of zealandicus. 

Family PTEROMALIDAE. 

Dibrachys cavus (Walker). 

Pteromalus cavus Walker, Ent. Mag., vol. 2, p. 377, 1835. 

Pteromalus boucheanus Ratzeburg, Ichneum. d. Forstinsect., vol. 1, p. 196, 1844. 
Semiotellus clisiocampae Fitch, 1st and 2d Repts. Ins. New York, p. 200, 1856. 
(New synonymy.) 

Cheiropachys nigrocyaneus Norton, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., vol. 2, p. 327, 1869. 
(New synonymy.) 

Pteromalus gelechiae Webster, Rept. State Ent. Ill., 12, p. 151 (1882), 1883. 
(New synonymy.) 

Pteromalus chionobae Howard, Scudder’s Butterflies of U. S., p. 1889, 1889. 
(New synonymy.) 

Arthrolytus apatelae Ashmead, Bull. Ohio Expt. Sta., vol. 1, p. 162, 1893. (New 
synonymy.) 

Arthrolytus pimplae Ashmead, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., vol. 21, p. 339, 1894. 
(New synonymy.) 

Coelopisthoidea nematicida Gahan, Canad. Ent., vol. 45, p. 179, 1913. (Not 
nematicida Packard.) 

Dibrachys apatelae Girault, Canad. Ent. vol. 48, p. 408, 1916. 

Dibrachys clisiocampae Girault (in part), Canad. Ent. vol. 48, p. 408, 1916. 

In my judgment the above names all refer to the same species. 
I have compared material in the United States National Museum, 
including types of apatelae , pimplae , nigrocyaneus , chionobae , 
gelechiae and clisiocampae with representatives from Europe of 


212 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

cavus and boucheanus and can find no means of distinguishing 
any of them. In the above-cited paper by Girault, Pteromalus 
nematicida Packard is listed as a synonym of clisiocampae Fitch. 
Girault’s conclusion was based upon specimens of D. cavus in 
the United States National Museum labeled “types” of the 
Packard species but which are certainly not types of the species, 
as will be shown in the discussion of Tritneptis klugii (Ratzeburg) 
on a subsequent page of this paper. The transfer of nematicida 
Packard to the genus Coelopisthoidea by Gahan likewise was 
based upon the same false “types.” 

Dibraehys saltans (Ratzeburg). 

Pteromalus saltans Ratzeburg, Ichneum. d. Forstinsect., vol. 3, p. 232, 1852. 
Coelopisthoidea cladiae Gahan, Canad. Ent., vol. 45, p. 179, 1913. (New syn¬ 
onymy.) 

Dibraehys saltans Kurdjumov, Rev. Russ. Ent. vol. 13, p. 11, 1913. 

Ratzeburg described this species from Germany as a parasite 
of Cladius uncinatus Hartig. Thomson (Hymen. Scand. vol. 5, 
p. 157, 1878) doubtfully synonymized it with ( Diglochis ) 
Psychophagus omnivorus (Walk.). Kurdjumov, who had 
examined Ratzeburg’s type, transferred the species to the genus 
P)ibrachys. 

In 1927 the writer was privileged to study Ratzeburg’s collec¬ 
tion which is preserved in the Forstliche Hochschule at Ebers- 
walde, Germany, and upon examining the type of Pteromalus 
saltans was immediately impressed with its resemblance to 
Coelopisthoidea cladiae Gahan described in 1913 from specimens 
reared at Upper Marlboro, Md., from Cladius isomerus Norton 
( = pectinicornis of authors, not Fourc.). A paratype of the 
American parasite was compared with the type of saltans and 
found to be indistinguishable. 

Kurdjumov expressed the opinion that saltans was probably 
a variety of Dibraehys boucheanus (Ratzeburg). Although 
congeneric the two species are quite distinct. The head of 
saltans is distinctly thicker antero-posteriorly than that of 
boucheanus , the frons more deeply concave, mandibles larger with 
their lower basal angles unusually prominent and their ventral 
margins more or less reflexed, clypeus distinctly incised at the 
middle, occipital carina present but less strongly developed, 
pedicel fully three times as long as broad, and second ring joint 
subquadrate. 

Dibraehys saltans is easily distinguished from Psychophagus 
omnivorus by the short and subequal stigmal and postmarginal 
veins, by the presence of an occipital carina, by the conic ovate 
abdomen, and by numerous other characters. 

Besides the types of Coelopisthoidea cladiae , the U. S. National 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 213 


Museum now possesses 3 specimens of D. saltans reared by 
W. W. Baker from Cladius isomerus Norton, July 26, 1933, at 
Puyallup, Wash., and one specimen said to have been reared by 
C. N. Ainslie from stems of Stipa comata in August, 1923, at 
Beach, N. Dak. 


Tritneptis Girault. 

Psyche, vol. 15, p. 92, 1908. 

This genus was erected with Tritneptis hemerocampae Girault 
as its genotype. Nine years later Girault (Ins. Inscit. Mens., 
vol. 12, 1924) synonymized the type species with Dibrachys 
boucheanus Ratzeburg). 

Three cotypes as well as numerous other specimens of T. 
hemerocampae are in the U. S. National Museum collection, and an 
examination of these shows quite plainly that this synonymy is 
incorrect. T. hemerocampae lacks entirely the occipital carina 
so characteristic of Dibrachys boucheanus [now recognized as a 
synonym of D. cavus (Walker) ]. The head is more deeply 
emarginate posteriorly, the cheeks broader, the postmarginal 
vein usually a little shorter than the stigmal (never slightly 
longer as in cavus), and there are other minor differences which 
make it very certain that T. hemerocampae is a species different 
from Dibrachys cavus and, according to the present definitions 
of genera in the Pteromalidae, it is excluded from Dibrachys by 
the absence of the occipital carina. 

The genera of Pteromalidae are very much in need of a 
thorough revision, and until such a revision is published and the 
various genera redefined it seems expedient to recognize Tritnep¬ 
tis as a good genus very closely resembling Dibrachys , but dis¬ 
tinguished from it chiefly by the immargined occiput. It 
apparently differs from Coelopisthia Foerster as at present 
understood only by having the abdomen in the female distinctly 
much longer than broad instead of nearly circular. 

The following key will help to distinguish five species occurring 
in North America, which I believe belong in Tritneptis: 

Key to the Species of, Tritneptis Occurring in North America. 

1. Forewing entirely without marginal fringe; head in lateral view with 
the face not entirely ventral, forming with plane of frons an angle 
distinctly greater than a right angle; mesoscutum and scutellum 
dull or only weakly shining, the sculpture not especially shallow; 
forewings either hyaline or distinctly infuscated. Male scape either 
slender or distinctly thickened... ...2 

Forewing with a distinct though short marginal fringe along posterior 
apical border behind apical middle; head in lateral view with the 
face entirely ventral and forming with the frons almost an exact 



214 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


right angle; mesoscutum and scutellum shining metallic, the 
sculpture distinct but very shallow; forewings hyaline. Scape of 
male distinctly thickened..... klugii (Ratzeburg). 

2. Forewing of female with a large deeply fuscous cloud embracing full 

width of wing and extending from base of wing to a point beyond 
apex of stigmal vein, this cloud present but less distinct in the 
male; scutellum very finely and deeply punctate, opaque, this 
sculpture obviously a little finer than that of mesoscutum; marginal 
vein distinctly more than twice as long as stigmal; clypeus bright 

metallic green; mandibles rufous; scape of male slender__ 

scutellata (Muesebeck). 

Forewings in both sexes hyaline; mesoscutum and scutellum less deeply 
sculptured, slightly shining, the punctures of scutellum a little 
shallower than those of mesoscutum but not conspicuously finer; 
marginal vein not more than twice as long as stigmal; clypeus not 
bright metallic green; mandibles variable in color, often black; 
scape of male more or less thickened_____3 

3. Antennal pedicel about twice as long as broad, equal to or very little 

longer than the first funicle joint plus the two ring joints; post¬ 
marginal vein as long as or slightly longer than stigmal; forewing 
behind submarginal vein either bare or with numerous weak cilia, 
behind and adjacent to the marginal vein not more sparsely ciliated 
than on middle of wing; mandibles often yellowish but sometimes 
black...___________4 

Antennal pedicel three times as long as broad, equal to or only very 
slightly shorter than the combined first and second funicle joints 
plus the ring joints; postmarginal vein a little shorter than stigmal; 
base of wing behind the submarginal vein bare, behind and adjacent 
to the marginal vein more sparsely ciliated than on middle of wing; 
mandibles black. hemerocampae (Girault). 

4. Forewing behind submarginal vein bare; lateral folds of propodeum 

cariniform; anterior margin of clypeus straight; mandibles reddish 
testaceous .......... koebelei , new species. 

Forewing behind submarginal vein with numerous weak discal cilia; 
lateral folds of propodeum distinct but rounded, not cariniform; 
anterior margin of clypeus sinuate, slightly impressed at the middle 
so as to form two short teeth or projections; mandibles dark ferru¬ 
ginous to black....... diprionis , new species. 

Tritneptis klugii (Ratzeburg), new combination. 

Pteromalus klugii Ratzeburg, Ichneum. d. Forstinsect., vol. 1, p. 198, 1844. 

Pteromalus nematicida Packard, Rept. U. S. Commr. Agr., p. 146, pi. 13, fig. 5, 
1883. (New synonymy.) 

Coeiopisthia nematicida Hewitt, Canad. Ent., vol. 43, p. 298, figs. 19-23, 1911; 
Canao. Expt. Farms Ent. Bull. 5, p. 28, figs. 15-18, 1912. 

Diglochis sp. Ruggles, Jour. Econ. Ent., vol. 4, p. 171, 1911; Hewitt, Canad. 
Expt. Farms Bull. 5, p. 31, 1912. 

Lariophagus klugii Kurdjumov, Rev. Russ. Ent., vol. 13, p. 15, 1913. 









PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 215 

Diglochis lophyrorum Ruschka, Zeitschr. Angew. Ent., Bd. II, Heft. 2, p. 400, 
1915; Meyer, Biol. Meth. Pest Control, Leningrad, p. 114, 1931. (New 
synonymy.) 

Several series of specimens reared from the larch sawfly 
(JSlematus erichsonii Hartig) in America have been compared 
with the description of Pteromalus klugii Ratzeburg, originally 
recorded from the same host species in Germany, and seem to 
agree perfectly. Furthermore these specimens apparently 
agree in every detail with the description o \ Diglochis lophyrorum 
Ruschka, originally described as a parasite of Lophyrus pini 
(L.) in Bohemia. No European specimens are available for 
comparison but the agreement of the American material with 
both descriptions, taken in conjunction with the host records, 
leaves no reason to doubt that the parasite occurring in America 
is really the European species and that Pteromalus klugii and 
Diglochis lophyrorum are identical. 

Pteromalus nematicida Packard is believed to be identical 
with klugii Ratzeburg. No type material of nematicida has 
been available for study and the conclusion regarding its 
identity therefore is necessarily based on the description and 
host record. Four specimens in the National Museum collec¬ 
tion, labeled as types of nematicida and so recorded in the type 
catalog, could not have been part of the type series since, ac¬ 
cording to the labeling, they were reared in Illinois by D. W. 
Coquillet, from Nematus ventricosus Latrielle (now treated as a 
synonym of N. ribesii Scopoli), whereas the actual types of the 
species were reared by Packard from cocoons of Nematus 
erichsonii Hartig collected in Maine by C. G. Atkins. These 
false “types” appear to be typical Dibrachys cavus (Walker), 
and, as I have pointed out in the discussion of that species, they 
were the basis of Girault’s as well as my own previous treatment 
of the species. Packard’s original characterization of nematicida 
consisted merely of a figure of the adult coupled with the host 
record. This figure agrees fairly well with the specimens which 
I have identified as klugii. Through the kindness of Mr. G. 
Stuart Walley of the Canadian Department of Agriculture I 
have received a number of specimens of the parasite treated of 
by G. Gordon Hewitt under the name of Coelopisthia nematicida 
and find them to agree in every respect with what I am calling 
klugii. Unfortunately I have been unable to obtain representa¬ 
tives of the parasite referred to by Ruggles under the name of 
Diglochis sp. According to Hewitt, specimens obtained by him 
from Ruggles were submitted to C. T. Brues, who informed him 
that they agreed well with Pteromalus klugii Ratzeburg. Since 
klugii, as will be shown, is present in Minnesota, there appears 
no reason to doubt that the Diglochis sp. of Ruggles was in 
reality klugii. 


216 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

Pteromalus klugii was transferred to the genus Lariophagus 
Crawford by Kurdjumov, probably on the basis of an examina¬ 
tion of Ratzeburg’s types. The species is similar in many 
respects to the genotype of Lariophagus (L. texanus Crawford) 
but differs by having the eyes inconspicuously hairy, the face 
much more strongly receding below the antennae, the post¬ 
marginal and stigmal veins shorter and subequal [about as in 
Dibrachys cavus (Walker) ], and the antennal pedicel much longer 
than the first funicle joint plus the ring joints. These characters 
as well as the different host relationships indicate that the 
species does not belong in Lariophagus . Neither does it fall 
naturally in the genus Diglochis. The head is quite differently 
shaped from that of D. complanatus (Ratzeburg). The antennal 
flagellum is much more slender, the eyes are not nearly so hairy, 
the stigmal and postmarginal veins are shorter, the propodeal 
spiracles are more nearly circular, and the female abdomen, 
instead of being subcircular in outline and shorter than the 
thorax, is as long as the head and thorax or longer, elongate 
ovate in outline, and fully twice as long as broad. 

The venation, shape of the abdomen, and most of the other 
characters agree very closely with those of the genus Dibrachys 
Foerster, but the absence of any semblance of an occipital 
carina at once excludes the species from that genus. Many of 
its characters ally it closely with those species at present placed 
in the genus Coelopisthia Foerster, but the elongate-ovate 
abdomen is unlike typical species of that genus which have the 
abdomen short and broad. 

On the other hand Pteromalus klugii seems to be entirely 
congeneric with Tritneptis hemerocampae Girault, genotype of 
Tritneptis Girault, and the species should therefore be known as 
Tritneptis klugii (Ratzeburg). 

The following series of specimens- in the National Museum 
collection all appear to be Tritneptis klugii: 3 specimens from 
Nematus erichsonii collected in Chequamegon National Forest, 
Wis., February 1936, under North East Forest Laboratory No. 
14-201; 10 specimens from the same host species taken in the 
Flathead National Forest, Mont., March 4, 1936, under the 
same laboratory number; 14 specimens from N. erichsonii 
taken at Clarissa, Minn., September 7, 1931, by L. W. Orr; 
12 specimens from N. erichsonii taken in Rlackfeet National 
Forest, Mont., September 28, 1935, by J. C. Evenden, Hopk. 
U. S. No. 20125; 4 specimens from Neodiprion tsugae Middleton, 
Sweet Home, Ore., September 7, 1935, collected by R. L. Furniss 
Hopk. U. S. No. 31660D; 4 specimens from the same host and 
locality, July 1, 1935, under Hopk. U. S. No. 31607-237; 
5 specimens from unnamed host on Tsuga heterophylla collected 
at Sweet Home, Oreg., August 18, 1934, J. A. Beal collector, 
under Hopk. U. S. No. 18875D; 8 specimens from West Yellow- 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 217 

stone, Mont., September 9, 1924, J. C. Evenden collector, under 
Hopk. U. S. No. 17234a, host not indicated; 19 specimens from 
Neodiprion banksiana Rohwer, August 2, 1923, S. A. Graham 
collector, Hopk. U. S. No. 17500g, locality not indicated; 28 
specimens from sawfly on lodgepole pine, West Yellowstone, 
Mont., August 28, 1926, H. E. Burke collector, Hopk. U. S. 
No. 18088g; 12 specimens from Cascade, Idaho, on Pinus 
murrayana, September 10, 1924, J. C. Evenden collector, Hopk. 
U. S. No. 17204a; 160 specimens from Fernis, British Columbia, 
reared from N. erichsonii , and received from the Canadian 
Department of Agriculture. 

Tritneptis scutellata (Muesebeck), new combination. 

Coelopisthia scutellata Muesebeck, Jour. Agr. Research, vol. 34, No. 4, p. 331, 
1927. 


Tritneptis hemerocampae Girault. 

Tritneptis hemerocampae Girault, Psyche, vol. 15, p. 92, 1908. 

Coelopisthia diacrisiae Crawford, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 12, p. 145, 1910. 
(New synonymy.) 


I am unable to find any character which will distinguish 
cotypes of Tritneptis hemerocampae in the U. S. National 
Museum collection from the holotype and paratypes of Coelo¬ 
pisthia diacrisiae in the same collection. The specimens 
constituting the type series of diacrisiae are slightly larger than 
typical specimens of hemerocampae but do not differ otherwise. 
I believe they are the same species. 


Tritneptis diprionis, new species. 

This apparently new species is very similar to hemerocampae 
(Gir.) and one small series of specimens of it was previously 
identified by me as that species. It differs from hemerocampae , 
however, by the characters set forth in the accompanying key 
to species and also by the costal cell of the forewing being 
slightly more hairy, and the frons a little less deeply impressed 
medially. The male may be distinguished from hemerocampae 
by the thicker antennal scape. 


Female. —Length 2.4 mm. Head and thorax with rather shallow alveolate 
sculpture. Head in dorsal view a little broader than thorax at tegulae, moder¬ 
ately concave posteriorly; frons broad, shallowly impressed medially; post- 
ocellar line slightly longer than ocellocular line; head in front view distinctly 
broader than high, antennae inserted about on a line with lower extremities of 
eyes; face moderately receding below antennae, forming with the plane of frons 
a rounded angle much greater than a right angle; clypeus slightly produced, its 


218 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


anterior margin slightly sinuate; antennae moderately clavate; scape subcylin- 
drical, not quite reaching to the front ocellus; pedicel about equal in length to the 
two ring joints plus the first funicle joint, frequently a little longer or a little 
shorter; first ring joint small and transverse, second subquadrate; first funicle 
joint very slightly longer than broad, following joints successively a little 
shorter, the fifth and sixth usually slightly broader than long; club a little longer 
than the two preceding funicle joints combined, distinctly a little thicker than 
the funicle; eyes with obscure, very short,sparse pile. Mesoscutum broader than 
long, shallowly sculptured, slightly shining, the parapsidal grooves weakly 
impressed anteriorly, absent posteriorly; scutellum rather flat, a little more 
finely and shallowly sculptured than the mesoscutum; propodeum about half as 
long as scutellum, distinctly more deeply sculptured than scutellum, with a 
distinct and complete median carina, the lateral folds also complete and distinct 
but not sharply cariniform. Forewing reaching considerably beyond apex of 
abdomen; marginal vein about twice as long as stigmal, the postmarginal vein 
equal to or very slightly longer than stigmal; forewing without marginal cilia, 
the discal area behind submarginal vein not bare as in hemerocampae but with 
numerous rather weak cilia and the area adjacent to the marginal vein fully as 
densely ciliated as the rest of the wing; hind wing with weak marginal cilia and 
nearly uniformly distributed discal cilia. Legs normal; hind tibia with one 
distinct spur. Abdomen as long as the thorax, broadly ovate, usually broader 
than the thorax, smooth or practically so, the last two segments very weakly 
sculptured; ovipositor not exserted. Head and thorax blackish green with a 
faint metallic luster; scutellum usually with a faint purplish tinge; propodeum 
dark greenish; abdomen shining black; scape dark reddish testaceous; pedicel 
either blackish or testaceous; flagellum black; coxae concolorous with thorax, 
rest of legs dark reddish testaceous; wings hyaline, venation dark brown. 

Male .—Length 1.9 mm. Exactly like the female except that the antennal 
scape is obviously a little thickened, and the abdomen, while broadly ovate, is 
more rounded at apex. 


Type locality — Bound Brook, N. J. 

Type.— U. S. N. M. No. 52891. 

Described from 7 females and 1 male, reared from Neodiprion 
sertifer (Geoffroy), August 2, 1937, at Bound Brook, N. J. under 
North East Forest Laboratory No. 25-203-37; 4 females and 3 
males reared from an unidentified sawfly on Norway pine taken at 
Springfield, Maine, August 31, 1932; 4 females and 3 males from 
an unidentified tenthredinid taken at Groton, Mass., September 
1, 1936, under North East Forest Insect Laboratory No. 
164-205-36-3; and 6 females and 1 male reared from cocoons 
of “black-headed spruce sawfly” taken at Itasca Park, Minn., 
July 27, 1930, by L. W. Orr. 

Tritneptis koebelei, new species. 

Agreeing with the description of Tritneptis diprionis , new species, except in 
the following particulars: 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 219 


Female .—Length 1.8 mm. Eyes apparently entirely bare; anterior margin of 
clypeus straight, without an impression at middle; fifth and sixth joints of 
funicle quadrate; forewing behind the submarginal vein and basad of the point 
where the vein curves forward to join the marginal vein bare or practically so, 
occasionally with a very few vestigial cilia; lateral folds of the propodeum sharply 
defined, the edge of the fold more or less cariniform; abdomen about as long as 
combined head and thorax, brownish black; antennal pedicel testaceous like 
the scape, flagellum brownish black; mandibles testaceous; scutellum not tinged 
with purple. 

Male .—Length 1.65 mm. Like the male of diprionis except for the characters 
indicated in the key, and the fact that the antennal flagellum is pale brownish 
in color, the scape very pale yellowish. 

Type locality. —Natoma, Sacramento County, Calif. 

Type. —U. S. N. M. No. 52892. 

Described from 18 females and 2 males, reared by Albert 
Koebele in January, 1888,? from cocoons of what was in all 
probability Caliroa cerasi (L.) feeding on pear at Natoma, 
Calif., and recorded under Bureau of Entomology note No. 
69°. Several of the specimens in the type series are rather 
badly broken but a few are complete. 

CHEIROPACHUS Westwood. 

Tropidogastra Ashmead, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 1, 1904, p. 223. (New 
synonymy). 

Tropidogastra was described by Ashmead in a generic key 
and T. arizonensis Ashmead cited as the type species. Examina¬ 
tion of the type specimen of arizonensis has shown that it agrees 
in all essential generic characters with the type species of 
Cheiropachus, C. colon (L.), and hence Tropidogastra should be 
considered a synonym of Cheiropachus. 

The following key will help in the recognition of the three 
species of Cheiropachus thus far known from North America. 


Key to the North American Species of Cheiropachus. 

1. Females.„.....2 

Males.....4 

2. Forewing with two large fuscous spots or incomplete bands, one at the 

apex of submarginal vein, the other adjacent to the postmarginal 
vein; front femora usually with a distinct notch in its ventral 

margin near apex............3 

Forewing hyaline or with only an obscure fuscous band across the 
angle formed by postmarginal and stigmal veins, rarely with a 
slight discoloration at the apex of submarginal vein; front femora 
greatly swollen but its ventral margin without a notch before the 


apex ......... arizonensis (Ashmead). 

3. Propodeum between the spiracles weakly sculptured, usually without 






220 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


definite alveolae; frons laterad of the scrobes with shallow alveolate 

sculpture.—...... colon (Linnaeus). 

Propodeum between the spiracles more strongly sculptured, this 
sculpture taking the form of rather definite alveolate punctures; 

frons laterad of scrobes more deeply and irregularly alveolate_ 

brunneri Crawford. 

4. Marginal vein very slightly longer than stigmal; front femur usually 

with a distinct notch in its ventral margin near apex.......5 

Marginal vein one and one-half to two times as long as stigmal; front 
femur without a notch in ventral margin; legs including all coxae 
reddish testaceous; forewings with two conspicuous fuscous bands.... 

arizonensis (Ashmead). 

5. Propodeum without definite alveolate sculpture; legs, including all 

coxae, mostly reddish testaceous_____ colon (Linnaeus). 

Propodeum with definite alveolate sculpture; legs, including all coxae, 
brownish black......_ brunneri Crawford. 

Cheiropachus arizonensis (Ashmead), new combination. 

Tropidogastra arizonensis Ashmead, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 1, p. 323, 1904. 
Dinarmus arizonicus Girault, Ins. Inscit. Mens., vol. 4, p. 109, 1916. 

The type of Tropidogastra arizonensis is a female specimen 
collected by Hubbard and Schwarz in the Santa Rita Moun¬ 
tains, Ariz., June 19, 1898. The only description of it by 
Ashmead is that given in the generic key. The same specimen 
was redescribed by Girault under the name Dinarmus arizonicus . 

It differs from Dinarmus , however, by having six instead of 
five joints in the funicle, by having the anterior and posterior 
femora much more swollen, and by having the posterior margin 
of the pronotum much more deeply concave. The generic 
characters ally it unmistakably with Cheiropachus colon (L.) 
and the species is therefore transferred to Cheiropachus. 

Besides the type specimen there are now in the collection of the 
United States National Museum the following specimens which 
I have assigned to the species arizonensis: 7 females and 7 males 
from Dallas, Tex., reared from red cedar by F. C. Bishopp and 
bearing Hopk. U. S. No. 9929q-2; 6 females and 3 males reared 
at Dallas, Tex., April, 1922, from ? Phloesinus in red cedar, also 
by F. C. Bishopp; 5 specimens from Alturas, Calif., reared by 
F. P. Keen from Juniperus occidentalism June 27, 1929, under 
Hopk. U. S. No. 18164-C, and 2 specimens from the same 
locality, reared by the same collector from Cercocarpus ledi- 
folius, June 26, 1929, under Hopk. U. S. No. 18154—C; 4 speci¬ 
mens from Terrebonne, Oreg., reared from Juniperus occidentalism 
August 20, 1930, by F. P. Keen under Hopk. U. S. No. 18199—b; 
8 specimens from Princeville, Oreg., reared from Phloesinus 
sp. in Juniperus , by W. J. Buchhorn under Hopk. U. S. Nos. 
18972-C and 18976-C; and 6 specimens from Bandolier, N. 







PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 221 


Mex., reared from Juniperus, December 21, 1934, by D. De 
Leon under Cage No. 447. 

In the male sex this species greatly resembles the males of 
colon and can be distinguished only by the absence of any 
notch on the ventral margin of the front femora and by the 
relatively longer marginal vein. The forewings are banded 
precisely as in colon. The females may have the forewings 
entirely hyaline or there may be a slight infuscation at the 
base of postmarginal vein. 

TOMICOBIA Ashmead. 

Tomicobia Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 4, p. 203,1899; Mem. Carnegie 
Mus., vol. 1, p. 283, 1904. 

Ipocoelius Ruschka, Ent. Tidskr., H. 1, p. 6,1924. (New synonymy.) 

Tomicobia was first described by Ashmead in a key to genera 
of Cleonymidae but without inclusion of any species. In his 
Classification of the Chalcid-flies of the Superfamily Chalci- 
doidea (1904) Ashmead again included it in his key to the genera 
of Cleonymidae and named as the genotype T. tibialis Ashmead 
but gave no description of the species other than that contained 
in the generic key. Apparently the only other reference to the 
species in literature is a short note by A. D. Hopkins (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 15, 1913, p. 160) stating that it is parasitic 
upon adult scolytid beetles of the genus Ips. One undated 
specimen in the United States National Museum reared by 
Hopkins in West Virginia and bearing his No. 7188b is labeled 
type- 

Ipocoelius was described by Ruschka in the tribe Pteromalini 
with two included species, viz, I. seitneri Ruschka, a parasite 
of Ips typographus (L.) in Sweden, Austria, and Bavaria, and 
/. rotundiventris Ruschka, parasitic upon Otiorhynchus ligustici 
(L.) in Sweden. Both species were said to attack their hosts 
in the adult stage. Two paratypes of /. seitneri are in the 
U. S. National Museum, obtained through an exchange with the 
Naturhistorischen Museum in Vienna. 

The type of Tomicobia tibialis and the paratypes of Ipocoelius 
seitneri were recently compared and found to be undoubtedly 
congeneric. The two species are extremely similar. I am able 
to distinguish them only by the fact that in seitneri the post¬ 
marginal vein is about one and one-half times as long as the 
stigmal while in tibialis the postmarginal is not more than one 
and one-fourth times the length of the stigmal. In other 
respects they appear to be exactly alike. 

Several specimens reared by I). De Leon from Ips oregoni 
(Eichh.) on lodgepole pine at Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, in May, 
1929, under Hopkins U. S. No. 19744 were identified by the 
writer as Ipocoelius , n. sp. Additional specimens were sub- 


222 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

sequently received from the same locality, reared from the same 
host by H. J. Rust in June, 1932, and April, 1933, under Hopkins 
U. S. No. 19994. More recently one specimen reared from 
Ips conjusus (Lee.) in Sequoia National Park, Calif., November 
4, 1934, and another taken on Pinus ponderosa in the same 
locality were sent in by L. F. Cook, and there are five additional 
specimens in the National Museum collection taken at Ashe¬ 
ville, N. C., October 7, 1925, by A. H. MacAndrews. 1 am 
unable to distinguish more than one species in all this material 
and believe it all to be referable to Tomicobia tibialis Ashmead. 

As represented by this series of 23 specimens, Tomicobia 
tibialis shows considerable variation both in minor details of 
structure and in color. The funicle joints are usually sub¬ 
quadrate but may be somewhat longer than broad. The 
propodeum may have a complete though weak median longi¬ 
tudinal carina or this carina may be entirely lacking. The 
scape in some cases is yellowish testaceous but often almost 
wholly dark brown. The legs vary from wholly brownish black, 
except the tarsi, which are always more or less testaceous, to 
largely reddish testaceous with only the coxae black and the 
femora dark brown. Head and thorax with fine, shallow 
alveolate sculpture; propodeum between the spiracles more 
deeply sculptured, laterad of spiracles nearly smooth; spiracles 
short elliptical; abdomen smooth, ovate, about as long as 
thorax, with a prominent hypopygium which extends to the 
apex of abdomen. Face dark metallic green; rest of head, thorax 
and abdomen greenish black with a slight aeneous tint. Wings 
hyaline, venation brownish testaceous. Flagellum black. 

Amblymerus verditor (Norton). 

Platyterma ecksteinii Wolff, Zeitschr. f. Angew. Ent., vol. 3, p. 168, 1916. (New 
synonymy.) 

A specimen of Platyterma ecksteinii Wolff, obtained through an 
exchange with the Naturhistorisches Museum of Vienna, has 
been compared with the type and other American material of 
Amblymerus verditor (Norton) and found to agree exactly. 
Wolff’s species, which is said to parasitize Lophyrus pini L., is 
to be considered a synonym of verditor (Norton). 

HETEROSCHEMA Gahan. 

Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., vol. 55, p. 126, 1919. 

This genus resembles Psilocera Walker but differs by having 
three subequal ring joints instead of two in the antennae, the 
flagellum more nearly cylindrical instead of strongly incrassated 
toward apex, the anterior margin of clypeus squarely truncate 
or weakly bidentate instead of strongly bidentate, and the 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 223 

hypopygium never extending to the apex of abdomen. It is 
also similar to Toxeumella Girault, from which it differs by 
having the clypeus much less prominent, the cheeks not hollowed 
out at the base of mandibles, the ocellocular line shorter than 
the postocellar line or at least not longer, and the head much 
more strongly transverse. It is probably closest to Eurydi- 
noteloides Girault, from which it may be distinguished by the 
immargined occiput, by the shorter abdomen, which is rarely 
a little longer than the combined head and thorax, and by the 
incomplete parapsidal grooves. 

Heteroschema rugosopunctata (Ashmead), new combination. 
Pteromalus rugosopunctatus Ashmead, Jour. Linn. Soc. London, Zool., vol. 25, 
p. 165, 1894; Dalla Torre, Cat. Hymen., vol. 5, p. 146, 1898; Ashmead, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 343, 1900. 

Heteroschema prima Gahan, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., vol. 55, p. 126, 1919. (New 
synonymy.) 

Pteromalus rugosopunctatus was described from specimens 
collected on the islands of St. Vincent and Grenada. Paratypes 
of the species which are in the U. S. National Museum have been 
compared with the types of Heteroschema prima , type species of 
Heteroschema Gahan, and found to agree apparently in every 
respect. H. prima was originally reared at Tempe, Ariz., from 
Agromyza gibsoni Malloch and has been known only from the 
type specimens. The writer was led to make the comparison 
of types of P. rugosopunctatus and H. prima by receipt of a single 
specimen reared from a flowerhead of Helianthus at Santiago 
de Las Vegas, Cuba, by S. C. Bruner. This specimen was first 
recognized as Heteroschema prima and a later search of the 
collection of West Indian Hymenoptera showed it to agree also 
with Pteromalus rugosopunctatus. Subsequently two additional 
specimens reared at Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba, by L. C. 
Scaramuzza in 1937 from a dipterous pupa were identified as 
this species. Two specimens received from C. H. Ballou, taken 
on Ipomoea tiliacea at San Pedro de Oca, Costa Rica, also appear 
to be rugosopunctatus. 

Heteroschema punctata (Ashmead), new combination. 

Glyphe punctata Ashmead, Jour. Linn. Soc. London, Zool., vol. 25, p. 162, 1894. 
Gastrancistrus punctatus Dalla Torre, Cat. Hymen., vol. 5, p. 204, 1898. 

? Glyphe punctata Ashmead, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 344, 1900. 

Paratypes of Glyphe punctata in the National Museum col¬ 
lection do not belong in the genus Gastrancistrus Westwood, of 
which Glyphe Walker is a synonym. Instead they are congen¬ 
eric, in my opinion, with Heteroschema rugosopunctata 
(Ashmead), which, as I have just shown, is identical with the 
type species of Heteroschema Gahan. 


224 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

(< Glyphe ) Heteroschema punctata was originally described from 
the islands of St. Vincent and Grenada. I have received two 
specimens of it reared by S. C. Bruner at Santiago de Las Vegas, 
Cuba, August 4, 1933, from Helianthus heads. Other speci¬ 
mens in the collection, which I have identified as this species, 
are as follows: Five specimens from Cocoa, Fla., March 18, 
1930, on Melanthera niver (L.), Conner coll.; five specimens from 
St. Louis, Mo., reared in June, 1928, from an unidentified 
insect on Helianthus pitcheriana , by A. F. Satterthwaite; and 
two specimens from St. Louis, Mo., reared in July, 1930, from 
Agromyza virens Loew, infesting Heliopsis, by A. F. Satter¬ 
thwaite. 

This species is similar to Heteroschema rugosopunctata 
(Ashmead) but may be distinguished at once by its darker legs 
and by the abdomen, which is a little longer than the head and 
thorax, strongly compressed, its anterior ventral angle prolonged 
forward under the thorax to reach the front coxae, the hypo- 
pygium prominent but not attaining the apex of the abdomen. 
The legs are black, with the bases and apices of tibiae narrowly 
and the tarsi, except the apical joint, pale. 


PSEUDOMICROMELUS Gahan and Fagan. 

Pseudomicromelus Gahan and Fagan, U. S. Nad. Mus. Bull. 124, p. 124, 1923. 
Micromelus Dalla Torre, Cat. Hymen., vol. 5, p. 184, 1898. (Not Micromelus 
Walker.) 

This generic name was proposed in the Catalog of type species 
of the genera of Chalcidoidea for Micromelus Dalla Torre, not 
Walker, Dalla Torre having listed Micromelus both as a synonym 
of Baeotomus (p. 89) and as a good genus (p. 184). Baetomus 
Foerster and Micromelus Walker were both shown to be 
synonyms of Callitula Spinola, the three genera having the same 
species as genotype, viz, Callitula bicolor Spinola (= Micromelus 
rujomaculatus Walker). Micromelus silanus Walker was named 
as the type species of Pseudomicromelus. 

At the time the generic name was proposed the genotype 
species of Pseudomicromelus was unknown to the writer except 
by the description, but it has since been studied. The type of 
silanus is a female in the British Museum general collection in 
good condition except that the antennae are partly missing. 

This type is a pteromalid congeneric with Pteromalus dep- 
lanatus Nees and very closely resembling that species. The 
following incomplete notes on Walker’s type were made at the 
time it was examined: 

Head viewed from in front narrowed below the eyes, sub- 
triangular; antennae inserted below the eyes, very near the 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 225 

clypeus; antennae with three very small ring joints, the funicle 
therefore five-jointed; pro'notum short; parapsidal grooves 
extending to middle of mesoscutum but very delicately im¬ 
pressed; propodeum short, with distinct median carina and 
complete lateral folds; abdomen circular, a little broader than 
long; stigmal and postmarginal veins equal or very nearly so, 
and each approximately half as long as marginal. 


Pseudomicromelus silanus (Walker). 

Micromelus silanus Walker, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 12, p. 46, 1843. 
Micromelus silvanus Dalla Torre, Cat. Hymen., vol. V, p. 184, 1898. 
Pseudomicromelus silvanus Gahan & Fagan, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 124, p. 89, 
1923. 

The name of this species was changed by Dalla Torre from 
silanus to silvanus. Whether this was intentional or a typo¬ 
graphical error is not apparent. Dalla Torre’s spelling of the 
name was also used by Gahan and Fagan in the catalog of type 
species of Chalcidoidea. 

The type was collected, according to Walker, at Mount 
Wellington, in Tasmania, by C. Darwin. 


Pseudomicromelus australia (Girault), new combination. 
Dibrachys australia Girault, Ins. Inscit. Mems., vol. 5, p. 145, 1917. 

The types of this species are in the U. S. National Museum 
and are strictly congeneric with silanus Walker. They appear 
to agree with the foregoing notes on silanus as well as with 
Walker’s description except that the marginal vein is less than 
twice as long as the stigmal vein and the abdomen is a little 
longer than broad. Antennae short, moderately clavate, 
gradually increasing in thickness from pedicel to club, third 
antennal joint very small, fourth and fifth broader but strongly 
transverse, the latter nearly as broad as sixth or first true funicle 
joint, which is also transverse but distinctly longer than the 
fifth; seventh, eighth, and ninth joints slightly broader than long, 
the tenth subquadrate; club not much thicker than the last 
funicle joint and nearly as long as the four preceding joints 
combined. 

This species does not resemble a Dibrachys and is excluded 
from that genus by the absence of any marginal carina on the 
occiput, by the short subcircular abdomen, and by antennal 
characters. 

The types were reared from Carpocapsa pomonella (L.) at 
Glen Innes, New South Wales. 


226 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

Pseudomicromelus deplanatus (Nees). 

Pteromalus deplanatus Nees, Hymen. Ichneum. Affin. Monogr., vol. 2, p. 110, 
1834. 

Pteromalus domesticus Walker, Ent. Mag., vol. 2, p. 481, 1835. 

Pseudomicromelus deplanatus Keifer & Jones, Calif., Dept. Agr. Mo. Bull., 
vol. 22, p. 388, 1933. 

This common European species does not belong in the genus 
Pteromalus but has apparently been allowed to remain there 
because it did not seem to fit into any other described genus. 
Eight specimens obtained through the late Dr. James Waterston 
and determined by him are, in the writer’s opinion, congeneric 
with silanus Walker. The only respect in which they differ 
that could in any way be considered generic is the fact that in 
silanus the antennal sockets are separated from the posterior 
margin of the clypeus by a distance scarcely greater than the 
diameter of a socket, and in deplanatus they are a little farther 
above the clypeus, although on or below a line connecting the 
lower extremities of the eyes. The marginal vein in deplanatus 
is shorter in proportion to the length of the stigmal vein than 
in silanus but this difference is so slight as to be of little generic 
significance. 

It is possible that deplanatus may eventually be found to fall 
in some earlier proposed genus, in which case Pseudomicromelus 
will become a synonym. For the present it can very well rest 
in Pseudomicromelus. 

The Waterston-determined specimens were compared by the 
writer with specimens in the Ratzeburg collection at Eberswalde, 
Germany, and found to agree with Ratzeburg’s determination of 
deplanatus. The types of Walker’s Pteromalus domesticus in 
the British Museum were also found to agree perfectly with 
deplanatus , as did specimens in the Deutches Entomologisches 
Museum identified as P. domesticus by Ruschka. P. domesticus 
has been recognized as a synonym by various European writers. 

Pseudomicromelus deplanatus is apparently a common species 
in Europe and has been frequently mentioned as a parasite of 
Tortrix viridana (L.). It was originally recorded by Nees as a 
parasite of another tortricid, viz, Loxotaenia xylosteana (L.). 

The writer received a series of 17 specimens reared in May, 
1932, by H. H. Keifer at Marysville, Calif., from Anarsia 
lineatella Zeller which agree perfectly with the specimens from 
England. My identification of the parasite using the new 
generic combination was published by Keifer and Jones in 1933. 
The species had not previously been known to occur in America. 
Anarsia lineatella is known to occur in Europe but apparently it 
has not been recorded as a host to deplanatus there. How the 
parasite became established in California is not known. 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 227 


Halticoptera Stella Girault. 

Halticoptera Stella Girault, Descriptiones Hymenopterorum Chalcidoidicarum 
Variorum cum Observationibus, vol. 3, 1917 (May), p. 1. 

Megorismuspoloni Girault, Psyche, vol. 24, p. 27 (June, 1917). (New synonymy). 


Both of the above names were based upon specimens collected 
in August in Placer County, Calif., and evidently all originally 
formed one series. A comparison of the types fails to show any 
differences between them. 

This species is very similar to Halticoptera aenea (Walker), 
but may be distinguished by the less metallic color of the head 
and thorax and the darker colored legs, all of the femora being 
black and the tibiae very dark brown or blackish. The malar 
space is longer than in aenea and the lateral angles of the 
pronotum, viewed from above, are distinctly more prominent. 


Family EULOPHIDAE. 

MELITTOBIA Westwood. 

Melittobia Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., vol. 5, Proc., p. xviii and p. 
lxv, 1847. 

Aceratoneuromyia Girault,Ins.Insc. Mens.,vol. 5,p. 151,1917. (Newsynonymy.) 


Aceratoneuromyia australia Girault, type of the genus Acera¬ 
toneuromyia , as shown beyond, is a synonym of Melittobia 
indicum Silvestri. Hence the Girault genus is a synonym of 
Melittobia. 


Melittobia indicum (Silvestri). 

Syntomosphyrum indicum Silvestri, Boll. Lab. Zool. R. Scuola Agr. Portici, 
vol. 4, p. 232, 1910. 

Melittobia indicum Kurdjumov, Rev. Russe d’Entom., vol. 13, p. 245, 1913. 
Aceratoneuromyia australia Girault, Ins. Insc. Mens., vol. 5, p. 151, 1917. (New 
synonymy.) 

I have compared cotypes of Melittobia indicum Silvestri in the 
United States National Museum collection with the type 
material of Aceratoneuromyia australia Girault in the same 
collection and find the two series of specimens to agree in every 
respect. According to Silvestri the species was introduced from 
India into western Australia, whence came the type material 
of the Girault species. 



228 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

THE LORAL PLATES AND THE HYPOPHARYNX 
OF HEMIPTERA. 

By R. E. Snodgrass, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 


After many years of investigation and discussion on the 
morphology of the hemipterous head and mouth parts, two 
features have remained without a satisfactory explanation. It 
must be understood, of course, that a “satisfactory explanation” 
in this case is one that shows how the parts in question corres¬ 
pond with generalized structures in the head of orthopteroid 
insects. One of the problematical points in the morphology of 
the hemipterous head is the nature of the sclerites lying at the 
sides of the clypeus, known as the lora, juga, paraclypeal lobes, 
or mandibular plates, on which the protractor muscles of the 
mandibles are attached; the other is the homology of these 
muscles themselves. The lora, as the plates in question are 
termed by homopterists, have been referred by different writers 
to the mandibles, to the genae, and to the clypeus. Two recent 
papers appearing almost at the same time, one by Spooner 
(April, 1938), the other by Evans (May, 1938), take up the 
question of the nature of the lora, and, by a further coincidence, 
the two authors arrive independently at the same conclusion, 
namely, that the lora are secondarily detached parts of the 
postclypeus. Neither writer, however, gives due consideration 
to the facts that the lower ends of the lora are directly continu¬ 
ous beneath the anteclypeus with the body of the hypopharynx, 
and that their lateral areas give attachment to the protractor 
muscles of the mandibles. These two constant features of the 
lora constitute an anatomical condition quite incompatible with 
the idea that the loral plates are primarily parts of the clypeus. 
Though sclerites on which mandibular muscles are normally 
attached may be supposed to have united secondarily with the 
clypeal margins, there is no precedent in insect anatomy for the 
origin of mandibular muscles on any part of the clypeus. 
Sclerites having the anatomical relations of the hemipterous lora, 
excepting the clypeal connections, are to be found among insects 
with biting mouth parts only in the lateral sclerites of the 
hypopharynx itself that give attachment to the hypopharyngeal 
muscles of the mandibles. 

The basic structure of the hemipterous head is best exempli¬ 
fied in the hypognathous, or auchenorrhynchous, Homoptera 
(PL 22, A, B, C). The clypeus in this group is usually sub¬ 
divided into a large, protuberant postclypeus (A, Plcp), on which 
the dilator muscles of the sucking pump take their origin, and 
into a smaller anteclypeus, or clypeolus (. Aclp ), which supports 
the Labrum (. Lm ), and bears on its inner, or epipharyngeal, 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV,, 1938 229 

surface the plunger of the pump (H, I, i). In some forms, as in 
the Fulgoridae (B, C), the clypeus is a smaller, more ventral 
plate, and is not distinctly divided between its postclypeal and 
anteclypeal areas. Lying immediately laterad of the clypeal 
margins are the lora (A, B, Lor), and behind the lora are the 
so-called maxillary plates (MxPl). Deeply inflected between 
the lorum and the maxillary plate on each side is the protractor 
arm of the mandible (E, K, pa), which articulates dorsallv with 
the posterior lateral margin of the lorum ( k), and gives insertion 
to the protractor muscles of the mandible ( mdpr) arising on the 
inner face of the lorum (Lor). The retractor arm of the mandible 
(pa) extends up the lateral wall of the bristle pouch and gives 
attachment to retractor muscles (mdr) arising on the vertex. 

The loral plates, when fully exposed by removing the ante- 
clypeus from the head, are seen to be directly continuous 
ventrally with the sides of the hypopharynx (E, F, Lor). Their 
upper parts are always attached anteriorly to the lateral margins 
of the postclypeus, and usually the lines of attachment are 
evident as grooves formed by the inflected clypeal margins 
(E, F, g). In some forms, however, as in certain Fulgoridae 
among the Homoptera (C), the Peloridiidae (D), and in all 
Heteroptera, the upper parts of the lora are entirely fused with 
the postclypeus, so that the exposed areas of the loral plates 
(Lor) appear as lateral lobes of the postclypeus. The condition 
of continuity between the postclypeus and the lora is taken by 
Spooner (1938) and by Evans (1938) to represent the more 
generalized structure, and is given as evidence that the lora have 
been derived by a secondary separation from the postclypeus. 
This conclusion involves the assumption that the protractor 
muscles of the mandibles primarily had their mesal attachments 
on lateral lobes of the clypeus (C, mdpr), and it is further 
burdened with the necessity of explaining how the lower ends 
of the lora acquired a continuity with the hypopharynx before 
they separated from the clypeus. 

The simplest and most satisfactory explanation that can be 
given of the nature of the hemipterous lora is the assumption 
that the loral plates are morphologically, as well as anatomically, 
lateral expansions of the parts of the hypopharynx on which the 
hypopharyngeal muscles of the mandibles take their origin 
(J, mdh). Heymons (1899), in his study of the embryonic 
development of the Flemiptera, says (p. 440) that the lora 
(laminae mandibulares) are derived from “ Bestandtheilen des 
Mandibularsegmentes,” though in describing the cicada (p. 422) 
he ascribes them to both the mandibular and the antennal 
segment, and in Heteroptera (p. 370) to the antennal segment 
alone. The attachment of mandibular muscles on the loral 
plates, however, is presumptive evidence that the lora them¬ 
selves are derived from the mandibular somite, and there is no 


230 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

question that the anterior part of the hypopharynx is formed 
from the venter of this somite. 

The mandibular muscles attached on the sides of the base of 
the hypopharynx in orthopteroid insects are undoubtedly 
remnants of the primary ventral adductors of the mandibular 
appendages, though in modern biting insects it is questionable 
whether their contraction adducts the jaws or flattens the base 
of the hypopharynx. In orthopteroid and other insects with 
biting mouth parts in which these muscles occur (J, mdh), the 
muscles are attached mesallv either directly on the base of the 
hypopharynx or on mandibular arms (x) of the suspensorial 
sclerites (sus) of the hypopharynx, and laterally on the inner 
surfaces of the lateral walls of the mandibles. The protractor 
arms of the hemipterous mandibles, on which the loral muscles 
are attached (E, K, pa), are not true apodemes but are proximal 
extensions of the lateral walls of the mandibular bases, and 
hence represent the same areas of the mandibles as those of 
biting insects (J) on which the hypopharyngeal muscles are 
attached. In the Hemiptera both of the primary articulations 
of the mandible on the subgenal margin of the cranium have 
been suppressed in order to give freedom of movement to the 
mandibular base; the articulation with the lorum (E, K, k) 
represents the mesal point of contact between the mandibular 
base and the base of the hypopharynx. The retractor muscle 
of the hemipterous mandible arising on the vertex (K, lmdr) is 
evidently the adductor muscle of the biting jaw; in the cicada 
the primitive cranial abductor appears to be represented by a 
second retractor muscle (K, 2mdr) arising on the gena and in¬ 
serted laterally on the mandibular base. The reduction in size of 
the mandibular bases in hemiptera has exposed the lateral parts 
of the hypopharynx on the sides of the head, and the retraction 
of the mandibles has converted the primitively adductor hypo¬ 
pharyngeal muscles of the mandibles into protractor muscles. 
The connection of the hypopharyngeal loral plates with the 
postclypeus, therefore, is a secondary union, which in some 
forms has progressed to a complete fusion by an obliteration of 
the clypeoloral sutures. 

A morphological interpretation can not be fully acceptable 
unless it is consistent in all its implications. If the loral plates 
of the hemipterous head are lateral expansions of the base of the 
hypopharynx, we should find an entire conformity in the struc¬ 
ture of the hypopharynx in Hemiptera with the structure of 
the hypopharynx in more generalized insects. 

The removal of the anteclypeus and labrum of an homopterous 
insect, including the epipharyngeal wall of the anteclypeus, not 
only exposes the continuity of the lower ends of the loral plates 
with the median body of the hypopharynx (E, F), but reveals 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 8 , NOV., 1938 231 

also, on the base of the hypopharynx, a median, oval or elongate, 
basinlike cavity (/) with strongly sclerotic walls and well- 
defined marginal ridges. This cavity is the floor of the sucking 
pump (I, /). On the epipharyngeal surface of the removed 
anteclypeus (H) is the piston, or plunger, of the pump (/), which 
projects as an oval or elongate elastic fold from an epipharyn¬ 
geal cavity with marginal ridges that normally fit tightly upon 
the marginal ridges of the hypopharyngeal pump floor. The 
relations of the epipharyngeal and hypopharyngeal parts of the 
pump are readily seen in a cicada if the “mouth” is forcibly 
opened by depressing the hypopharynx (I). The “orthopter- 
oid” structure of the parts exposed at once becomes evident. 
The free terminal hypopharyngeal lobe {d) is only the apical 
part of the hypopharynx ( Hphy), since the anterior surface of 
the latter continues upward to the mouth ( Mth ), includes the 
basinlike floor of the sucking pump (Y), and gives off laterally 
the large loral plates {Lor). In addition, moreover, the hemip¬ 
terous hypopharynx includes a pair of posterior plates (G, h, h) 
that arise from the base of the apical lobe and extend dorsally 
in the mesal and posterior walls of the invaginations that form 
the bristle pouches. The upper ends of these plates in Homop- 
tera are generally united with the posterior arms of the ten¬ 
torium (PT), and their haemocoelic surfaces give attachment 
to the dilator muscles of the salivary syringe. The hemipterous 
hypopharynx is thus seen to be a highly developed and complex 
structure forming many important elements of the feeding 
apparatus. 

In order to understand the modifications that have produced 
the complex structure of the hypopharynx in Hemiptera, some 
attention should be given to the generalized structure of the 
organ shown in Orthoptera. In the hypognathous position, 
which may be taken as basic for descriptive orientation, the 
typical orthopterous hypopharynx hangs between the mandibles 
from the ventral wall of the head (J, Hphy). Its long anterior 
surface continues upward to the mouth {Mth); its relatively short 
posterior surface is reflected into the anterior wall of the labium 
at the base of the prementum, where is situated the orifice of the 
salivary duct. 

The upper part of the anterior surface of the orthopteroid 
hypopharynx is always, and usually very distinctly, differenti¬ 
ated from the ventral part of the organ that forms the free 
tongue-like hypopharyngeal lobe (J, d), which may be termed 
specifically the lingua. The adoral supralingual area is generally 
depressed, and is flanked by a pair of sclerites {sus) from which 
two slender arms (y) extend upward into the angles of the mouth, 
where they enter the stomodaeal wall and give insertion to a pair 
of retractor muscles {hf) arising on the frons. This upper adoral 
hypopharyngeal structure serves in biting and chewing insects 


232 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 8 , NOV., 1938 

as a receptacle for the masticated food passed back from the 
mandibles, and also, by the contraction of the frontal muscles 
inserted on its suspensorial sclerites, as a conveyor of the food 
to the mouth. In orthopteroid insects it often resembles a 
basket, but since in other insects it takes on various forms, it 
may be termed the sitophore, or “food carrier.” To the sides of 
the suspensorial sclerites, usually on a pair of lateral arms (J, a), 
are attached the hypopharyngeal muscles of the mandibles. 

The sitophore of the hypopharynx, with the attached mandi¬ 
bular muscles, is characteristic of Orthoptera, is well developed 
in Dermaptera, and is typically present in Lepismatidae, but 
apparently it has no prototype in other apterygote insects or in 
other arthropods. Its suspensory sclerites have no clear 
relation to the premandibular suspensory plates (fulturae) of 
Chilopoda and Diplopoda that support the hypopharynx on the 
lateral margins of the cranium, and at most could be derived 
from only the mesal ends of these plates. In an earlier discus¬ 
sion of the insect hypopharynx the writer suggested that the 
food-carrying part of the organ may represent the venter of the 
tritocerebral somite, but the attachment of mandibular muscles 
on it would indicate that it belongs specifically to the somite of 
the mandibles. 

The floor of the sitophore is the floor of the cibarial chamber 
of the preoral mouth cavity, which normally is covered by the 
inner, or epipharyngeal, wall of the clypeus. In the more 
generalized insects, as above noted, the sitophore is characteris¬ 
tically a basketlike structure suspended from the frons by the 
frontal muscles attached on its lateral arms. However, in 
coleopterous larvae it forms the large retractile preoral sclerite 
situated on the base of the hypopharynx, in Corrodentia and 
Mallophaga it becomes the curious mortarlike hypopharyngeal 
sclerite with thick basal arms on which the frontal muscles are 
inserted, and in Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, and Diptera it is 
the sclerotic basin of the sucking pump. The epipharyngeal 
dilator muscles of the cibarium arising on the clypeus probably 
play only a minor part in the process of ingestion with Orthop¬ 
tera, but they become highly important elements of the “mortar- 
and-pestle” apparatus of Corrodentia, and of the pumping 
mechanism of sucking insects. 

The free lobe, or true lingua (J, d), of the generalized hypo¬ 
pharynx has a pair of lateroventral sclerites (sis), which may be 
designated the sublingual sclerites. Though variable in size and 
shape, these sclerites, when typically developed, converge 
proximally in the posterior wall of the lingua and unite behind 
the orifice of the salivary duct. Contrary to usual statements, 
therefore, the salivary opening is on the base of the hypo¬ 
pharynx, and not literally between the hypopharynx and the 
labium. The sublingual sclerites give attachment, laterad of the 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 , NO. 8, NOV., 1938 233 

salivary orifice, to a pair of muscles from the tentorium. These 
muscles are antagonistic to the frontal muscles inserted on the 
suspensorial sclerites in that they swing the hypopharynx 
posteriorly, but it is probable that they are also retractors of the 
hypopharynx. Finally, it should be noted that one or two pairs 
of muscles traverse the base of the hypopharynx anteroposter- 
iorly; they arise on the mandibular arms of the suspensorial 
sclerites and converge to the posterior wall of the lingua, where 
they are inserted just before or immediately upon the anterior 
lip of the salivary orifice, and serve to dilate the latter. These 
hypopharyngeal salivary muscles are usually opposed by one or 
two pairs of labial salivary muscles inserted on or near the 
posterior lip of the salivary opening. 

A comparison of the hypopharynx and accessory structures 
in the Homoptera (E, F, I) with those in a cockroach (J) leaves 
little doubt of the homologies of the parts. The small free 
apical lobe ( d ) of the homopterous hypopharynx corresponds 
with the tongue-like appendicular lingua (d) of the blattid 
organ. The sucking pump of the hemipteron (I, Pmp) is the 
cibarium of the preoral mouth cavity, converted into a closed 
chamber by the close apposition of the hypopharyngeal wall 
against the epipharyngeal wall. The sclerotic, basinlike floor 
of the pump (E, F, I,/) represents the floor of the sitophore on 
the base of the orthopterous hypopharynx (J,/); the sucking 
action of the pump is produced by an elastic epipharyngeal 
lobe (H, I, i) operated by the greatly enlarged clypeal muscles. 
The lateral parts of the hypopharyngeal base, on which in the 
Orthoptera the mandibular muscles are attached (J), have been 
expanded in the Hemiptera to form the loral plates (E, F, I, 
Lor), on which the muscles retain their attachments, though by 
their altered positions they have become mandibular protractors. 
It is not necessary to suppose that the lora represent specifically 
only the mandibular arms of the orthopterous hypopharynx 
(J, x); it seems more probable that they are the expanded 
lateral parts of the basal region of the hypopharynx, which 
would be exposed on the sides of the head if the mandibles were 
reduced in size or removed. The posterior plates of the hemip¬ 
terous hypopharynx forming the walls of the bristle pouches are 
evidently special developments in the Hemiptera, since they are 
correlated with the invagination of the mandibular and maxil¬ 
lary bases and with the presence of a salivary ejection apparatus, 
features not present in Orthoptera. The salivary outlet in the 
Hemiptera has been carried out to the apex of the hypopharynx 
apparently by an extension of the union of the sublingual 
sclerites behind it, which in the Orthoptera embrace only the 
mouth of the duct on the base of the hypopharynx. The 
musculature of the hemipterous hypopharynx has been simpli- 


PLATE 22 


PfcOC. ENT. $OC. WASH., VOL. 40 



[ 234 ] 



























PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 235 


fied because the organ is an immovable part of the feeding 
apparatus. The frontal and tentorial muscles appear to be 
absent, though the former may be represented by the first pair 
of stomodaeal dilators, which arise on the frons. The mandi¬ 
bular and salivary muscles, on the other hand, are highly 
developed, the first attached on the lateral loral plates, the 
second arising on the plates of the bristle pouches. 

References. 

Evans, J. W. (1938). The morphology of the head of Homoptera. Papers and 
Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania for 1937, pp. 1-20, 20 figs. 

Heymons, R. (1899). Beitrage zur Morphologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 
der Rhynchoten. Nova Acta. Leop.-Carol. Deutschen Akad., vol. 74, 
pp. 349-456, pis. 15-17. 

Spooner, C. S. (1938). The phylogeny of the Hemiptera based on a study of 
the head capsule. Univ. Illinois Bull., vol. 35, No. 70 (Illinois Biol. Mono¬ 
graphs, vol. 16, No. 3), 102 pp., 398 figs. 

Explanation of Plate. 

A, Cephisus siccifolius Walk. (Cercopidae), head of nymph, showing usual 
relation of facial sclerites in auchenorrhynchous Homoptera. 

B, Pentagramma vittatifrons (Uhl.), adult head, illustrating relatively small 
size of postclypeus in Fulgoridae, and lack of separation between postclypeus 
and anteclypeus. 

C, Ormenis pruinosa (Say), example of a fulgorid having the lora {Lor) united 
with the postclypeus, as shown by origins of protractor muscles of mandibles 
{mdpr). 

D, Hemiodoecus fidelis Evans (Peloridiidae), lora united with postclypeus as 
in the fulgorid Ormenis (C). 

E, Cephisus siccifolius , nymph, hypopharynx and bases of mandibles, anterior 
view, exposed by removal of clypeus, showing continuity of the loral plates 
{Lor) with base of hypopharynx. 

F, Magicicada septendecim (L.), hypopharynx and its loral expansions exposed 
by removal of clypeus. 

G, same, hypopharynx and tentorium, posterior aspect. 

H, same, posterior (epipharyngeal) surface of anteclypeus and labrum. 

I, same, lateral view of preoral mouth cavity opened by depression of 
hypopharynx, showing chamber of sucking pump {Pmp) to be the cibarial 
cavity of orthopterous insects between base of hypopharynx and epipharyngeal 
wall of anteclypeus. 

J, Periplaneta americana , mandibles and hypopharynx, anterior surface, 
showing tentorial mandibular muscles {mdh) attached on base of hypopharynx. 

K, Magicicada septendecim , right mandible and muscles, showing homology of 
protractor muscle {mdpr) with hypopharyngeal muscle of mandible of Peri¬ 
planeta (J, mdh). 


236 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


Aclp , anteclypeus (clypeolus); Apab , abductor apodeme of mandible; Apad, 
adductor apodeme of mandible; AT, anterior tentorial arm; at, anterior tentorial 
pit; c, anterior articulation of mandible; d, free lobe (lingua) of hypopharynx; 
dlcb, attachment of dilator muscles of sucking pump on postclypeus; DT, dorsal 
tentorial arm; e, median groove of hypopharynx;/, floor of sucking pump, or of 
food receptacle (sitophore), on base of hypopharynx;/m, food meatus; g, line of 
attachment of lorum with postclypeus; h, posterior plates of hypopharynx in 
walls of bristle pouches; hf, musculus hypopharyngis frontalis; Hphy, hypo¬ 
pharynx; i, epipharyngeal plunger of sucking pump;y, epipharyngeal depression 
receiving terminal lobe (d) of hypopharynx; k, articulation of protractor arm of 
mandible with lorum; Lor, lorum; Lm, labrum; hr, lever of protractor arm of 
mandible; Md, mandible; mdh, musculus mandibuli hypopharyngealis; mdpr, 
musculus mandibuli protractor; mdr, musculi mandibuli retractores ( lmdr 
arising on vertex, 2mdr arising on gena); Mth, mouth; MxPl, maxillary plate; 
pa, protractor arm of mandible; Pclp, postclypeus; Pmp, chamber of sucking 
pump (preoral cibarial cavity, Cb); PT, posterior tentorial arm; pt, posterior 
tentorial pit; ra, retractor arm of mandible; sis, sublingual sclerite; Stom, 
stomodaeum; sus, suspensorial sclerite of hypopharynx; x, mandibular arm of 
suspensorial sclerite; y, oral arm of suspensorial sclerite. 


SOME PSAMMOCHARIDAE FROM SINGAPORE. 

By Nathan Banks. 

During a visit of some months to Singapore, the late C. F. 
Baker collected a number of Psammocharidae there and on the 
island of Penang. These were sent to me by the National 
Museum in shipping the Baker Philippine Psammocharidae 
for my study. I have therefore made a report on these Singapore 
species. The collection is particularly interesting because of the 
number of Pseudagenini. Frederick Smith described a few 
species from Singapore, and Cameron and one or two others 
have added a few; but much of the fauna is still unknown. Many 
of the species are the same as occur in the lowland areas of 
Borneo, Celebes, and the Philippines, and doubtless other 
parts of the Insulinde. Of a number of old species I have added 
some descriptive matter, omitted from the originals. The 
classification is explained in my paper on the Philippine forms. 

The holotypes and uniques of the material herein discussed 
are in the U. S. National Museum and some paratypes are in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 237 


CRYPTOCHEILINAE. 

Hemipepsis fulvipennis Fab. 

Fairly common at Singapore, and generally over the Malay region. 

Hemipepsis ceylonicus Sauss. 

One from Singapore. 

Cyphononyx fugidipennis Sm. 

From the Island of Penang. 

Cyphononyx cameroni, sp. nov. 

Face almost wholly black, a pale orbital line each side opposite antennae; 
antennae, body, and legs black, tarsi brown, mid and hind tarsi partly yellowish, 
the extreme base of the front tibiae yellowish; wings black, violaceous, the front 
wings have a large yellowish area in middle, somewhat interrupted at base of 
the second discoidal cell, hind wings with a pale spot over the base of cubital 
fork. Clypeus nearly truncate, with only short hair, above antennae the hair is 
longer, a line from anterior ocellus to antennae; ocelli subequal, the posteriors 
are much nearer to each other than to the eyes; antennae not at all crenulate, 
the third joint plainly longer than the fourth, but not equal to vertex width; 
pronotum hairy, arcuate behind; propodeum evenly arched, strongly, trans¬ 
versely carinate, with dense long hair; scutellum and postscutellum high and 
crested; abdomen rather small, hairy on base, toward tip, and somewhat on 
venter. Legs slender; femora with some fine hairs; hind tibia with two rows of 
very short spines above, and about as long ones below; long spur of the hind 
tibia about two-fifths of the basitarsus. Wings rather large; stigma very short, 
marginal cell long and slender, pointed at tip, third submarginal hardly twice 
as long below as broad, much narrowed above, longer than the second submar¬ 
ginal; first recurrent ends almost at tip of the second submarginal cell; second 
recurrent, bent outward, ends near basal third of third submarginal cell. Length 
17 mm. Forewing, 18 mm. 

From Singapore. It does not agree with any in Bingham’s 
India, but is undoubtedly related to Salius venatorius. 

Monodontonyx plutonis, sp. nov. 

Black; front legs and mid and hind tarsi more reddish brown; wings of a 
brownish yellow color, a little darker on base, but without a dark band at tip. 
Head, pronotum, scutelli, propodeum, pleura with long black hair, coxae also 
with rather long hair, long hair on venter and near tip of abdomen, first segment 
above only hairy near base. Clypeus truncate below; ocelli subequal, posteriors 
about twice as near each other as to eyes; antennae slender and long, third joint 
much longer than fourth, second plus third plainly longer than vertex width; 
pronotum deeply arcuate behind; scutelli rounded, not high; propodeum trans¬ 
versely carinate, nearly smooth near tip; abdomen rather narrow at base, not 


238 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


very convex, last segment above with ferrugineous appressed hair. Legs long 
and slender, tibiae and tarsi quite heavily spined, hind tibia above with an 
inner row of large teeth with spines, and an outer row of fewer spines, long spur 
of hind tibia fully one-third of basitarsus. Wings moderately slender, stigma 
very small, marginal cell long and pointed; third submarginal more then twice as 
long as broad, narrowed one-third above, much longer than the second submar¬ 
ginal, and this more than twice as long as broad; first recurrent ends near tip of 
the second submarginal, second recurrent nearly evenly bowed outward, ending 
at basal third of third submarginal cell; in hind wings anal ends at cubital fork. 
Length 18 mm. Forewing, 18 mm. 

From Singapore, Malacca. 

Monodontonyx sericosoma Sm. 

From Singapore, as also in other parts of the Malay region 
and in India. 

Monodontonyx javanus Lep. 

Several from Singapore, also in Java, India, and the Philip¬ 
pines. 

MACROMERINAE. 

1. Femora with fine hair below; base of second submarginal cell very 

oblique, reaching considerably forward_ Macromerini 

Femora without the fine hair; base of second submarginal not nearly 

as oblique_________2 

2. Hind tibia with a row of distinct teeth above_ Priocnemini 

No such teeth on hind tibia, only very small spines if any__3 

3. Pronotum elongate and flattened; head flattened and antennae set low 

as in Platyderes; front femora enlarged_ Apinaspini 

Pronotum short; head not flattened and antennae set higher_ 

Pseudagenini 

MACROMERINI. 

Macromeris violacea Lep. 

A few from the Island of Penang; common in all the Malay 
region and Insulinde. 

Paragenia argentifrons Sm. 

Several from Singapore. Clypeus very convex and hairy, faintly rounded, 
but almost truncate below, in middle of margin with a minute sharp point; face 
a little narrowed above; anterior ocellus a little the larger, hardly its diameter 
from the posteriors, latter closer to each other than to the eyes; third joint of 
antennae much longer than the fourth, and of itself longer than the vertex width; 
pronotum angulate behind; propodeum closely transversely striate, extending 
down on the sides to the suture; sides of the metanotum also striate; mid and hind 








PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 239 


tibiae with short spines all around; femora with fine short white hairs below; 
long spur of hind tibia only about one-third of basitarsus. In forewings the 
second submarginal cell is over four times as long as broad, the base extremely 
oblique, receiving the first recurrent beyond the middle third; third submarginal 
a little longer below than the second, narrowed about one-third above, receiving 
the second recurrent beyond the basal third; in hind wings the anal vein ends 
before the cubital fork. 


PSEUDAGENINI. 

Synopsis of the genera: 

1. Joints of maxillary palpi not elongate, and somewhat enlarged at tips; 

basal segment of abdomen fully equal to the second (second not 

enlarged)______.____ Dinagenia 

Joints of maxillary palpi elongate, not enlarged at tips....2 

2. Clypeus with a distinct median process on lower edge; base of clypeus 

very oblique each side__________ Conagenia 

No such process, at most clypeus with a point in middle below..3 

3. Pronotum above nearly or quite as long as the mesonotum, both granu¬ 

late as is also rest of thorax_____ Meragenia 

Pronotum shorter than mesonotum.......4 

4. Mesonotum behind longitudinally striate; marginal cell triangular_ 

Lophagenia 

Mesonotum not striate___5 

5. Median vein reaches the wing margin___ Minagenia 

Median vein at least a little short of the margin_ 6 

6. Last tarsal joint with a few spines below__ _ __ Phanagenia 

Last tarsal joint smooth beneath____ Pseudagenia 

Minagenia, sp. 

A number of male specimens from Singapore appear to belong 
here; the clypeus and under side of the basal joint of the anten¬ 
nae yellowish; the legs (except tips of hind pairs) largely yellow¬ 
ish; the third segment of abdomen has a basal yellowish band 
which on the sides reaches forward. There is no female in the 
collection to which it can belong, and I know of no species of 
this genus from India. 

Dinagenia satyrus, sp. nov. 

Black; face, pronotum, mesonotum, and scutellum with golden pubescence, 
fainter near tip of abdomen; last segment of abdomen yellowish; propodeum with 
golden sheen in certain lights; legs (except coxae) yellowish; antennae yellowish, 
last six joints black; wings yellowish, tips of forewings only very faintly darker, 
veins and stigma yellowish. Clypeus truncate below; labrum entire; face but 
little narrowed above; anterior ocellus a little larger than the posteriors and not 
its diameter from them, latter two diameters apart and a little further from the 
eyes; antennae rather short and hairy; third joint not quite as long as fourth, 
second plus third about equal to vertex width; pronotum rather long, hind 














240 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


border arcuate; propodeum moderately arched, strongly transversely wrinkled, 
and with a median line, with some erect hair on sides. Abdomen rather long, 
fusiform, petiole moderately short, apex and venter hairy; legs rather short and 
stout, mid and hind tibiae with few very short spines; long spur of hind tibia 
fully one-half of basitarsus. Forewings with marginal cell about two-thirds its 
length from wing-tip; second submarginal not quite twice as long as broad, 
base curved, receiving the first recurrent vein at middle; third submarginal 
scarcely longer than second below, fully one-third narrowed above, receiving 
the second recurrent (slightly curved) a little beyond the basal third; third 
abcissa of radius much shorter than the second, latter subequal to the fourth; in 
hind wings the anal is interstitial with cubital fork. Length 12.5 to 15 mm. 

From Singapore. Differs from D. apollo in lack of yellow on 
thoracic notum, in having more joints of antennae black, etc. 
What may be the male is more slender, body black, very hairy 
all over, but without golden pubescence; the legs (except coxae) 
yellowish, but hind femora and tips of tibiae dark; antennae 
black, except the pale yellowish basal joints; wings yellowish, 
but not as clear as female, the venation the same. Length 
12 mm. From Singapore. 

PHANAGENIA. 


1. Hind femora black; forewings with dark stigmal band... banoensis 

1. Forewings plainly banded with dark......... bipennis 

3. With silvery pile; propodeum plainly striate wholly across_ tincta 

With dull pale golden pile; propodeum scarcely striate, and these not 
complete to down on the sides._________ hippolyte 


Phanagenia banoensis Rohwer. 

One from Singapore, and like the Philippine specimens. 

Phanagenia tincta Sm. 

Many from Singapore, and one from the Island of Penang. 
The face is plainly narrowed above; a line from antennae to 
anterior ocellus; ocelli in a nearly equilateral triangle, the 
anterior ocellus rather larger, the posteriors nearer to each other 
than to the eyes; the third joint of antennae much longer than 
the fourth and equal to vertex width; propodeum with distinct 
striae reaching down on the sides to the suture. In the fore¬ 
wings the second submarginal cell is about twice as long as 
broad, the base curved, receiving the first recurrent beyond the 
middle; the third submarginal cell longer than the second, 
narrowed about one-third above, and receiving the second re¬ 
current vein (bent below middle) at basal third; long spine of 
the hind tibia not one-half of the basitarsus. 






PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 241 


Phanagenia hippolyte Sm. 

Three from Singapore and Island of Penang. The dull, pale golden pile on 
face and propodeum behind is also on the lower mesopleura, on sides of the 
mesonotum, and on the pronotum, usually with two spots on upper surface 
behind as well as on sides and front. The face is a little narrowed above, there 
is no distinct line from antennae to the anterior ocellus; the ocelli rather large, 
the posteriors scarcely more than diameter apart and a little farther from the 
eyes, third joint of antennae much longer than the fourth and longer than vertex 
width; the propodeum is scarcely striate, and no sign of striae down on sides 
toward the suture. In the forewing the second submarginal cell is twice as long 
as broad, base oblique, receiving the first recurrent near middle; the third 
submarginal cell is much longer than the second, narrowed one-third above, 
and receiving the second recurrent (bent at middle) at basal third; the long spur 
of hind tibia is one-half of the basitarsus. 

Phanagenia bipennis Sauss. 

Many of both sexes from Singapore, and a few from Island of Penang; the 
female of this agrees fairly well with hypsipyle. Clypeus rounded below, almost 
in a point; face but little narrowed above; faint line from antennae to anterior 
ocellus; posterior ocelli almost twice as near to each other as to eyes; third joint 
of antennae longer than fourth, second plus third hardly equal to vertex width; 
pronotum almost angulate behind; propodeum densely, finely striate, complete 
to the suture, hairy above; long spur of hind tibia not one-half of basitarsus; 
mid and hind tibiae with very distinct spines in rows (longer than in many 
species). In forewing the second submarginal cell fully twice as long as broad, 
narrowed nearly one-third above, receiving the first recurrent near middle; third 
submarginal longer and much wider behind than the second; narrowed scarcely 
one-third above, receiving the second recurrent before end of basal third; trans¬ 
verse nervure well beyond the basal vein; in hind wing the anal ends a trifle 
before the cubital fork. Male has the venation as in female, basal abdominal 
segment very slender; clypeus truncate below, long spur of hind tibia nearly 
two-thirds of basitarsus; the white each side on inner orbit runs across ends of 
clypeus, and on tips of mandibles; under side of basal joint of antennae pale. 

PSEUDAGENIA. 


1. Clypeus pale. 2 

Clypeus black. 3 

2. Pronotum largely pale, also tegulae and base of antennae_ flavopicta 

Pronotum and antennae wholly black........ bimaculata 

3. Hind femora reddish (sometimes others also) wings rarely banded...... 4 

Hind femora black or brown.......9 

4. Body very distinctly more or less metallic blue; propodeum trans¬ 

versely striate... blanda 

Body not distinctly bluish.. 5 

5. Mandible wholly black.. 6 

Mandibles largely white.....7 












242 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


6. Smaller; clypeus in small point below; face broader; wings scarcely 

infuscate; anal in hind wings plainly before cubital fork_ malayana 

Larger; clypeus rounded below, hardly a point; face more narrow; 
forewings more or less infumate; in hind wings the anal is inter¬ 
stitial with the cubital fork--- moesta 

7. Front femora, at least, dark; clypeus somewhat pointed below.. 

tagalensis 

Front legs yellowish or yellow-brown, as also middle and hind pairs_ 8 

8. Clypeus truncate or a little emarginate in middle below_ honesta 

Clypeus rounded or almost pointed in the middle below__ agitata 

9. Clypeus distinctly emarginate in middle below; forewings with cloud 

near stigma..______ nitidiventris 

Clypeus not emarginate, but almost pointed in middle below....10 

10. Body plainly somewhat bluish; forewings without distinct cloud; 

propodeum rugoso-striate____:__ calosoma 

Body not bluish; forewings with dark bands or clouds......11 

11. Band over basal vein and broader one back of the stigma; propodeum 

nearly flat............ morota 

Narrow band only back of the stigma; propodeum high and sloping.... 

celaeno 


Pseudagenia blanda Guerin. 

Many from Singapore; the male appears to agree with P. 
albolabris Bingh. 

Pseudagenia bimaculata Sm. 

A few from Singapore. 


Pseudagenia tagalensis, Bks. 

A few from Singapore, like the Philippine form. 

Pseudagenia morota, Bks. 

All from Singapore, and does not seem to differ from the 
Philippine type. 


Pseudagenia nitidiventris Sm. 

From Singapore, also from the Philippines and Celebes. 

Pseudagenia calosoma, sp. nov. 

Body blue to blue-black, legs and antennae brown to black, wings clear, 
unmarked, stigma brown. Some whitish pubescence on lower face and clypeus 
and on lower mesopleura and tip of propodeum and coxae, but not at all promi¬ 
nent. A few short hairs on front and pronotum, longer ones on the propodeum 
and pleura, tip, and venter of abdomen. Clypeus wedge-shaped, coming to a 
rounded point in middle below; face a little narrowed above; a line from antennae 
goes only a short distance; ocelli moderately large, anterior scarcely more than 













PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 243 


diameter from posteriors, these hardly two diameters apart, but farther from 
the eyes; third joint of antennae much longer than the fourth, second plus third 
fully equal to vertex width; pronotum only slightly and somewhat angularly 
emarginate behind; propodeum rather densely transversely rugoso-carinate, 
median line distinct on base; abdomen with a short pedicel, pygidium polished, 
elongate, scarcely broader behind; mid and hind tibiae with scarcely a trace of 
spines, long spur of hind tibia about one-half of basitarsus. In forewings mar¬ 
ginal cell fully one-half its length from wing-tip; second submarginal cell twice 
as long as broad, base slightly oblique, receiving the first recurrent just before 
middle; third submarginal cell much longer and wider behind than the second, 
narrowed one-fourth above, receiving the second recurrent (much curved) near 
basal fifth; in hind wings the anal ends plainly before the cubital fork; in fore¬ 
wings the transverse only a trifle beyond the basal vein. Length 7 mm. From 
Singapore and Island of Penang. 

Pseudagenia moesta, sp. nov. 

Black, hind femora reddish, forewings slightly infumate; lower face and clypeus 
with silvery pubescence, also on much of pronotum, pleura, coxae, and sides 
of the propodeum, less distinctly on sides of the abdomen; palpi dark. Rather 
short erect white hair on front, vertex and pronotum, much longer on the pro¬ 
podeum and pleura, short on basal segment of abdomen above, and longer on 
tip and venter. 

Clypeus short, rather broadly rounded below, hardly pointed below; face 
broad, but plainly narrowed above; a faint line from antennae to anterior 
ocellus, ocelli in a low triangle, subequal, posteriors a little nearer to each other 
than to eyes; third joint of antennae but little longer than the fourth, second 
plus third scarcely equal to vertex width; pronotum only slightly but almost 
angularly emarginate behind; propodeum evenly rounded, with a very distinct 
median furrow, heavily punctured, in some lights traces of transverse striae; 
mesopleura also much punctured; abdomen with a distinct pedicel; mid tibiae 
with many small but distinct spines above, hind tibiae have no noticeable spines; 
long spur of hind tibia fully one-half of basitarsus. Forewings with marginal cell 
more than one-half its length from wing-tip; the second submarginal cell about 
twice as long as broad, base curved, receiving the first recurrent at middle; 
third submarginal much longer and broader behind than second, narrowed 
about one-third above, receiving the second recurrent (scarcely curved) a little 
before the middle; third abcissa of radius longer than the second, which is 
longer than fourth; in hind wings the anal vein is interstitial with the cubital 
fork; in forewings the transverse nervure is plainly beyond the basal. Length 
9 to 11 mm. Forewings 8 to 10 mm. From Singapore. 

Pseudagenia honesta Sm. 

From Singapore and Island of Penang. The body black with some silvery 
pubescence; palpi and mandibles white; lower margin of clypeus yellowish' 
antennae brown, first joint ferrugineous beneath; hind margin of pronotum and 
the tips of abdominal segments alutaceous; legs (including coxae) yellowish; 
wings hyaline, stigma dark; body not especially hairy. 

Clypeus truncate in middle below, with somewhat of a hump each side, so 


244 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


the middle is almost emarginate; ocelli subequal, posteriors much closer to each 
other than to the eyes; third joint of antennae long and slender, much longer 
than the fourth, of itself about equal to vertex width; pronotum short, faintly 
angulate behind; propodeum sloping, hairy, above, with a median furrow, not 
striate, but punctate behind; abdomen rather slender with a short pedicel, apex 
with some long and many short hairs, basal segment short-haired above, venter 
with rather short hairs; mid and hind tibiae with many distinct, but short spines, 
some above in rows; long spur of hind tibia more than one-half of basitarsus. 
Forewings with marginal cell broad, hardly one-half of length from wing-tip, 
second submarginal cell nearly twice as long as broad, base curved, receiving the 
first recurrent vein near the middle; third submarginal cell no longer than the 
second, and somewhat narrowed above, receiving the second recurrent (bent in 
middle) near basal fourth; third abcissa of radius about equal to second, which is 
subequal to fourth; in hind-wings the anal ends much before the cubital fork. 
Length 8 mm. Forewing 8 mm. 

In the specimen from Island of Penang there is a dark stigmal cloud in the 
forewing. I am inclined to identify this with the Agenia honesta Smith from 
Macassar; however, it is not particularly hairy. There is no need of a change of 
name as the Pompilus honestus Sm., which Bingham puts in Pseudagenia, is now 
considered to be a Macromeris. 

Pseudagenia flavopicta Sm. 

One from Singapore. Clvpeus broad, rounded below; face narrowed above, 
widest at middle; line from antennae to anterior ocellus; ocelli rather large, 
posteriors about as near eyes as to each other; antennae slender, third joint 
longer than fourth, second plus third equal vertex width; pronotum broadly but 
not deeply concave behind, with a median impression; propodeum sloping, not 
striate, hairy above, with a median furrow; mid and hind tibiae practically 
without spines; long spur of hind tibia more than one-half of basitarsus. In 
forewings the first recurrent vein beyond middle; third submarginal cell much 
longer below than the second, narrowed more than one-third above, receiving 
the second recurrent near basal third; transverse nervure much beyond the 
basal vein; in hind wings the anal ends much before the cubital fork. 

Pseudagenia, sp. 

Many males from Singapore are almost wholly yellow, with 
black on vertex and mesonotum, and on some segments of 
abdomen, brownish antennae and hind legs. They might be 
males of Pseudagenia flavopicta , but probably another species. 

Pseudagenia eelaeno Sm. 

One from Singapore. Clypeus rounded below, point but little developed; 
face plainly narrowed above; a line from antennae to anterior ocellus; ocelli 
rather large, posteriors much nearer to each other than to eyes; third joint of 
antennae longer than fourth, second plus third not quite equal to vertex width; 
pronotum but little concave behind; propodeum very finely striate, with a 
median line; long spur of hind tibia fully one-half of basitarsus; hind tibia with 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 245 


only very minute spines in rows. In forewing the second submarginal not twice 
as long as broad, base curved, receiving the first recurrent vein near middle; 
third submarginal plainly longer than second, narrowed about one-fourth above, 
receiving the second recurrent vein before end of the basal fourth, in fact very 
near the base of the cell; transverse nervure about interstitial with basal. 

Pseudagenia malayana Cam. 

Several from Singapore. Clypeus strongly convex, rounded below; a line from 
antennae to anterior ocellus; posterior ocelli very much closer to each other than 
to the eyes; third joint of antennae but little longer than the fourth, second plus 
third not equal to vertex-width; pronotum but little concave behind; propodeum 
finely striate, and with a median line; long spur of the hind tibia more than 
one-half of basitarsus; in forewing the second submarginal cell is about twice 
as long as broad, narrowed about one-third above, receiving the first recurrent 
vein near the middle; third submarginal cell a little longer than the second, 
also about one-third narrowed above, and receiving the second recurrent vein 
before end of the basal third; transverse nervure well beyond the basal vein. 

Pseudagenia agitata Sm. 

Several specimens from Singapore and Island of Penang, agree with Smith’s 
description of color, and in comparison with P. honesta; the face and clypeus is 
more silvery than in P. honesta , the coxae are black, and the second submarginal 
is much shorter than the third, the second recurrent ends near basal third. The 
clypeus is wedge-shaped, pointed below in middle; the ocelli in a low triangle, 
the posteriors a little nearer to each other than to the eyes; the third joint of 
antennae a little longer than fourth, second plus third not equal to vertex 
width; the pronotum slightly arcuate behind; the propodeum with median 
furrow, very hairy above, without distinct striae, but much punctate, mostly 
behind; the mid and hind tibiae with very short and weak spines; the long spur 
of the hind tibia fully one-half of basitarsus. Some specimens show a little blue 
or greenish on mesonotum. 

Lophagenia erigone Bingh. 

One from Singapore. Also occurs in the Philippines. 

CONAGENIA. 

1. Thorax reddish........ aegina 

Thorax black......2 

2. Third submarginal cell nearly twice as long as broad; tips of wing 

white; larger species_________ nasuta 

Third submarginal not near so long; tips of wings clouded; smaller 
species........ williamsi 

Conagenia williamsi Rohwer. 

Several from Singapore agree with those from Philippines. 

Conagenia nasuta Sm. 

Many from Singapore; larger than C. smithi of the Philippines, but very 
similar. 






246 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


Conagenia aegina Sm. 

Many from Singapore, and one from the Island of Penang; 
it is the species which Bingham identifies as P. aegina , but 
possibly wrongly. 


MERAGENIA. 

1. Thorax reddish.......undescribed species 

Thorax black as head.........._.....2 

2. Abdomen reddish, forewings almost wholly dark ___ semirufa 


Abdomen black; wings mostly clear or only a little infuscate__3 

3. Pronotum and rest of thorax quite hairy, with a silvery sheen; ocelli 

large, posteriors hardly more than diameter apart; larger species_ stulta 

Pronotum and rest of thorax scarcely at all hairy; ocelli smaller, pos¬ 
teriors one and a half to two diameters apart; smaller species.... imitator 

Meragenia imitator Ashm. 

Numerous specimens from Singapore, agree with those from 
the Philippines. 


Meragenia stulta Bingh. 

Common at Singapore. 

Clypeus broad, almost truncate below, the apical middle with a polished area; 
face widest at clypeus, much narrowed above; no line to anterior ocellus; ocelli 
rather large, anterior hardly its diameter from the posterior, latter nearer to 
each other than to the eyes; antennae short, third joint longer than fourth, 
second plus third hardly equal vertex width; pronotum behind only a little 
concave, and with a median impression; mid and hind tibiae with only minute 
spines; long spur of hind tibia one-half of basjitarsus. In the forewings the 
second submarginal cell is more than twice as broad, base oblique, receiving the 
first recurrent near middle; third submarginal longer below than second, nar¬ 
rowed one-third above, and receiving the second recurrent near basal third; 
transverse nervure much beyond the basal vein; in hind wings the anal ends 
before the cubital fork. The male is similar in color, venation, and sculpture of 
thorax and propodeum; the pronotum is not square in front, but rounded; the 
body is very hairy, the slender abdomen has the first segment mostly pedicel; 
face not as much narrowed above as in female, antennae fully as long as in 
female, subcrenulate, third joint no longer than fourth; posterior ocelli twice as 
far from eyes as from each other; long spur of hind tibia almost two-thirds of 
basitarsus. 


Meragenia semirufa, sp. nov. 

Black, abdomen reddish, sometimes tip darker, wings of both pairs fumose, 
the first pair darker, and the dark extending to the base; antennae brown; legs 
brown, the mid and hind coxae and femora rufous; palpi brown. Body with 
white pubescence, most observable on lower face and clypeus, but usually 
patches on pfonotum, much of pleura, propodeum, and coxae, and even on the 
sides of the abdomen. Short erect hairs on head and pronotum, longer (but 








PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 247 


still rather short) on propodeum and pleura, tip and venter of abdomen; with 
some very short hair on most of the dorsal segments. 

Clypeus distinctly a little concave below; labrum emarginate in middle; 
face narrowed above, line above antennae goes only a short distance; ocelli 
large, close together, anterior not near its diameter from posteriors, latter hardly 
one diameter apart, more than twice as far from the eyes; antennae very short 
and thick, fourth joint not three times as long as broad, third plainly a little 
longer, second plus third about equal vertex width; the pronotum very slightly 
and almost angularly emarginate behind, posterior margin with a median line; 
mesonotum with the median strip very finely punctate, much coarser on rest of 
mesonotum; the propodeum rounded, transversely rugoso-striate and granulate, 
no median line; abdomen elongate, slender, apical part somewhat compressed, 
short pedicel; mid and hind tibiae with scarcely visible spines; long spur of hind 
tibia one-half of basitarsus. Forewings with marginal cell long and slender, 
hardly one-half its width from wing-tip; second submarginal cell twice as long 
as broad, base curved, receiving the first recurrent at middle; third submarginal 
very much longer and larger behind than second, about one-fourth narrowed 
above, receiving the second recurrent (moderately curved) about two-fifths 
from base; third abcissa of radius very much longer than second, which in turn 
is much longer than fourth, latter only a little longer than first; in hind wings 
anal ends plainly before cubital fork; in forewings transverse is one-third to 
one-fourth beyond basal. 

Length 11 mm., forewing 9 mm. From Singapore. 

What I presume is the male, is much more slender with a very hairy body even 
on the abdomen, as well as on all the femora; the body is black, except that the 
base of abdomen is more or less rufous; basal antennae joint sometimes rather 
pale; mid and hind coxae and femora rufous; the forewing very dark as in the 
female, but the extreme base is usually hyaline for a short distance; the hind 
wing less dark. The venation is the same; the antennae about as long, but less 
curled than in female, the fourth joint about two and one-half times as long as 
broad, the third scarcely larger; the long spur of hind tibia is more than one-half 
the basitarsus, and the spines on mid and hind tibia rather more distinct than 
in female. Length 7 to 9 mm. 


APINASPINI. 

Apinaspis myrmecoidcs Bingh. 

A number of females from Singapore; this species deserve? a new genus which 
I call Apinaspis. 

In the forewing the marginal cell is not near its length from tip of wing; there 
are three submarginal cells; there is no distinct pocket in the base of the second 
discoidal cell; the transverse nervure is beyond the basal vein. The head is 
much like Platyderes , flattened, the antennae set low, just above the clypeus 
about at lower edge of eyes, the clypeus very short, fully four times as broad as 
long, hardly one-half as long as the first joint of the antennae, the maxillary 
palpi slender, the joints elongate. Legs almost devoid of spines, only extremely 
minute ones on the mid and hind tibiae and tarsi; the last tarsal joint has on the 
under side, one or two small spines in middle, none laterally; the claws have a 
large tooth near tip, set at almost a right angle to tip of claw; spines at tips of 


248 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

tibiae extremely minute, practically absent; no spines at tips of femora. The 
pronotum is elongate, each upper edge almost a ridge; the abdomen is somewhat 
compressed on the apical part, the second ventral segment without a groove. 

In this species the basal joint of the front tarsi is longer than the next three 
together; the front femora plainly swollen. 

PSAMMOCHARINAE. 

Episyron leucophoeus Sm. 

The male agrees with Smith’s description of the color (two 
spots on the clypeus; the female has a pale line along the lower 
border of clypeus not reaching either end). In general it is 
similar to other species of the genus, the second submarginal is 
very much narrowed above so that its top is but little longer 
than the top of the third, the latter below is much shorter than 
the second. In the female the long spur of the hind tibia is 
about three-fourths of the basitarsus, in the male almost equal 
to basitarsus; the spines are black. 

Several specimens from Singapore. 

Episyron vagabundus Sm. 

This differs not only in having most of the hind tibia reddish, 
but in that the spines on mid and hind legs are pale, or at least 
not black. The second submarginal cell is longer than usual, 
and about twice as long as the third, which is very short. In 
the male the lateral spots on clypeus are not connected below. 

Several from Singapore. 

Sericopompilus canifrons Sm. 

A common species at Singapore, and one from the Island of 
Penang; common in India. 

Sericopompilus perplexus Sm. ? 

A few, probably this species, from Singapore. 

Sericopompilus atropos Sm. 

One female from Singapore. 

Clypeus broad, faintly concave below; face narrowed about one-third above, 
ocelli in a low triangle, the posteriors much nearer to the eyes than to each other; 
third joint of the antennae much longer than fourth, and equal to vertex width; 
pronotum angulate behind; propodeum short, evenly rounded with a median 
line, no striae, and with only extremely short, fine hairs above; long spur of hind 
tibia equal one-half of basitarsus; front tarsus with rather short comb spines, 
three on basitarsus, their length apart. In forewing the marginal cell about 
three-fourths its length from wing tip; second submarginal a little longer than 
broad, base curved, receiving the first recurrent near tip; third submarginal 
about as long below as second, greatly narrowed above, so that the third abcissa 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40. NO. 8, NOV., 1938 249 


of radial sector is not one-third of the second; second recurrent vein received at 
apical third; basal vein and transverse nervure interstitial; in hind wing the 
anal ends about at the cubital fork. 

Ferreola bakeri, sp. nov. 

Black with silvery pile, except on tarsi; on the abdomen a broad apical band 
on first three segments, on fourth only a median spot, and still smaller on the 
next, first three ventral segments largely silvery. 

Vertex rounded, although fairly thin; face much narrowed toward vertex, 
clypeus broadly rounded, but almost truncate below; antennae short, second and 
third joints together not longer than the first; ocelli large, posteriors hardly 
more than diameter from the anterior, and scarcely farther from each other than 
from the eyes; pronotum moderately long, rounded, angulate behind; propodeum 
nearly flat on basal part, behind deeply cut out, the sides forming blunt pro¬ 
cesses. 

Abdomen with hairs at tip and on venter. Front legs almost without spines, 
numerous spines on mid and hind tibiae and tarsi, and on the apical part of 
these femora above; last joint of hind tarsus smooth below, long spur of the 
hind tibia only about one-half of the basitarsus, claws cleft. 

Forewings with the basal interstitial with the transverse, marginal cell long, 
about its length from wing-tip; second submarginal cell longer than high, base 
curved, apex straight; third submarginal shorter than the second, very much 
narrowed above; first recurrent vein ends beyond the middle of second sub¬ 
marginal, second recurrent vein ends beyond middle of the third submarginal, 
this vein is sinuous. The male is very similar, but narrower throughout. 

Length 12 mm., forewing 10 mm. Length 9 mm. 

From Singapore, Malay peninsula. 

Homonotus ariadne Cam. 

One from Singapore, also Irom Hong Kong. 

Xanthampulex pernix Bingh. 

Three from Singapore; known also from India. 


AN IMPORTANT MULBERRY INSECT. 

By -Carl Heinrich. 

In a paper published in 1935, 1 Miss K. O. Victoria Lieu 
described the new species Paradoxecia pieli (Lepidoptera: 
Aegeriidae), discussed briefly its life history, and gave figures of 
the moth, larva, and pupa. In 1933 she began work on the 
biology of this insect at Kashing and continued it at Hanchow 

1 Lieu, K. O. Victoria. Study of a New Species of Chinese Mulberry-Borer. 
Musce Heude, Notes d’Entomologie Chinoise, vol. 2, fasc. 10, pp. 185-208, 
Dec. 20, 1935. 




250 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 

until June, 1934. Thence her activities were transferred to 
Shanghai, where she held a position as Honorary Research 
Fellow of the Musee Heude. The war interrupted her work in 
Shanghai and it is now being carried on in the mulberry-produc¬ 
ing districts in Szechwang Province, where she is studying also 
the cerambycid borer Pascothea hilaris Pasco and other mulberry 
borers. She has been able to work out many details of the life 
history of Paradoxecia pieli. A recent letter (June 10, 1938) 
informs me that she completed her biological study of this 
species in 1937, but is still engaged in control studies. 

A preliminary paper on the biology of Paradoxecia pieli was 
published by Miss Lieu in Chinese, with an English abstract, in 
December, 1935, 2 and a more extended paper is being prepared. 
Previously J. T. Chu and Shing-Mu-Chin had published an 
independent account of the insect in Chinese (without, however, 
definitely identifying or naming it) under the title “Notes on a 
Mulberry Twig Borer and its Control Experiments” (Ento¬ 
mology and Phytopathology, vol. 2, nos. 32-33, p. 627, 1934). 

Apparently Paradoxecia pieli is a serious pest of the mulberry. 
It is interesting to the systematic lepidopterist chiefly because 
it represents a genus not found in the Western World and 
because it differs greatly from typical Aegeriidae in many of 
its adult, larval, and pupal characters. 

The male genitalia have the uncus simple, and developed as a 
long, strong, curved hook. The harpes are nearly square in 
outline with their apices slightly rounded. 

In the female genitalia the signa consist of a pair of narrow, 
curved plates with their concave edges opposed. 

The pupa is easily recognized, for, in addition to the ordinary 
aegeriid characters, it has a strongly humped thorax and a 
cluster of strong lateral spines below each spiracle on abdominal 
segments 4 to 8 of the male and 4 to 7 of the female. 

The larva (except for the arrangement of crochets on the 
prolegs) resembles more a cossid of the subfamily Zeuzerinae 
than an aegeriid. The thoracic shield is greatly enlarged and 
produced backward into a mid-dorsal, serrate peak. The apical 
three segments of the abdomen are sharply sloping and dorsally 
fused by a sclerotized plate sloping upward (and continuing the 
anal shield) to the anterior third of the eighth segment and 
including the dorsally placed spiracles of the eighth abdominal 
segment. 

The holotype and some of the paratypes have been deposited 
in Musee Heude, Shanghai, and other paratypes, as well as 
larvae and pupae, in the U. S. National Museum. 

2 Lieu, K. O. Victoria. Preliminary notes on the Biology and Control of the 
Mulberry-Borer, Paradoxecia pieli Lieu (Lepidoptera, Aegeriidae). Report 
to the Hangchow Bureau of Entomology, Dec. 23, 1935. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 251 


MINUTES OF THE 494TH REGULAR MEETING OF THE ENTO¬ 
MOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 494th meeting of the Society was held at 8 p. m., Thursday, October 6, 
1938, in Room 43 of the National Museum. In the absence of President Back, 
Mr. R. E. Snodgrass presided. The attendance was the largest of the year, 
there being 52 members and 16 visitors present for a total of 68. The minutes 
of the June meeting were read and approved. 

The following individuals were elected to membership in the Society: 

Whiteford L. Baker, Division of Forest Insect Investigations, Lebanon, 
Tennessee. 

C. M. Gjullin, Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals, Portland, 
Oregon. 

B. H. Wilford, Division of Forest Insect Investigations, 223 Federal Building, 
Asheville, North Carolina. All three of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine. 

C. F. W. Muesbeck gave a short resume of his visit to the 7th International 
Congress of Entomology held at Berlin. 

The regular program consisted of a symposium on Insect Identification and 
Classification. The five talks were as follows: 

1. Organization of Division of Insect Identification and Scope of 
Work. —C. F. W. Muesebeck. 

The Division of Insect Identification of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine has a total personnel of 53. Of these 27 are taxonomic specialists, 
one is a specialist in morphology, and the remainder are preparators, cataloguers, 
clerks and artists. Most of the specialists have space at the National Museum, 
and there is a very close cooperative relationship with that agency. Head¬ 
quarters of the Division, however, are in the South Building of the Department 
of Agriculture. Identification and other service activities comprise the primary 
functions of this unit, but because of the inadequacy of existing knowledge of 
insect classification, a serious effort is being made to devote as much time as 
possible to research with the object of improving the quality of this service 
work. (Author’s abstract.) 

2. The National Collections of Insects. —E. A. Chapin. 

The history and present status of the National Collection of Insects were 
discussed. The accumulation of economic insects brought to Washington by 
Dr. C. V. Riley, some 115,000 specimens, was the basis upon which the present 
collection of more than 5,000,000 specimens is built. The average annual 
increase in the number of specimens of 100,000 has come about mainly by virtue 
of gifts of private collections, but in part from specimens sent in for identification. 
Most of the curatorial work has of necessity fallen on the taxonomists of the 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine because of the small Museum 
staff. By virtue of the fine cooperation which exists between the two organi¬ 
zations it is felt that much is accomplished even though the conditions for work 
are unsatisfactory because of crowding. (Author’s abstract.) 

3. Aids to the Taxonomist. —R. A. Cushman. 

Mr. Cushman stated that the taxonomist of the Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine is expected to identify not only adult insects but also fragments 


252 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, NOV., 1938 


and immature stages. He discussed the importance to the taxonomist of 
properly identified collections and adequate libraries, stating that the taxono¬ 
mists of the Bureau are exceptionally fortunate in having access to the collec¬ 
tions of the National Museum and to the many libraries in Washington. He 
described the ideal catalogue and discussed briefly the published catalogues, 
stating that all are far behind the literature and that world catalogues are 
entirely lacking in many of the orders of insects. Mr. Cushman went into some 
detail as to the method of cataloging current literature, especially the biblio¬ 
graphic work of Miss Catherine Ford. He stated that the cataloging force is 
far from adequate for the needs of the Division. In conclusion he called atten¬ 
tion to the importance in relation to speed and accuracy of identification of full 
and accurate data and biological material such as immature stages or their 
exuviae associated with adult specimens. (Author’s abstract.) 

4. Taxonomic Research by the Individual Specialist.—Alan Stone. 

Dr. Stone discussed the work of the individual taxonomist, with particular 
emphasis on research as it enteres into the routine service activities. The major 
research problems and methods used in such work were considered and the 
value to the Division of giving assistance to outside taxonomists was pointed 
out. (Author’s abstract.) 

5. Immature Stages as Involved in Insect Classification.— 

Carl Heinrich. 

Mr. Heinrich stressed the fact that the function of the Division as a service 
organization imposes upon the workers, as individual taxonomists, the obligation 
of identifying insects in all stages. This can not be done satisfactorily, partly 
because the supply of determined material of immature stages is inadequate and 
partly because the systems of classification in the holometabolous orders are 
based almost exclusively upon selected characters of the adult stages alone. If 
taxonomy is to serve the interest of applied science we must have classifications 
conforming more closely to the facts of nature and based upon all available 
characters of the several stages, coordinating adult structure and habitus with 
larval and pupal structures, with egg shape and sculpture, and with biology and 
host relationship. The first step toward this' end is the assembling and study of 
immature specimens that have been associated with adults. In this connection 
Mr. Heinrich gave a statement of the number of species, genera and families 
of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera represented by larvae 
and pupae in the National Collection. Its collections of immature stages, while 
imposing as compared with those of other institutions are still far short of our 
needs or of the number of described species in any of the four major orders of 
Holometabola. 

He indicated some of the immediate needs and a few of the first steps that 
should be taken to secure a “natural classification.” (Author’s abstract.) 

Interesting comments followed by Lee A. Strong, S. A. Rohwer and A. S. 
Hoyt. Ewing and Cushman briefly discussed the matter of preparation of 
specimens intended for study. Muesebeck described the meeting rooms of the 
Entomological Society of London, which he visited during his recent trip to 
Europe, and several points of interest concerning that society. 

Adjournment at 9.55 p. m. Ashley B. Gurney, 

Recording Secretary . 


Actual date oj ■publication , November 23 , 1938. 



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CONTENTS 

BANKS, NATHAN—SOME PSAMMOCHARIDAE FROM SINGAPORE. 236 

GAHAN, A. B.—NOTES ON SOME GENERA AND SPECIES OF CHALCIDOIDEA 

(hymenoptera). 209 

HEINRICH, CARL—AN IMPORTANT MULBERRY INSECT. 249 

SNODGRASS, R. E.—THE LORAL PLATES AND THE HYPOPHARYNX OF HEMIP- 

TERA . 228 










VOL. 40 


DECEMBER, 1938 


PROCEEDINGS 


No. 9 


ft* 




OF THE 


e P&rt 


'"S'!? r t 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 




Published Monthly Except July, August and September 
by the 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., under 
Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 110T, Act of October 
3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum on the 
first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 8 p. m. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is given 
precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1938. 


Honorary President . L. O. Howard 

President . E. A. Back 

First Vice-President . R. E. Snodgrass 

Second Vice-President . Lee A. Strong 

Recording Secretary . Ashley B. Gurney 

Corresponding Secretary . D. J. Caffrey 

Treasurer . H. E. Ewing 

Editor . W. R. Walton 

Executive Committee . . . B. A. Porter, S. B. Fracker, N. E. McIndoo 


Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-Presiden 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences .C. F. W. Muesebeck 


PROCEEDINGS 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society at 
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Entomological Society of Washington 


VOL. 40 DECEMBER, 1938 No. 9 


A NEW SPECIES OF HAEMAGOGUS, MESODENTATUS, FROM 
COSTA RICA, AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE LARVA OF 
HAEMAGOGUS ANASTASIONIS DYAR (DIPTERA, CULI- 
CIDAE). 


By W. H. W. Komp and H. W. Kumm . 1 


During the course of a mosquito survey being conducted in 
the Republic of Costa Rica by the junior author, the larvae of a 
new species of Haemagogus were found in the water in a tree-hole 
in the Parque Bolivar, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A series of 
adults, males and females, were reared, and the associated larval 
skins were preserved. A description of the new species was 
drawn up from this material. 

In the course of the same survey, Haemagogus larvae were 
found in the holy-water font of a church in Santa Cruz, province 
of Guanacaste, C. R. Males reared from these larvae showed 
that the species was H. anastasionis Dyar. As the larvae of this 
species have not been described, a description is here given. 

Description of Adult Female of Haemagogus mesodentatus, n. sp. 

(Here Described.) 

Head elongate, somewhat flattened dorso-ventrally. 

Proboscis moderate, blue-black. 

Palpi short, about one-sixth the length of the proboscis. 

Antennae with tori black, with a few black setae. 

Clypeus prominent, black, nude. 

Vertex and occiput with blue-black scales; several long, strong setae projecting 
between the eyes; a narrow rim of white scales and several long black setae on 
dorsal margin of eyes; lower third of sides of head silvery white. 

1 This paper, and subsequent articles which it is hoped to publish, are the 
products of the collaboration of two colleagues. The order of the names of the 
authors of the new species herein described is of no significance as regards 
seniority. In the next paper of the series, the names of the authors will be 
reversed in order of precedence. The “senior” author of this paper is Senior 
Sanitary Engineer, U. S. Public Health Service, and the “junior” author is a 
staff member of the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Founda¬ 
tion. 

The studies and observations on which this paper is based were conducted 
with the support and under the auspices of the United States Public Health 
Service, the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation, and 
the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. 





254 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


Anterior pronotum (prothoracic lobe) with blue-black scales and a few strong 
black setae dorsally. Proepisternum with silvery white scales. 

Mesonotum of thorax clothed with overlapping elongate scales having golden 
and purple reflections in certain lights; a few white scales just before wing-bases. 
Scutellum trilobed, heavily clothed with projecting scales and many long, strong 
setae from each lobe. A line of closely spaced, long, strong setae above each 
wing-root, extending posteriorly towards scutellum. Pleura with sternopleuron 
sparsely covered with grayish white scales. Epimeron with silvery white scales. 
Setae present as follows: many short black setae on each side of anterior prom¬ 
ontory of mesonotum, just dorsal to prothoracic lobes. Prespiracular setae 
present; one lower sternopleural seta; a few prealar setae; a patch of upper 
mesipimeral setae. 

Halteres with stem dusky, knob black. 

Postnotum black, shining, without setae. 

Abdomen long, slender, tapering, exceeding the length of the wing. First 
abdominal segment with black setae projecting from posterior margin; sides 
with silvery white scales. Remainder of segments without setae, but clothed 
with metallic bluish scales on tergites. A small spot of silvery white scales 
laterally, on sixth tergite. Sternites usually concealed, except the seventh and 
eighth. Tergites with silvery white scales laterally on first four segments, the 
colors separated in a straight line; on the fifth sternite the edges are dark, with 
a white median incision. Cerci dark. 

Legs bright metallic blue-black. Fore femur without white ventrally. Mid 
femur narrowly white-lined internally. Hind femur broadly white on ventral 
aspect nearly to tip. Apical half of first mid-tarsal segment, basal half of second, 
and sometimes the base of third, clothed with grayish white scales. Remainder 
of tarsi, and the tibiae, dark blue-black. Claws on fore and mid tarsi toothed; 
without teeth on hind tarsi. 

Wings moderate, hyaline, clothed with narrow black scales on veins, denser 
on costa and first and second veins. 

Description of Male Terminalia of Haemagogus mesodentatus, 

n. sp. 

Side-piece long, narrow, compressed; basal lobe small, rounded, projecting, 
with many fine setae, and a few much longer, flattened, tapering filaments, 
half as long as side-piece. Scales on inner distal margin of side-piece dense, 
alike, long, striate, broadly obovate, with very short pointed tips. No apical 
lobe, but a few long, curved setae just before tip of side-piece, on inner aspect. 
Outer aspect clothed with dense, long, striate, truncate-tipped scales, and long 
strong setae. 

Clasper moderate, somewhat more than one-third the length of the side- 
piece, curved and somewhat enlarged at the middle. Terminal spine slightly 
subapical, slender, slightly swollen on basal third, curved and tapering beyond 
to a blunt point; spine about one-third as long as the clasper. Claspette with 
stem long, slightly sinuate in front view; in side-view, the outer third is bent at 
an angle of about 180 degrees with the stem; base somewhat swollen, then 
constricted before tbe angulation; a single strong seta on inner aspect, then 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 255 



Fig. 1. Haemogogus mesodentatus , side piece and clasper of male. 
Fig. 2. Mesosome of male of same, from a somewhat lateral aspect. 



Fig. 3. Haemogogus mesodentatus , claspette and filament of male. 

Fig. 4. H. mesodentatus , specialized scales on eighth abdominal tergite of male. 
















256 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


densely setose to angulation of stem, remainder bare to insertion of filament. 
Claspette filament in side-view a broad thin blade, nearly a half-circle in outline, 
striate, with a very small recurved tip. 

Mesosome large, heavily chitinized, narrow at base, broadened into conspicu¬ 
ous shoulders distally, then tapering abruptly to a long, thin beak, with a slight 
tilt backwards; the tip of the beak forms a median carina, with about eight 
paired, coarse, curved serrations apically, and a number of finer ones basally. 
Body of mesosome with a large elliptical opening on dorsal face, into which the 
base of the median carina projects. Ventral face of mesosome widely open 
nearly to base. 

Tenth sternites moderate, the tips chitinized, forming short, striate, oblique, 
hood-like structures, the outer angles projecting. Each sternite with 4 or 5 
strong setae on outer aspect, below tip. 

Ninth tergites poorly developed, but bearing one large curved seta apiece. 

Eighth tergite bearing a patch of about 25 long, striate, obovate-lanceolate 
scales, two or three rows deep. 

Type locality, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

Type material, Holotype, male, allotype female, and 3 para- 
types. To be deposited in the U. S. National Museum. 

Type material reared from larvae found in a tree-hole in the 
Parque Bolivar, San Jose, Costa Rica, December 20, 1937, by 
Henry W. Kumm. 

Description of Larva of Haemagogus mesodentatus, n. sp. 

Head rounded, the head-hairs well forward on the fronto-clypeus. Anterior 
and posterior head-hairs single; intermediate tufts long, in tufts of 6 or 7. 
Anteantennal tuft in 3 or 4. Antenna relatively short, scarcely tapering, with a 
single hair just beyond middle. 

Integument of thorax and abdomen finely long-pilose. 

Lateral scale-patch of eighth abdominal segment of about 10 long, pointed 
scales, not fringed at tip. 

Siphon stout, about 3 to 3^ times as long as wide, with 12 to 15 very closely 
spaced spines, closely followed by a 2-haired tuft at apical third of siphon. 
Spines short, with a single tooth at base. 

Anal segment with chitinous saddle large, extending well down sides. Poster¬ 
ior margin with about 6 very large spicules. Lateral hair double, long, strong. 
Ventral brush small, of about 10 bifid hairs. Two long simple caudal hairs, and 
a pair of 3-haired tufts. 

Anal gills short, rounded, about as long as anal segment. 


Remarks: H. mesodentatus is apparently closely related to 
H. janthinomys Dyar, of South America. The claws of the 
female are toothed in both species. The integument of the 
larva is pilose, as in janthinomys, but the pilosity of mesodentatus 
is much finer and sparser than that of janthinomys. The scales on 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 257 


Ho.emoooous mesodbantatus n. sp. 





Fig. 5. Details of larva of Haemagogus mesodentatus , N. Sp. 

















PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


HaemQQOous anostasioois 



Fig. 6. Details of larva of Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar. 

















PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 259 


the eighth abdominal segment of mesodentatus larvae are free, but 
are attached to a plate in janthinomys. The appearance of the tip 
of the mesosome is similar in both species, but \r\janthinomys the 
tip is beaked, and the serrations are on the ventral surface, while 
in mesodentatus the tip is somewhat truncate, and the serrations 
are on a median carina on the dorsal surface. The filament of 
the claspette of mesodentatus is much wider than that of jan¬ 
thinomys , and the angle which the posterior outline makes with 
the stem of the claspette is much more obtuse than in jan¬ 
thinomys. In the adult female, the peculiar character of the 
grayish white scales on some of the mid-tarsal segments, if it 
is constant, should be a good distinguishing character. 

Description of Larva of Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar. 

Head rounded, the head-hairs well forward on the fronto-clypeus. Anterior 
and posterior head-hairs single, the anterior hairs somewhat closer together than 
the posterior hairs. Intermediate tufts long, in 5 or 6. Anteantennal tuft 
long, strong, in 2 or 3. 

Antenna moderate, slightly tapering, smooth, with a 1- or 2-haired tuft just 
beyond middle. 

Integument of thorax and abdomen glabrous. 

Lateral scale-patch of 8th abdominal segment of 6 to 10 scales; each scale 
very long, slender, sharply pointed, with the tip very finely fringed (visible at 
400 X magnification), curved, slender, somewhat longer than the base. 

Siphon stout, slightly tapering, with 12 to 16 closely spaced spines, reaching 
middle of siphon, closely followed by a long 2- or 3-haired tuft; each spine short, 
with a short tooth near base; a few spines may have a number of teeth on inner 
aspect, between large tooth and base of spine. 

Anal segment with chitinous saddle large, extending well down sides; posterior 
margin with 6 or 7 very stout, long spicules. Lateral hair in 3 or 4, long, slender. 
Ventral brush of about 10 hairs, not extending beyond barred area, the most 
dorsal hair in 4 or 5, the most ventral double or triple. Two long simple caudal 
hairs, and a pair of 3- or 4-haired tufts. Anal gills short, rounded, unequal, the 
ventral pair half the length of the dorsal pair. 


Remarks: The larvae were found in a holy-water font in a 
church at Santa Cruz, province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica, 
December 20, 1937. Dr. H. W. Kumm, collector. Adult males 
and females were reared from these larvae, which correspond 
to the published description of this species, and with the original 
material from Costa Rica now in the U. S. 



260 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 8, DEC., 1938 

AEDES LEUCOTAENIATUS, A NEW SPECIES OF AEDES ALLIED 
TO A. LEUCOCELAENUS D. & S.; AND DESCRIPTIONS OF 
THE MALE AND LARVA OF A. LEUCOCELAENUS D. & S. 
(DIPTERA, CULICIDAE.) 

By W. H. W. Komp , 1 

Senior Medical Entomologist , Office of Malaria Investigations , 

U. S. Public Health Service. 

The renewed interest in various species of neotropical mos¬ 
quitoes, in their roles as possible vectors of “jungle” yellow 
fever in South America, has recently been enhanced by the 
publication of a short note in “Science” (1) in which it is noted 
that several species, hitherto not incriminated, have been found 
infected in nature with the virus of yellow fever. 

One of the species listed as transmitting the disease by its 
bite is Aedes leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon. 

This species was described by Lutz in 1904 (2), from females 
only, under the name leucomelas. The type localities were the 
States of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The name 
leucomelas being preoccupied, Dyar and Shannon proposed the 
name leucocelaenus in 1924 (3). No description of the larva or 
of the male terminalia of leucocelaenus exists in the literature, 
with the exception of a short description of the larva by Shan¬ 
non (4), taken from a photomicrograph by da Costa Lima (5). 

Dyar’s (6) description and figure of the male terminalia of 
“leucocelaenus ” were taken from material collected in the 
Panama Canal Zone. As the adults are indistinguishable on 
colorational characters, he assumed that the true leucocelaenus 
from Brazil and the Panama specimens were the same. Com¬ 
parison of the Panama material in the U. S. National Museum, 
together with fresh material from Panama, with the male 
terminalia of specimens from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and 
British Guiana, shows that two distinct species are involved. 
The Panama material represents a hitherto unnamed species, 
for which the writer proposes the name leucotaeniatus. The 
material from South America is apparently all alike, and is the 
true leucocelaenus of Dyar and Shannon ( leucomelas Lutz), the 
types of which came from Brazil. 

Several marked differences have been noted in the male 
terminalia of the two species. The most striking of these 
differences is found in the shape of the filament of the claspette. 
The chaetotaxy of the side-piece is also quite different. A third 
difference is in the peculiar elongation of the ninth tergites of the 
Panama species, leucotaeniatus , which is absent in leucocelaenus. 

1 From the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, Panama City, Rep. de Panama. 
Dr. H. C. Clark, Director. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 261 


These differences are well marked, as may be seen in the figures 
of the parts included in this paper. 

In leucocelaenus, the stem of the claspette is more swollen than 
in leucotaeniatus; there are two or three very long, slender setae 
on the stem, their bases widely separated; the filament of the 
claspette is a long, curved, slender, flat blade, widest at the 
middle, and evenly curved to a sharp point. In leucotaeniatus , 
the stem of the claspette is more slender, and bears on its apical 
third inwardly two stout setae, inserted at the same level, and 
closely approximated; the filament of the claspette is shorter, 
and has a broad flat top, with a retrose point projecting in the 
opposite direction from the main blade. 

The side-piece of leucocelaenus is much less hairy than that of 
leucotaeniatus from Panama, and the arrangement of the setae 
differs. In leucocelaenus , a number of long, slender, curved 
setae arise from prominent tubercles on the inner aspect, just 
below the apex. In leucotaeniatus from Panama, this area has a 
patch of dense, fine, short setae. The inner basal curve of the 
side-piece of leucocelaenus has a few sparse long setae. In 
leucotaeniatus, there is in this position a large, conspicuous 
patch of long fine setae, extending well up towards the apex. 
The area of the basal lobe is quite similar in both species, but 
the tubercles from which the setae arise are more prominent in 
leucotaeniatus. 

The ninth tergite of the true leucocelaenus is undeveloped, 
without setae, being represented by a small chitinized ridge at 
the base of the tenth sternites. In leucotaeniatus , the ninth 
tergite bears two more or less triangular, flattened lobes, densely 
covered with fine microtrichia. 

It is believed that these differences are sufficient to indicate 
that two distinct species occur, inseparable so far as gross adult 
characters are concerned, but easily separable by the characters 
of the male terminalia. 

Description of Aedes leucotaeniatus n. sp. (Here described.) 

Adult female: Proboscis very long and slender, blue-black. Palpi short, about 
one-sixth the length of the proboscis, clothed with long flat blue-black scales. 
Clypeus wider than long, black, shining, nude. Antenna with torus black, with 
a few short, curved, black setae; flagellar segments with whorls of long black 
hairs at joints. Vertex with a median line of elongate, flat, silvery-white scales 
extending to clypeus anteriorly, and continuing posteriorly on to occiput; a few 
strong black setae project forward over clypeus. Occiput clothed with silvery- 
white scales centrally, the sides with flat bluish-black scales; posteriorly an area 
of erect black fork-tipped scales. Eye-margins narrowly white-scaled above, 
with a few black setae; lower third of head white-scaled. 

Thorax with mesonotum densely clothed with dull metallic blue scales; a 
narrow median line of silvery-white scales extending from anterior promontory 
to antescutellar space. Anterior pronotum (prothoracic lobe) with dorsal angle 


262 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


black, remainder clothed with silvery-white scales, and a few strong black setae’ 
Posterior pronotum (“ proepimeron ”) clothed with silvery-white scales. A 
large patch of silvery-white scales before wing-root. Scutellum trilobed, clothed 
with flat blue-black scales and long black setae. Pleura with sternopleuron 
nude, black on anterior portion; posterior portion clothed with silvery-white 
scales, which join with those on anterior pronotum above to form a white line. 
Epimeron with a similar patch of white scales extending dorsally over the prealar 
area and joining those at base of wing-root to form a second white line. Setae 
as follows: many curved black setae just below anterior promontory; prespi- 
racular setae long, black, prominent; postspiracular setae more numerous, 
weaker; several sternopleural setae; prealar setae present; upper mesepimeral 
setae present. 

Abdomen with tergites clothed with closely-appressed blue-black scales; a 
few white scales on posterior margin of sixth and seventh segments. Sides of 
first segment broadly white; all segments with oblique lateral white spots 
ventrally. Fifth, sixth and seventh sternites projecting ventrally, their apical 
margins with a few yellowish hairs. 

Legs blue-black, the femora white-lined beneath, their tips very narrowly 
white; mid and hind femora with a white spot at middle, joined to the ventral 



Fig. 1. Side-piece and clasper of Aedes leucotaeniatus , N. Sp. 
Fig. 2. Side-piece and clasper of Aedes leucocelaenus D. & S. 

Both figures to same scale. 












PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 263 


white line. Tibiae and tarsi blue-black. Claws toothed on fore and mid tarsi, 
without teeth on hind tarsi. 

Wings moderate, hyaline, clothed on the veins with elongate blue-black scales, 
somewhat more densely on costa and anterior veins. 

Description of Male Terminalia of Aedes leucotaeniatus, n. sp. 

Side-piece rather short, not sharply tapering towards tip; inner distal margin 
with several rows of long, broadly lanceolate, striate scales and a few long setae. 
On inner aspect, just below apex, is a distinct area of long, slender, dense setae. 
Area of basal lobe clothed with many long setae from prominent tubercles. 
Dorso-lateral aspect of side-piece clothed with many very long, fine setae, 
extending well towards apex of side-piece. Clasper about half as long as side- 
piece, slightly enlarged centrally, tapering towards tip; terminal spine moderate, 
about one-third the length of the clasper, slightly swollen centrally, tapering 
to a blunt tip. 

Claspette with slender sinuate stem, somewhat angled just beyond middle, 
densely clothed basally with fine setae; apical one-third of stem bare; two very 
stout, curved setae with bases closely approximated arise on inner aspect at 
apical third, their tips nearly reaching tip of filament; opposite these two setae 
and slightly below them, is a single much smaller seta. Filament of claspette 
broad, flat-topped, with a retrose point opposite the elongated, striate, sharp- 
pointed tip. 

Tenth sternites large, erect, the tips recurved, hood-shaped, and striate; a 
few setae just below the tips. 

Ninth tergite peculiarly elongated, forming two more or less triangular lobes 
with rounded tips, the whole surface covered with minute microtrichia. 

Mesosome small, broaa, somewhat narrower at base, slightly constricted 
just beyond middle, then widened before apex; tip with a small V-shaped 
excavation; dorsal face of mesosome with a low median ridge; dorsal basal 
opening small, nearly oval; ventral opening apical, small. 


Holotype male, from Comacho, Panama Canal Zone, April 
22, 1922 (J. B. Shropshire, collector). Male terminalia mounted 
on slide No. 1689. The slide is labeled Haemagogus leucomelas 
Lutz. Paratype male, from Comacho, Panama Canal Zone, 
April 22, 1922 (J. B. Shropshire, collector), the terminalia 
dissected and mounted on a modified Cobb mount. Allotype 
female, from Comacho, Panama Canal Zone, June 1, 1922 
(J. B. Shropshire, collector). Also 5 females from Barro 
Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone (R. C. Shannon, collector), 
July 8 and 9, 1923. 

Description of the Male Terminalia of Aedes leucocelaenus D. & S. 

Side-piece short, moderately tapering towards tip; inner distal margin with 
several rows of long, broadly lanceolate, striate scales and a few long setae. On 
inner aspect, just below tip, is an area with a few long curved setae from prom- 


264 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 




Fig. 3. Claspette and filament of Aedes leucotaeniatus , N. Sp. 

Fig. 4. Claspette and filament of Aedes leucocelaenns D. & S. 

Both figures to same scale. 

inent tubercles, not forming a definite patch. Area of basal lobe covered with 
many long, stout setae from prominent tubercles. Dorso-lateral aspect of side- 
piece nearly bare, with only a few slender setae. Clasper long, slightly more than 
half the length of the side-piece, slightly enlarged centrally, tapering towards 
tip; terminal spine long, slender, slightly swollen centrally, tapering to a blunt 
tip; about one-third the length of the clasper. 

Claspette with a thick, sinuate stem, broad basally, tapering on distal third; 
base of stem clothed with fine setae, a very long, slender seta from a prominent 
tubercle just above base, on outer aspect; two long, slender, curved setae on 
inner aspect, their bases widely separated, their tips nearly reaching the filament 
of the claspette. Filament of claspette a long, curved, slender, flat blade, 
widest at the middle, evenly curved to a sharp point. 

Tenth sternites moderate, erect, the tips recurved, hood-shaped, and striate; 
a few setae just below tips. 

Ninth tergite undeveloped, without setae, being merely a narrow chitinized 
strip dorsal to base of tenth sternites. 

Mesosome small, broad, somewhat narrower at base, slightly constricted just 
beyond middle, then widened before apex; tip with a small V-shaped excavation; 
dorsal face of mesosome with a low median ridge; dorsal basal opening small, 
nearly oval; ventral opening apical, small. 


Described from the characters of three male specimens, one 
from Brazil, one from Argentina, and one from Colombia. 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 265 




Fig. 5 Tenth sternites and ninth tergite of Aedes leucotaeniatus , N. Sp. 

Fig. 6. Tenth sternites and ninth tergite of Aedes leucocelaenus D. & S. 

Both figures to same scale. 

Description of the Larva of Aedes leucocelaenus, D. &.S. 

The writer obtained larvae of this species at Restrepo, 
Colombia, and at Mazaruni, British Guiana. Males reared 
from these larvae had the terminalia as described for leuco¬ 
celaenus. The larva of leucotaeniatus is still unknown. 

Head: rounded, somewhat globular, widest between the eyes. Anterior head- 
hairs double, long, stout; intermediate head-hairs long multiple tufts, exceeding 
the anterior margin of the clypeus; their insertions are in line with the insertions 
of the anterior head-hairs. Posterior head-hairs usually triple (sometimes 
double), long, finer than the anterior head-hairs. Outer occipital hair a long, 
three- or four-haired tuft. Inner occipital hair long, single or double. Ante- 
antennal hair a long tuft of about 6 to 8 fine hairs. 

Antenna long, slender, evenly tapering, the shaft sparsely spined with small 
spines; antennal hair single, at or beyond middle, extending to tip of antenna. 

Thorax and abdomen with integument glabrous; secondary abdominal hairs 
in short, stiff, stellate tufts. Lateral abdominal hairs in three on first segment, 
in two on second to sixth segment, single on seventh segment. Comb of eighth 
segment of 5 or 6 moderate, sharp-pointed scales, curved like a cat’s claw, not 
fringed at the tip. 

Air-tube moderate, about three times as long as wide, slightly bulging at 
middle, tapering gently beyond; pecten of about 15 to 20 closely spaced spines, 
becoming progressively smaller from tip to base of tube; each spine a long 
tooth, with a few very small teeth at base. Pecten closely followed by a stout 
two-haired tuft, the hairs extending to tip of air-tube. 

Anal segment cylindrical, not ringed by the plate. Plate large, extending well 
down sides of segment; dorsal posterior margin fringed with about 12 long 
spinules. Lateral hair long, double or triple. Ventral brush moderate, of about 





266 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 

8 paired tufts from the barred area; a few short single tufts ventrally, beyond 
barred area. A small triangular plate on each side of barred area. Inner 
submedian caudal hairs long, strong, simple; outer submedian caudal hairs 
triple, about two-thirds the length of the inner hairs. 

Remarks. It should be stated that the palpi of the males of 
Aedes leucotaeniatus and A. leucocelaenus are long, slender, 
nearly as long as the proboscis. 

In general the larva of Aedes leucocelaenus resembles those 
of the closely related species of Haemagogus. The comb of the 
eighth abdominal segment consists of a row of a few scales, as 
as in the larvae of Haemagogus janthinomys , H. equinus , H. 
anastasionis , and H. mesodentatus, N. sp. (7). It may be sep¬ 
arated from the larvae of janthinomys by the smooth integument, 
as that of janthinomys is densely pilose; the scales of the eighth 
segment are more numerous, and on a plate, in janthinomys , 
while they are free in leucocelaenus. From equinus, it may be 
separated by the character of the posterisr head-hairs, which 
are single in equinus , and double or triple in leucocelaenus; the 
spines of the eighth abdominal segment in equinus are finely 
fringed, but are not fringed in leucocelaenus. The larva of 
anastasionis also has these spines finely fringed, and the poster¬ 
ior head-hairs are single. The larva of mesodentatus N. sp. has 
a finely pilose integument, and the anterior and posterior head- 
hairs are all single. 

The larva of leucocelaenus is smaller and more slender than 
the larger, stockier larvae of the Haemagogus species, but this 
character is variable. All the species are addicted to water in 
tree-holes. However, leucocelaenus has been found only in 
South America, where equinus , anastasionis and mesodentatus 
have not yet been found to occur; in the faunal region in which 
leucocelaenus occurs, two yet unknown larvae, those of alboma- 
culatus and uriartei, may resemble it; that of janthinomys is 
easily separable. 

References. 

1. Shannon, R. C., Whitman, L., and Franca, M. Science, N. S. 88, 2274, 

110-111, July 29, 1938. 

2. Lutz, A., in Borroul, Mosq. do Brasil. 66, 1904. 

3. Dyar, H. G., and Shannon, R. C., Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 14, 484, 1924. 

4. Shannon, R. C. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 33, 6, 147, 1931. 

5. da Costa, Lima, A. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 23, 255-260, 1930. 

6. Dyar, H. G. The Mosquitoes of the Americas. Carnegie Institution of 

Washington Monograph 387, 1928. 

7. Komp, W. H. W. A New Species of Haemagogus , mesodentatus , from Costa 

Rica. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 1938 (in press). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 267 


MECOPTERA FROM CHINA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW 

SPECIES. 

By F. M. Carpenter, 

Harvard University. 

The Mecoptera which form the basis of the present paper 
were collected by D. C. Graham in Szechuan Province, China. 
The specimens were turned over to me by Professor Nathan 
Banks, to whom they had been sent for identification, along 
with a series of miscellaneous Neuroptera and Trichoptera, by 
the authorities of the National Museum. I am therefore 
indebted to Professor Banks not only for his usual helpful 
advice, but also for the opportunity to study this interesting 
material. The holotypes and allotypes of all new species are in 
the National Museum, but paratypes of certain species have 
also been deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

In my descriptions of these Chinese Mecoptera, all of which 
belong to the family Panorpidae, I have used the same termin¬ 
ology for the genitalia as employed in my revision of the Ne- 
arctic Mecoptera (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zook, 1931, 72, pp. 205- 
277), such as hypovalvae (“lower appendage”), preepiproct 
(“upper appendage”) and ventral valves (“tittilators”) for the 
males, and subgenital plate and internal skeleton for the females. 
Unfortunately, detailed figures of the genitalia have not been 
given by the authors of most of the Chinese species of Me¬ 
coptera; until studies have been made of the genital structure 
of the types of described species, especially those of Navas, their 
specific classification will not be entirely clarified. Tjeder has 
recently (1935) taken a step in this direction by describing in 
detail the genitalia not only of some new material from China, 
but also of the type of one of Esben-Petersen’s species. 1 

Since the literature pertaining to the Chinese Panorpidae is 
scattered in numerous publications, and especially since the list 
of these insects contained in the Catalogus Insectorum Sinen- 
sium (1937) is decidedly incomplete, 1 have included as an 
appendix to this paper an annotated list of the Panorpidae 
described from China. 

Genus PANORPA Linn. 

This genus, which is widely distributed over the northern 
hemisphere, has been represented in China by thirteen species, 
as indicated in the list below. These species readily fall into 

1 Tjeder states in his paper that only Farbotko (Trav. Soc. Scienc. Lettr. 
Vilno. Classe Sc. Math. Naturw. 5, p. 1-43) had previously used the female 
genitalia for the taxonomy of species, but he apparently overlooked my revision 
of the Nearctic Mecoptera (1931), in which the female genitalia of 25 species 
were described. 



268 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


three categories, probably natural groups, depending upon the 
structure of the 6th abdominal segment of the male, i. e., 
whether the so-called anal horn is present, absent, or repre¬ 
sented by two similar processes. In the first group, with a 
single anal horn, belong centralis Tjeder and cornigera Mc- 
Lachlan; in the second group, without the anal horn, belong 
davidi Navas, stigmalis Navas, cladocerca Navas, tetrazonia 
Navas, waongkehzeni Navas, tincta Navas, and japonica Thun- 
berg; in the third group, with the double anal horn, belong 
diceras McLachlan, tjederi Carp, (new name for diceras Tjeder, 
nec diceras McLachlan), and stotzneri Esben-Petersen. One 
other species, guttata Navas, is known only from the female, so 
that its position in the above grouping is not determinable. 

Panorpa flavipennis, n. sp. 

Figures 3, 7, 12. 

Body black, last few abdominal segments reddish brown; vertex entirely 
black; rostrum reddish brown. Fore wing: length, 13-14 mm.; width, 3 mm.; 
membrane deep yellow, markings grey; pterostigmal band usually complete or 
nearly so; basal band interrupted; apical band reduced to a few faint spots; 
both marginal and both basal spots absent; pterostigma dark red, very promi¬ 
nent; cross-veins not margined. Hind wing: similar to fore wings, except that 
basal band is entirely lacking. Single anal horn on 6th abdominal segment; 
7th segment moderately incised above. cT genitalia: genital bulb rounded; 
forceps slender, with the outer margins slightly concave proximally, and a pair 
of longer lobes distally, the ventral lobe having a smoothly curved margin, the 
dorsal one an abruptly curved margin; hypovalvae very slender, almost reaching 
to the base of the forceps; ventral valves simple, each consisting of a single 
broad flat process bearing on its inner distal margin a number of distinct barbs; 
preepiproct with curved sides and a moderately deep, U-shaped incision dis¬ 
tally. $ genitalia: internal skeleton large, the axis extending beyond the plate 
for nearly half its length. 

Holotype (<?).—U. S. N. M. No. 52857. Beh Luh Din, 30 
miles north of Chengtu, Szechuan, China; Aug. 11, 1933, 6000 
ft.; D. C. Graham. 

Allotype. —Same collecting data as holotype except for date: 
Aug. 8, 1933; in U. S. N. M. 

Paratypes. —Three females, with the same data as the holo¬ 
type, except for the dates: Aug. 27, Aug. 4, Aug. 12; in the 
U. S. N. M. Also two females, same data with the dates 
July 12, Aug. 25; in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

This species, possessing a single anal horn, falls into the 
group containing centralis Tjeder and conigera McLachlan. 
In both of the latter, however, the wing membrane is colorless 
or lacteous, whereas that of flavipennis is deep yellow. The 
male genitalia differ from those of centralis and conigera (the 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 269 


type of which has been figured by Esben-Petersen, 1921) in the 
more slender hypovalvae and the possession of lobes on the 
forceps. 


Panorpa curva, n. sp. 

Figures 1, 8. 

Body black, last few abdominal segments reddish brown; vertex with a trans¬ 
verse black band, enclosing the ocelli; rostrum light reddish brown. Fore wing: 
length, 7 mm.; width, 3 mm.; membrane hyaline, markings greyish brown; both 
marginal and both basal spots absent; basal, pterostigmal and apical bands com¬ 
plete, the last with a few interrupted spots; cross-veins not margined. Hind wing: 
similar to the fore. Anal horn absent, cf genitalia: genital bulb rather long; for¬ 
ceps small, the outer margins slightly concave near the middle, the apices abruptly 
curved; no true lobes present; at base of forceps there is a very prominent 
papilla bearing a number of black hairs and giving rise proximally to a large 
black spine; hypovalvae rather slender, not reaching to the base of the forceps; 
ventral valves simple, each consisting of a single stalk, which is distinctly twisted 
and bears distally a cluster of short barbs; preepiproct slender, with nearly 
straight sides and a deep U-shaped distal incision. 

$ unknown. 

Holotype (cf ).—U. S. N. M. 52858. O-Er, 26 miles north of 
Li Fan, Szechuan, China; August 6, 1916, 9000 ft.; D. C. 
Graham. 

This species, belonging to the group without the anal horn, 
resembles in wing markings davidi Navas, from Mou Pin, 
Tibet. The unique male type of davidi has been figured by 
Esben-Petersen, who shows distinctly two branches to each of 
the ventral valves. It is on the basis of this figure that I have 
determined the present specimen as representing a distinct 
species. There is a very slight chance that curva is identical 
with cladocerca Navas, from Kiang-si Province, but the ridicu¬ 
lous figure of the male genitalia given by Navas precludes any 
possibility of that species being recognized without examination 
of the type in the Heude Museum, Shanghai. 

Panorpa diffieilis, n. sp. 

Figures 4, 6. 

Body black, last few abdominal segments brown; vertex of head with a narrow 
transverse black band enclosing ocelli; rostrum light brown. Fore wing: length, 
11 mm.; width, 3 mm.; membrane hyaline, markings greyish brown; apical 
band much broken, pterostigmal band broad but interrupted, basal band 
reduced to a small spot at the origin of Rs (in type); both marginal and both 
basal spots absent; cross-veins not margined. Hind wing: similar to the fore 
wing. Anal horn absent, cf genitalia: genital bulb rounded; forceps small, 
outer margins slightly concave, apices abruptly curved, no true lobes present; 
hypovalvae of moderate width, not reaching to the base of the forceps; ventral 


270 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 

valves simple, each consisting of a single stalk, broader distally than proximally, 
and with a cluster of barbs near the tip; the interior cavity of the genital bulb 
is unusually narrow; preepiproct slender, with a deep U-shaped distal incision. 

9 unknown. 

Holotype (cf).—U. S. N. M. 52859. Chengtu, Szechuan, 
China, 1936. D. C. Graham. 

This species resembles the former superficially, but differs in 
the broader genital bulb and especially in the absence of the 
prominent papilla at the base of the forceps. 

Panorpa diceras McLachlan. 

Figures 2, 10, 11. 

Panorpa diceras McLachlan, 1894, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13 : p. 423. (nec 

P. diceras Tjeder, 1935, Arkiv for Zoologi, 27A, No. 33: p. 7, pi. 4, 5, 7, 
fig. 4, 5). 

In the present collection there are 15 specimens of Panorpa 
(3cf, 12 $ ) from the vicinity of Tachienlu, Szechuan, which fit 
McLachlan’s description perfectly. Since Tachienlu is the type 
locality of diceras , I am led to conclude that these specimens 
belong to that species, although it is to be admitted that not 
until the genitalia of the type specimen (c?) have been exam¬ 
ined can this identity be conclusively established. Tjeder has 
determined as belonging to his species a male and female from 
Yunnan Province, and has given detailed descriptions and 
figures of the genital structures. Obviously, Tjeder’s specimens 
and those before me in the National Museum collection can not 
represent the same species, since the genitalia are very different. 
It should be noted, however, that Yunnan Province, where 
Tjeder’s specimens were collected, is at least two hundred miles 
at its nearest point from Tachienlu, the locality at which the 
type of diceras and the National Museum specimens were 
collected. Even if both species fitted McLachlan’s description 
equally well, the locality data alone would suggest that the 
latter specimens represented the true diceras. However, there 
seems to be one point contained in McLachlan’s description 
which does not apply to Tjeder’s specimens, but which does to 
the National Museum series. At the end of his description 
McLachlan states (1894, p. 424), “the whole cheliferous segment 
is more dusky in colour than those preceding it, and on its 
inner, or upper side if extended, is an appearance as of two long 
hairy processes, damaged in the individual before me.” If I 
interpret the latter part of this sentence correctly, 2 McLachlan 

2 There is a slight possibility that the “two long yellow hairy processes” 
mentioned by McLachlan are really the cerci, which are beneath the preepiproct, 
but this does not seem in the least probable. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 271 

has reference to the distal lobes of the preepiproct, which is of 
course dorsal when the genital bulb is extended. In the male of 
Tjeder’s species the lobes of the preepiproct are almost absent, 
whereas in the National Museum species they are decidedly 
long. For these reasons, I consider it far more probable that the 
latter specimens, from the vicinity of Tachienlu, rather than 
Tjeder’s, are the true diceras. Accordingly, 1 include here 
descriptions of the male and female genitalia of diceras , based 
upon the National Museum material, and also designate 
Tjeder’s specimens as representatives of another species, tjederi. 

The following description of the male genitalia of diceras is 
based upon a male taken at Omei, Szechuan, July, 1936, by D. 
C. Graham; Mt. Omei is about 100 miles from Tachienlu: 

Genital bulb oval; forceps slender, outer margins smoothly curved, inner 
margins with two teeth, a small distal one and a long, slender proximal one; 
hypovalvae prominent, only very slightly broadened aistally, reaching to the 
base of the forceps; ventral valves complex, consisting of a slender basal stalk, 
which gives rise to three branches, a small one on the inner side, a long middle 
branch, which extends well up between the forceps, and a shorter outer branch, 
which curves inwardly in back of (i. e., above) the second branch; preepiproct 
broad, with long distal lobes. 


The following description of the subgenital plate and the 
internal skeleton of the female is based upon a specimen collected 
near Tachienlu, 5000-8500 ft.. June 18-July 12, 1923: 

Posterior border of subgenital plate rounded; internal skeleton small, the axis 
very small, not projecting beyond the plate; plate attached to a chitinous, hood¬ 
shaped membrane, which extends slightly beyond the axis. It should be noted 
that this structure of the subgenital plate and of the internal skeleton is very 
similar to that of stotzneri Esben-Petersen (Tjeder, 1935, plate 6). 


In addition to the specimens mentioned above, the following, 
all collected by D. C. Graham, have a similar genital structure: 
1 cf , 1 $ west of Yachow, Szechuan, 2000-7500 ft., June 14-18, 
1922; 1 d\ Suifu, Szechuan, Oct. 1, 1929; 1 $ , near Tachienlu, 
Szechuan, 5000-8500 ft., June 18-July 12, 1923; 1 $ , 30 miles 
north of Tachienlu, 12000 ft., July 5-9, 1923; 8 $ , 9 miles south¬ 
west of Tachienlu, 9000-11000 ft., June 25-27, 1923. 

Panorpa tjederi, n. n. 

Panorpa diceras Tjeder, 1923, Arkiv for Zoologi, 27A, N:o 33 : p. 9, pi. 4, 5, 7, 
fig. 4, 5 (nec diceras McLachlan, 1894). 

This species, which has been well described by Tjeder, re¬ 
sembles diceras and stotzneri; from the former (as treated here) 
it differs in the form of the forceps and the structure of the 


272 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 

ventral valves; from the latter it differs very obviously in the 
shape of the hypovalvae. 

Holotype (d”) and allotype, from Yunnan Province, China 
(G. Forrest); in K. J. Morton collection. 

Panorpa grahami, n. sp. 

Figures 5, 9. 

Body light brown; thorax and abdomen with a lateral black stripe; vertex of 
head with a black spot around ocelli; rostrum with black stripe on each side. 
Fore wing: length, 11 mm.; width, 3.5 mm.; membrane hyaline without mark¬ 
ings except for a slight suspicion of grey at the apex. Hind wing: similar to the 
fore wing. Sixth abdominal segment with two short anal horns, as in diceras. 
c? genitalia: genital bulb rounded; forceps slender, the outer margin slightly 
concave at the middle, the inner margin with a small distal lobe and a larger 
pointed proximal lobe; hypovalvae reaching to base of forceps, narrowed proxi- 
mally, much broadened distally, with rounded tips; ventral valves complex, 
consisting of a narrow basal stalk, which gives rise to three branches, pectinately 
arranged, the basal branch being the shortest, the others about equal; preepi- 
proct with prominent distal lobes, the incision being almost quadrate. 

Holotype (cf ).—U. S. N. M. 52860. 9 miles south of Tach- 
ienlu, Szechuan, China; 8500-13000 ft., June 25-27, 1923; 
D. C. Graham. 

This species is closest in general appearance to stotzneri 
Esben-Petersen, from Kwanhsien and Wolung Kwan in Sze¬ 
chuan, 150 km. northeast of Tachienlu. Esben-Petersen’s 
figure of the male type, however, shows that the hypovalvae, 
though broadened distally, are truncated and that the proximal 
lobe of the forceps is rounded, not pointed as in grahami. 
Unfortunately, his figure shows nothing of the structure of the 
ventral valves. The latter in grahami are somewhat like those 
of tjederi; but these two species are at once distinguished by the 
form of the hypovalvae. 

Genus NEOPANORPA Weele. 

This small genus has been found so far only in the south¬ 
eastern part of continental Asia and certain of the East Indies. 
It has been represented in China by only five species, all 
described by Navas: apicata, cavaleriei, dimidiata , lacunaris and 
pielina. 

Although the most obvious difference between Neopanorpa 
and Panorpa is the length of 1A, differences are also apparent 
in both male and female genitalia. In the male of Neopanorpa 
the hypovalvae are united further distally than in Panorpa and 
the ventral valves appear to be absent. The preepiproct of 
Neopanorpa is likewise distinctive in being rounded distally, 
instead of incised, as is usual in Panorpa. In the females of 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 273 


Neopanorpa the subgenital plate is distinctly emarginate 
distally, at least in all of the species which I have examined, 
though this emargination is diversely shaped in the different 
species. The internal skeleton of the 9th segment is small and 
in only one species known to me ( nigritis , n. sp.) does the axis 
of the skeleton project beyond the plate. 

Neopanorpa claripennis, n. sp. 

Figures 21-24. 

Body mostly black, last few abdominal segments reddish brown; vertex black; 
rostrum uniformly light brown, median process of third abdominal segment very 
short. Fore wing, length, 13 mm.; width, 3 mm.; wing membrane hyaline, 
slightly smoky, without color markings, although a few of the specimens have a 
very slight indication of grey distally; pterostigma large, dark grey, prominent. 
Hind wing similar to the fore, d genitalia: genital bulb elongate; forceps 
slender, with a prominent lobe on the inner margin proximally; hypovalvae well 
developed, reaching to the base of the forceps, flattened apically and much 
broader distally than proximally. $ genitalia: subgenital plate broad, emar¬ 
ginate posteriorly, the incision being narrow; internal skeleton small, being 
U-shaped, the axis apparently entirely absent. 


Holotype (d).— U. S. N. M. 52861. Beh Luh Din, 30 miles 
north of Chengtu, Szechuan, China; July 28, 1923, 6000 ft.; 
D. C. Graham. 

Allotype ( $ ).—Chengtu, Szechuan, China; 1936. D. C. 
Graham. 

Paratypes .—1 d Beh Luh Din, 30 miles north of Chengtu, 
Szechuan; Aug. 17, 1923, 6000 ft., D. C. Graham; 1 d, same 
locality, Aug. 8-10, 1933; 1 d, same locality, Aug. 8-19, 1933; 
2 d same locality, July 23, 1933; 1 d same locality, July 28, 
1933; 4 d , same locality, July 31, 1933; 2 d, same locality, 
Aug. 9, 1933; 1 d same locality, Aug. 14, 1933; 1 d , same 
locality, Aug. 28, 1933; 1 d , same locality, Aug. 15, 1933. All 
of the foregoing paratypes are in the National Museum; the 
following paratypes are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology: 
1 d , same locality as holotype, Aug. 16, 1933; 1 d , same 
locality, July 28, 1933; 2' d , same locality, Aug. 9, 1933; 1 d 
same locality, Aug. 14, 1933; 1 d , same locality, Aug. 24, 1933; 
1 $ , Chengtu, 1936. 

This species resembles N. apicata Navas, but differs, if I 
understand Navas’ descriptions correctly, in several obvious 
respects. His figure of the tip of the wing shows a prominent 
darkening of the apex (hence the name apicata ), and gives no 
indication of a prominent pterostigma. The wing of claripennis 
lacks the darkened apex and the pterostigma is made very 
prominent by its color. Unfortunately, according to Navas the 


274 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


type of apicata {&) lacks the terminal portion of the abdomen, 
so we shall never know the genital structure of the type. 

Neopanorpa nigritis, n. sp. 

Figures 17-20. 

Body mostly black; entire abdomen including genital bulb, black, though the 
tip of the genital forceps is reddish brown; vertex black; rostrum light brown, 
but with a wide, median black stripe along the anterior surface. Median process 
of third abdominal tergite well developed, reaching almost to the anterior 
margin of the fourth segment. Fore wing: length 13 mm.; width, 2.5 mm.; wing 
membrane nearly hyaline, faintly smoky in appearance; no markings present; 
pterostigma well developed, reddish brown, c? genitalia: genital bulb slender, 
the forceps only of moderate length, with a small lobe proximally on the inner 
margin; hypovalvae slender, not quite reaching to the base of forceps, nearly 
membraneous distally, their tips bent slightly. $ like the male, with the entire 
abdomen black; $ genitalia: subgenital plate broad, with a V-shaped distal 
incision; internal skeleton with the axis projecting beyond the plate, the two 
posterior arms being well developed and reaching to the tips of the subgenital 
plate. 

Holotype (cf). —U. S. N. M. 52862. Mt. Omei, Szechuan, 
China; July 19, 1936, 9000 ft.; D. C. Graham. 

Allotype. —-U. S. N. M.; same collecting data as holotype. 

Paratypes .—1 $ , same collecting data as holotype, in U. S. 
N. M. 1 c? , Omei-Shan, W. China, 7000 ft., July 17, Rock; 
and 1 $ , same collecting data as holotype; both in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. 

The wings of this species resemble those of claripennis , but 
the body color, especially the median stripe on the rostrum, 
enables its easy recognition. The internal skeleton of the ninth 
abdominal segment of the female is larger than that of any of 
the other species of Neopanorpa which I have seen, and it is the 
only one possessing a prominent axis. 

Neopanorpa chelata, n. sp. 

Figures 13-16. 

Body brown and black; vertex black, rostrum light brown; thorax mostly 
brown, with a wide median dorsal black stripe; abdomen black above, the seg¬ 
ments beyond the fifth reddish brown. Median process of the third abdominal 
segment prominent but not extending to the middle of the fourth segment. 
Fore wing: length, 14 mm.; width, 3 mm.; membrane hyaline, markings brown, 
apical band present but usually interrupted posteriorly; pterostigmal band 
entire, weak posteriorly; basal band reduced to only a few spots; hind wings 
similar to the fore, cf genitalia: genital bulb slender; forceps unusually long 
and slender, with a prominent proximal lobe on the inner margin; hypovalvae 
broad, especially distallv each possessing an outer small apical lobe. $ geni¬ 
talia: subgenital plate broad abruptly narrowed posteriorly, with a narrow 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 275 


U-shaped incision distally; internal skeleton small, axis apparently absent, 
posterior arms short, forming a broad “U.” 

Holotype (<?).— U. S. N. M. 52863. Shinkaisi, Mt. Omei, 
Szechuan, China; Aug. 16-20, 1934. 

Allotype .—In U. S. N. M. Same locality data as holotype. 

Paratypes .—2 cf , 2 $, Chengtu, Szechuan, 1936; 3 9, 
Shinkaisi, Mt. Omei, 4400 ft., Aug. 11-20, 1934; 1 9 Mt. Omei, 
4000-6000 ft., Aug. 20-22, 1934. All of the foregoing paratypes 
are in the U. S. N. M.; the following paratypes are in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology: 4 cf, Chengtu, 1936, D. C. Graham; 
1 9 , foot of Washan, Szechuan, 6000-7000 ft., July 27, 1925. 
In the National Museum there is a broken specimen of this 
species, not a paratype, from Kuanshien, Szechuan, 1936. 

This species resembles cavaleriei Navas, the type of which has 
been redescribed and figured by Esben-Petersen (1921, p. 83). 
However, according to the latter, the median process of the 3d 
abdominal segment of cavaleriei is narrow and long, almost 
reaching to the fifth segment. Since this process is short in 
the specimens before me, I conclude that we are dealing with 
another species. N. chelata also resembles dimidiata Navas, 
from Yunnan, but the apical band of the latter is better de¬ 
veloped. The type of dimidiata being a unique female, the 
specific characteristics can not be determined for certain until 
the structure of the 9th abdominal segment has been studied. 

Neopanorpa banksi, n. sp. 

Figures 25, 26. 

Body mostly black above; vertex black, last few abdominal segments brown, 
the others black above. Fore wing: length, 15 mm.; width, 3 mm.; membrane 
hyaline; markings brown; apical band entire, but narrowed posteriorly; ptero- 
stigmal band interrupted; basal band reduced to a few spots. 9 genitalia: 
subgenital plate broad, with a wide U-shaped distal incision; internal skeleton 
large, the axis absent, but with three well-developed plates at the base of the 
long, posterior arms, which reach to the tip of the subgenital plate. 

cf unknown. 

Holotype ( 9 ).—U. S. N. M. 52864. Suifu, Szechuan, China; 
D. C. Graham. 

Paratype .—1 9 , with the collecting data of the type, in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

This species resembles the former and cavaleriei in wing 
markings, though its apical band is stronger. It differs from 
chelata in the more elongate arms of the internal skeleton of the 
female. Although there is some possibility of its being identical 
with cavaleriei , I prefer to describe the species as new, with 
figures of the female genitalia, than to determine it question¬ 
ably as Navas’ species, the type of which came from another 


276 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


Province, Kweichow (Kweiyang). When the genital structure 
of the 9 type of cavaleriei has been studied, this point will be 
definitely settled. 


List of Chinese Panorpidae. 

Genus PANORPA Linn. 

Panorpa centralis Tjeder, Arkiv for Zoologie, 1935, 27A, N:o 33, p. 3, 
pi. 1, 2, 7, fig. 1, 2. 

Type localities: 6% Pao-ning-fu, N. E. Szechuan. $ Tjeggola, S. Kansu. 
Type location: Stockholm Museum. 

Panorpa cornigera McLachlan, Bull. Ent. Suisse, 1887, 7, p. 404. Esben- 
Petersen, Coll. Selys, 1921, 5 (2), p. 55, fig. 61-64. Issiki, Japan. 
Journ. Zook, 1933, 4, p. 4, fig. 7, 16. Tjeder, Arkiv for Zoologi, 27A, 
p. 7, pi. 3, 7 fig. 3 (describes and figures genitalia of $ type). 

Type locality: d, $ ; Vladiwostok, Siberia. 

Type location: Zurich Museum. 

Panorpa flavipennis Carp., supra, p. 268. 

Type locality: d, $, Beh Luh Din, near Chengtu, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. and M. C. Z. 

Panorpa davidi Navas, Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Bare., 1908, p. 415, 
fig. 19a, b. Esben-Petersen, Coll. Selys, 1921, 5(2), p. 29, fig. 21-23. 
Type locality: d, Mou Pin, Tibet. 

Type location: Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris. 

Panorpa stigmalis Navas, Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Bare., 1908, p. 406, 
fig. 20. Esben-Petersen, Coll. Selys, 1921 5(2), p. 31, fig. 27-30. 

Type locality: d, Mou Pin, Tibet. 

Type location: Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris. 

Panorpa eladocerca Navas, Notes Ent. Chin. Mus. Heude, 1935, 2(5) 
p. 95, fig. 59, 60. 

Type locality: d, 9, Ruling, Kiang-si. 

Type location: Heude Museum, Shanghai. 

Panorpa tetrazonia Navas, Notes d’Ent. Chin. Mus. Heude, 1935, 2(5), 
p. 96, fig. 61. 

Type locality: d, Kuling, Kiang-si. 

Type location: Heude Museum, Shanghai. 

Panorpa waongkehzengi Navas, Notes d’Ent. Chin. Mus. Heude, 1935, 
2(5), p. 98, fig. 62. 

Type locality: cf, 9, Kuling, Kiang-si. 

Type location: Heude Museum, Shanghai. 

Panorpa tincta Navas, Rev. Acad. Cienc. Madrid, 1931, 26, p. 75, fig. 13. 
Type locality: d, Hweisin, Kansu. 

Type location: Hamburg Museum. 

Panorpa japonica Thunberg, Nov. Ins. Sp. Dissert., 1784, 3, p. 67, fig. 9- 
Type locality: Japan. 

Type location: Zool. Mus. Univ. Upsala. 

The extensive synonymy of this species is given in the Catalogus Insec- 
torum Siensium, 1937, 3, p. 1264. All records are in Japan except for one 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 277 

male specimen, which is the type of leucothyria Navas (Mem. Real Acad. 
Cienc. Bare., 1908, p. 414), from Tien-tseun, China (synonymized with 
japonica by Esben-Petersen). 

Panorpa guttata Navas, Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Bare., 1908, p. 45, 
fig. 19c. Esben-Petersen, Coll. Selys, 1921, 5(2), p. 32, fig. 32. 

Type locality: $, Mou Pin, Tibet. 

Type location: Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris. 

Panorpa curva Carp., supra, p. 269. 

Type locality: O-Er, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. 

Panorpa difficilis Carp., supra, p. 269. 

Type locality: Chengtu, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. 

Panorpa diceras McLachlan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1854, 13, p. 423. 

Type locality: Tachienlu, Szechuan. 

Type location: McLachlan collection. 

Panorpa tjederi Carp., supra, p. 271 ( = P. diceras Tjeder, nec diceras 
McLachl., Arkiv for Zoologi, 27A, N:o 33, p. 7, pi. 4, 5, 7, fig. 4, 5). 
Type locality: cf, $, Yunnan Province. 

Type location: K. J. Morton collection, Edinburgh. 

Panorpa stotzneri Esben-Petersen, Vidensk Medd. Dansk Naturh. Foren. 
1934, 97, p. 211, fig. 1, 2. 

Type locality: cf, Kwanhsien, Szechuan; $, Wolung Kwan, 150 north 
east Tachienlu, Szechuan. 

Type location: cf, Staatl. Museen fiir Tier- und Volkerkunde, Dresden; 
9 , Esben-Petersen collection, Silkeborg. 

Panorpa grahami Carp., supra, p. 272. 

Type locality: Tachienlu, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. 

Genus NEOPANORPA Weele. 

Neopanorpa apicata Navas, Rev. Acad. Cienc. Zaragosa, 1927, 7, p. 27, 
fig. 6. 

Type locality: $, Kweichow. 3 
Type location: Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris. 

Neopanorpa caveleriei Navas, Mem. Real Acad. Cienc Bare., 1908, 
p. 417. Esben-Petersen, Coll. Selys, 1921, 5(2), p. 83, fig. 93, 94. 
Navas, Mem. Pont. Aca,d. Nouvi Lincei, 1926, 9, p. 920. Navas, 
Rev. Brot., 1930, 24(1), p. 13. 

Type locality: cf, Kweiyang, Kweichow. 

Type location: Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris. 

Neopanorpa dimidiata Navas, Notes d’Ent. Chin. Mus. Heude, 1930, 
1(6), p. 2, fig. 1. 

Type locality: $, Yunnan. 

Type location: Heude Museum. 

3 The original description gives the locality as “ Kouy-Tcheou,” but that is 
obviously the French spelling used by Cavalerie, the collector, for Kweichow. 
I am indebted to Mr. Gaines Liu for this suggestion. 



PLATE 23 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 



[ 278 ] 




































PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 


PLATE 24 



[ 279 ] 












































280 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


Neopanorpa lacunaris Navas, Notes d’Chin. Mus. Heude, 1930, 1(6), 
P- 3, fig. 2. 

Type locality: Yunnan. 

Type location: Heude Museum. 

Neopanorpa pielina Navas, Notes d’Ent. Mus. Heude, 3 (4), p. 58, fig. 
72, 73. 

Type locality: Ruling, Kiang-si. 

Type location: Heude Museum. 

Neopanorpa claripennis Carp., supra, p. 273. 

Type localities: Beh Lu Din and Chengtu, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. and M. C. Z. 

Neopanorpa nigritis Carp., supra, p. 274. 

Type locality: Mt. Omei, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. 

Neopanorpa chelata Car., supra, p. 274. 

Type locality: Mt. Omei and Chengtu, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. and M. C. Z. 

Neopanorpa banksi Carp., supra, p. 275. 

Type locality: Suifu, Szechuan. 

Type location: U. S. N. M. and M. C. Z. 

Neopanorpa (?) brisi (Navas), Notes d’Ent. Chin. Mus. Heude, 1930,1(6), 
p. 4, fig. 

Type locality: Yunnan. 

Type location: Heude Museum, Shanghai. 

This species was described by Navas in the genus Leptopanorpa, but his 
figure of the abdomen shows conclusively that it is not a member of that 
genus. It is. probably a Neopanorpa, but may well belong to Panorpa. 

Genus LEPTOPANORPA McLachlan. 

Leptopanorpa javanica (Westwood), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1846, 4, 
p. 186. Esben-Petersen, Coll. Selys, 1921, 5(2), p. 89, fig. 100. 

Type locality: Java. 

Type location: British Museum. 

Esben-Petersen records two females of this species in the 
British Museum from Mt. Wuchi, Hainan, China. So far as I 
am aware, this is the only record of the genus Leptopanorpa in 
China. In all probability, as Esben-Petersen apparently 
suspected, the Hainan specimens represent a different species. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 23. 

Fig. 1. Panorpa curva, n. sp., ventral view of cf genital bulb (holotype). 

Fig. 2. Panorpa diceras McLachlan, ventral view of cf genital bulb. 

Fig. 3. Panorpa flavipennis, n. sp., ventral view of c? genital bulb (holotype). 
Fig. 4. Panorpa difficilis, n. sp., preepiproct of c? (holotype). 

Fig. 5. Panorpa grahami, n. sp., ventral view of <y genital bulb (holotype). 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 281 


Fig. 6. Panorpa difficilis, n. sp., ventral view of d 71 genital bulb (holotype). 
Fig. 7. Panorpa flavipennis, n. sp., preepiproct of c? (holotype). 

Fig. 8. Panorpa curva, n. sp., preepiproct of c? (holotype). 

Fig. 9. Panorpa grahami, n. sp., preepiproct of c? (holotype). 

Fig. 10. Panorpa difficilis, n. sp., preepiproct of c? (holotype). 

Fig. 11. Panorpa diceras McLachlan, internal skeleton of $. 

Fig. 12. Panorpa flavipennis, n. sp., internal skeleton of $ (allotype). 

Plate 24. 

Fig. 13. Neopanorpa chelata, n. sp., ventral view of d 71 genital bulb (holotype). 
Fig. 14. Neopanorpa chelata, n. sp., dorsal view of 3d and 4th abdominal 
segments of c? (holotype). 

Fig. 15. Neopanorpa chelata, n. sp., subgenital plate of $ (allotype). 

Fig. 16. Neopanorpa chelata, n. sp., internal skeleton of $ (allotype). 

Fig. 17. Neopanorpa nigritis, n. sp., ventral view of c? genital bulb (holotype). 
Fig. 18. Neopanorpa nigritis, n. sp., dorsal view of 3d, 4th, and 5th abdominal 
segments of.cf (holotype). 

Fig. 19. Neopanorpa nigritis, n. sp., subgenital plate of $ (allotype). 

Fig. 20. Neopanorpa nigritis, n. sp., internal skeleton of 9 (allotype). 

Fig. 21. Neopanorpa claripennis, n. sp., ventral view of cf genital bulb (holo¬ 
type). 

Fig. 22. Neopanorpa claripennis, n. sp., dorsal view of 3d, 4th, and 5th abdom¬ 
inal segments of d 71 (holotype). 

Fig. 23. Neopanorpa claripennis, n. sp., subgenital plate of 9 (allotype). 

Fig. 24. Neopanorpa claripennis, n. sp., internal skeleton of c? (allotype). 

Fig. 25. Neopanorpa banksi, n. sp., subgenital plate of 9 (holotype). 

Fig. 26. Neopanorpa banksi, n. sp., internal skeleton of 9 (holotype). 


THE GENUS DENDROSOTER WESMAEL IN THE UNITED 
STATES (HYMENOPTERA : BRACONIDAE). 

By C. F. W. Muesebeck, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine , U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Only one Nearctic species of Dendrosoter has been described. 
This is scolytivorus (Viereck and Rohwer), which has been known 
only from the two male specimens comprising the type material. 
Three additional, undescribed species have, however, been 
reared in the United States by investigators in the Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine. All four species are said to 
be parasitic on the larvae of bark beetles (Scolytidae). The 
present synopsis is presented to facilitate their identification and 
to provide names for the new species. 

DENDROSOTER Wesmael. 

Dendrosoter Wesmael, Nouv. Mem. Acad. Sci., Bruxelles 9 : 137, 1838. Geno¬ 
type, Bracon protuberans Nees. 



282 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40 NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


Eurybolus Ratzeburg, Ichneumonen der Forstinsekten, vol, 2, p. 32, 1848. 

Genotype, (Bracon curtisii Ratz.) = B. protuberans Nees. 

Caenopachys Foerster, Verh. Naturh. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande 19 : 239, 1862. 

Genotype, Bracon hartigii Ratz. 

Dendrosoter Picard, Bull. Soc. Zool. France 53 : 50-56, 1928. 


Picard, in the paper cited above, definitely suppressed Caeno¬ 
pachys Foerster as a synonym of Dendrosoter by transferring its 
type, Bracon hartigii Ratzeburg, to the latter genus. With 
this action I fully concur. 

When he described the genus Wesmael indicated that 
Dendrosoter falls between the Doryctinae and Spathiinae, 
resembling the former in the abdomen and the latter in the 
wings. Most investigators appear to have followed Foerster in 
assigning it to the subfamily Doryctinae, although Ashmead 1 
placed it in the Spathiinae. Obviously the various subfamilies 
comprising the cyclostomine Braconidae require redefinition, 
with some realignment of the genera. This, however, demands 
a more thorough review of the entire group than has yet been 
undertaken. For the present, therefore, I believe the genus 
Dendrosoter is best retained in the Doryctinae. It may be 
briefly characterized as follows: 

With a subcircular impression (“mouth-opening”) between clypeus and 
mandibles; head subcubical; occiput sharply, completely margined and notice¬ 
ably excavated; frons with two conspicuous protuberances that are transversely 
striate; antennae very slender; thorax compact; pronotum above strongly 
transverse; notaulices impressed at least anteriorly; prepectus margined; anterior 
wing with three cubital cells; recurrent vein entering second cubital cell; medius 
more or less sinuate; nervulus strongly postfurcal; subdiscoideus interstitial; 
posterior wing of male with a large stigma (according to Picard occasionally 
wanting in certain Old World species); coxae relatively small; calcaria of poster¬ 
ior tibiae short; abdomen sessile or subsessile; spiracle of first abdominal segment 
before middle; second and third tergites connate, their spiracles above the 
lateral margins; ovipositor prominent. 


Key to Nearctic Species of Dendrosoter. 

1. Radius arising basad of middle of stigma, its second and third abscissae 
arched so that radial cell is very narrow, much narrower than 
second cubital cell; stigma of male posterior wing shorter than 

distance from its base to base of wing._-----„ 

1. scolytivorus (Viereck and Rohwer) 
Radius arising from middle of stigma, or beyond, its second and third 
abscissae not arched; radial cell as wide as second cubital; 
stigma of male posterior wing longer than distance from its base 
to base of wing...-----.-----. 


1 Ashmead, W. H. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 23 : 148, 1900. 






PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 283 


2. Abdomen smooth and polished beyond first tergite, at most with a 

few weak, short striae at base of connate second and third tergites 
each side of middle; notaulices obsolescent caudad; disk of scutel- 
lum much broader at base than long, the sulcus at its base un¬ 
usually long_2. sulcatus , new species 

Connate second and third tergites sculptured on at least basal third; 
notaulices complete; disk of scutellum not broader at base than 
long, the sulcus at its base normal . ._____3 

3. Connate second and third tergites sculptured to beyond middle; 

scutellum strongly convex; last abscissa of cubitus usually shorter 
than second abscissa of radius; radial cell much more strongiy 
infumated basally than apically__3. scaber , new species 

Sculpture of connate second and third tergites confined to a basal, 
more or less semicircular, area not extending to middle; disk of 
scutellum very weakly convex; last abscissa of cubitus at least 
as long as second abscissa of radius; radial cell uniformly in¬ 
fumated________4. integer , new species 

Dendrosoter scolytivorus (Viereck and Rohwer). 

(Fig. 1, A). 

Caenopachys scolytivora Viereck and Rohwer, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 45 : 536, 
1913. 

Immediately distinguished from the other Nearctic species by 
the conspicuously modified wing venation. In this respect it is 
strikingly like the European D. hartigii (Ratz.), but it differs 
from that species in the much narrower radial cell and in having 
the second cubital cell decidedly longer than the third. 

Male. —Malar space at least as long as eye; temple nearly twice as broad as 
eye width; cheek smooth below; maxillary palpus slender, normal; antenna 
20-segmented; notaulices sharply impressed, complete, meeting before apex of 
mesoscutum; scutellum moderately convex; mesopleuron smooth apically; hind 
coxa almost entirely smooth; second and third abscissae of both radius and 
cubitus greatly thickened, radial cell strongly narrowed, second and third 
cubital cells correspondingly widened, and second intercubitus unusually long 
and oblique; stigma of posterior wing not so long as distance from its base to 
base of wing; first tergite striate, with a narrow, parallel-sided, smooth strip 
down middle; second and following tergites polished except for a little weak 
sculpture at base of second tergite each side of middle. 

The above notes are based on the two males from Elmore, 
S. Dak., comprising the type series. The collection of the 
National Museum also contains one female labeled “Grand 
Canyon N. P., June 10, 1936, Pinus ponderosa, D. De Leon 
Coll.,” which I believe belongs here. It agrees thoroughly with 
the male except in the secondary sexual differences characteristic 






284 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


of certain species in this group, the radius and cubitus being 
slender although the radial and cubital cells are of the same 
form as in the male. 






Fig. 1.—Anterior and posterior wings of: A, Dendrosoter scolytivorus , and B, 
Dendrosoter scaber. Drawn by Mary F. Benson. 


Dendrosoter sulcatus, new species. 

In sculpture this species is most like scolytivorus but it is 
readily distinguished by the differences mentioned in the key. 
In common with the two other new species, described below, it 
differs markedly from scolytivorus in the venation of the anterior 














PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 285 


wing; and from all three it may be separated by its weak and 
incomplete notaulices. 

Female .—Length 2.8 to 3.5 mm. Temple at narrowest point broader than 
eye height, very delicately sculptured; cheek below smooth and polished; 
ridges of frontal protuberances irregular and incomplete; malar space shorter 
than eye; antenna 19 to 23-segmented, basal flagellar segment slightly shorter 
than second; maxillary palpus shorter than height of head. 

Mesoscutum very finely granular, not at all medially impressed before 
scutellum; notaulices not extending beyond an imaginary line joining bases of 
tegulae; transverse sulcus before scutellum unusually long, nearly as long as 
scutellum itself, and having numerous conspicuous longitudinal carinae; 
scutellum much broader at base than long, sculptured like mesoscutum; pro- 
podeum finely rugulose; mesopleuron aciculate or rugulose in the oblique 
impression, a small triangular area at anterior end, and a larger area behind, 
smooth and polished; metapleuron finely longitudinally aciculate; recurrent 
vein going well into second cubital cell; first intercubitus not more than two- 
thirds as long as second abscissa of radius, the latter on almost a straight line 
with the third abscissa and of about the same length; second cubital cell paralel- 
sided: third cubital cell widening only slightly toward apex; postnervellus very 
weak; posterior coxa smooth and shining. 

First tergite closely, longitudinally aciculate; remainder of abdomen com¬ 
pletely polished except for a little very faint sculpture at extreme base of fused 
second and third tergites on each side of the middle; ovipositor sheath slightly 
longer than abdomen. 

Dark brown, irregularly varied with yellowish brown and piceous; apical half 
of abdomen conspicuously darker than basal half; fore wing infumated with the 
usual transverse hyaline band just beyond base and another much narrower band 
behind base of stigma; hind wing completely hyaline. 

Male .—Except for secondary sexual differences essentially like the female; 
maxillary palpus normal, third segment not enlarged; stigma of posterior wing 
longer than distance from its base to base of wing. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52997. 

Type locality. —Tryon, N. C. 

Hosts.—Ips avulsus Eich., Dendroctonus frontalis Dz. and 
Ips sp. 

Described from the following material: Nine specimens, 
including type and allotype, reared from Ips avulsus , Tryon, 
N. C., 1906, W. F. Fiske, Hopk.U. S. No. 3700 C; 1 from Dendroc¬ 
tonus frontalis , Asheville, N. C., Sept. 6, 1925, F. C. Craighead, 
Hopk. U. S. No. 9931 f; 4 from D. frontalis, Tryon, N. C., 1903, 
W. F. Fiske, Hopk. U. S. No. 1653 c; 4 from same host and 
locality, June 3, 1903, W. F. Fiske, Hopk. U. S. No. 1574 f; 
2 from D. frontalis , Asheville, N. C., Dec. 1927, Hopk. U. S. 
No. 10785 g; 6 recorded from Ips sp. in Pinus rigida, Falls 
Church, Va., July 13, 1916, T. E. Snyder, Hopk. U. S. No. 
14068; 3 taken from galleries in pine, Glencarlyn, Va., Sept., 


286 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


1913, C. T. Greene, Hopk. U. S. No. 10449; 2 from galleries in 
longleaf pine, Call, Tex., 1905, W. F. Fiske, Hopk. U. S. No. 
3442 v; 12 from D.frontalis , Asheville, N. C., July and October, 
1925, A. H. McAndrews, and 3 from Washington, D. C., Sept. 
20, 1911, W. Middleton. 

Dendrosoter scaber, new species. 

(Fig. 1, B.) 

This may be distinguished from the other North American 
species by the more extensive sculpture of the abdomen, and the 
strongly convex scutellum. 

Female .—Length 2.5 to 3.5 mm. Face closely rugulose; malar space, temple, 
and cheek finely granular; temple wider than eye height; malar space nearly as 
long as eye; ridges of frontal protuberances strong and complete; occiput granu¬ 
lar and dull; antenna usually 24- to 26-segmented but with as few as 20 segments 
in a very small specimen; maxillary palpus hardly as long as height of head. 

Mesoscutum closely granular, dull; notaulices complete, meeting in a shallow 
impression on posterior fourth of mesoscutum; scutellar sulcus only half as long 
as scutellum, the latter at least as long as broad at base, conspicuously elevated, 
and sculptured like mesoscutum; propodeum and metapleuron completely 
rugulose; side of pronotum rugulose; mesopleuron entirely closely sculptured, 
more coarsely so anteriorly, dull; recurrent vein entering second cubital cell and 
about as long as second abscissa of cubitus; first cubital cell twice as long as 
high; second abscissa of radius subequal to first intercubitus, and usually longer 
than either third abscissa of radius or third abscissa of cubitus, parallel with 
posterior side of second cubital cell; postnervellus well developed, strongly 
antefurcal; posterior coxa finely granular and dull, with some longitudinal 
aciculation. 

First abdominal tergite strongly rugulose, the connate second and third 
tergites finely, longitudinally sculptured to beyond middle; ovipositor sheath 
about as long as abdomen or slightly longer. 

Dark brown; frontal protuberances not contrastingly paler than rest of head; 
wings banded as in sulcatus; radial cell deeply infumated basally, very weakly so 
apically; apical third of abdomen piceous black. 

Male .—In essential characters like the female; third segment of maxillary 
palpus not enlarged; stigma of posterior wing longer than distance from its base 
to base of wing; postnervellus only weakly indicated. 


Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52998. 

Type locality .—Gasquet Ranger Station, Del Norte County, 
Calif. 

Host .—Bark beetle in Pseudotsuga taxifolia. 

Described from the following 24 specimens: Type, allotype, 
and 19 paratypes from the type locality, reared by R. L. Furniss, 
of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, in June, 
1937, under Hopk. U. S. No. 31716 C; one paratype, likewise 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 287 


reared by Mr. Furniss from a bark beetle in Pseudotsuga taxi- 
folia, March 4, 1934, at Mt. St. Helena, Calif., Hopk. U. S. 
No. 21125 H, and two paratypes reared by F. P. Keen from 
Pityophthorus sp., in Pinus monophylla, at Big Bear, San 
Bernardino National Forest, Calif., under Hopk. U. S. No. 
18137 J. 


Dendrosoter integer, new species. 

Most similar to the European middendorffii (Ratz.), but differ¬ 
ing in its much shorter first abscissa of radius, which is only half 
as long as width of stigma, in the more extensive sculpturing of 
second tergite, and the finer sculpture of side of pronotum and of 
mesopleuron. Also very similar to scaber, from which it may be 
readily distinguished, however, by the characters mentioned 
in the key. It differs from the foregoing description of that 
species as follows: 


Female .—Length 2.5 to 3.2 mm. Antenna 21- to 24-segmented in specimens 
examined; scutellum weakly convex, more than twice as long as the scutellar 
sulcus; second abscissa of radius a little longer than first intercubitus, shorter 
than third abscissa of radius, and not distinctly longer than last abscissa of 
cubitus; postnervellus interstitial, or nearly so; first abdominal tergite entirely, 
closely aciculate; connate second and third tergites at base with a rather sharply 
limited, more or less semicircular, finely aciculate area which does not extend 
nearly to middle. Radial cell uniformly infumated. 

Male .—Similar to female in all important respects; stigma of posterior wing 
much longer than the distance from its base to base of wing and about one-third 
as long as wing. 

Type. —U. S. National Museum No. 52999. 

Type locality. —Pinehurst, Oreg. 

Host. —Scolytidae in Libocedrus decurrens. 

Described from the following 35 specimens: The type, 
allotype and 26 paratypes from the type locality, reared by 
W. J. Buckhorn of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine, June 21, 1930, under Hopkins No. 18901; three 
paratypes labeled “ Phloeosinus in Libocedrus decurrens , 
Klamath Falls, Ore., July 3, 1930”; one paracype reared from 
Monterey cypress infested with Phloeosinus cristatus Lee. 
at Palo Alto, Calif., by H. E. Burke; one paratype from Scolytus 
praeceps Lee. in Abies concolor at Pine Crest, Calif.; and one 
paratype each from Willow Ranch and Paradise Creek, Calif. 



288 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


MINUTES OF THE 495TH REGULAR MEETING OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 495th meeting of the Society was called to order by President Back at 
8 p. m., Thursday, November 3, 1938, in Room 43 of the National Museum. 
Members and visitors present numbered 43 and 10, respectively. The minutes 
of the October meeting were read and approved. 

The following individuals were unanimously elected to membership in the 
Society: 

H. W. Capps, Division of Insect Identification, Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, Washington, D. C. 

Lloyd E. Rozeboom, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
Stillwater, Oklahoma. 

D. J. Caflfrey announced that the Society had been invited to send a repre¬ 
sentative to the 75th Anniversary Meeting of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario, to be held at Guelph, Ontario, November 24-25, 1938. It was voted 
that the matter of sending a delegate be left in the hands of the President. 

The regular program consisted of a symposium on Insecticide Investigations 
and included the two following talks: 

I. Organization and functions of the Division of Insecticide Investigations. 

—R. C. Roark. 

The Division does most of its work in Washington, D. C., although there are 
four field laboratories where work is carried on in close cooperation with the 
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations. These field laboratories are located 
at Moorestown, N. J., Vincennes, Ind., Whittier, Calif., and Yakima, Wash. 
There are eight projects, namely, chemical investigations on insecticidal plants, 
synthetic organic compounds, insecticidal deposits, inorganic insecticides, 
fumigants, accessory materials, studies to determine toxicity of materials using 
the goldfish, and analytical investigations. The work of this Division on 
pyrethrum, derris, tobacco and quassia was discussed. The development of 
synthetic organic compounds for testing as insecticides was also discussed. 
Secimens of natural and synthetic organic insecticides were exhibited. (Auth¬ 
or’s abstract.) 

2. Some research problems of the Division of Insecticide Investigations. 

C. M. Smith. 

Discussion followed by Mclndoo, Rohwer, Siegler and Back. Snodgrass 
commented briefly regarding the proposed sending of a delegate to the above 
mentioned meeting at Guelph, Ontario. 

President Back announced the appointment of a committee to nominate 
candidates for the 1939 officers of the Society, consisting of R. A. Cushman 

J. S. Wade, Carl Heinrich, E. C. Cushing and U. C. Loftin. 

Several members of the Division of Insecticide Investigations were included 
among the visitors introduced to the Society. 

Adjournment at 9.40 p. m. Ashley B. Gurney, 

Recording Secretary. 


Actual date of 'publication , December 30 , 1938. 



INDEX TO VOLUME 40 


Aedes leucotaeniatus, n. sp., 260; A. leucocel- 
aenus D. & S., description of male and 
larva, 263. 

Amorphacarus, n. gen., 191. 

Anachipteria anachipteroides australoides, n. 
subsp.; A. armatum spinosum, n. subsp., 
13. 

Ancyloderes, n. gen.; A. pilosus (lec.) type, 
205; A. saltoni, n. sp., 206. 

Anderson, W. H., article by, 161. 

Anopleura, new, 197. 

Ants, legionary, notes on, 157. 

Anobiidae, new, 43. 

Antunes, P. C. A., article by, 1. 

Apanteles insignis, n. sp.; A. langei, n. sp., 202; 
dignus, n. sp., 203. 

Araucaleon, n. gen., 127; A. inca, n. sp., 128. 

Autogneta longilamellata amicus, n. subsp., 11. 

Babcock, O. G. & Ewing, H. E., article by, 197. 

Bacillus larvae, exposure to lethal agents, 107. 

Banks, Nathan, articles by, 125; 236. 

Banksinus, n. gen., 14. 

Barber, H. G., articles by, 87, 104. 

Blackman, M. W., articles by, 151, 204. 

Blake, Doris, Article by, 44. 

Blepharida haitiensis, n. sp., 48. 

Burnside, C. E., article by, 107. 

Busck, August, article by, 177. 

Cactopinus pini, n. sp., 153; C. rhois, n. sp., 
154; koeblei, n. sp. 156. 

Camisia segnis amicus, n. subsp., 10. 

Capophanes, n. gen., 125; C. conspersa, n. sp., 
126. 

Carabodes gibbiceps clavata, n. subsp., 13. 

Cepheus mirabiloides, n. sp., 13. 

Cerquiera, article by, 1. 

Chaetocnema pulicaria, and C. denticulata, 
descriptions of larvae of, 161. 

Chalcosicya rotunda, n. sp., 44; C. costata, n. 
sp., 45; ditrichota, n. sp., 46. 

Chapin, E. A. & Wade, J. S., article by, 147. 

Cheiropachus Westw., N. American species, 
key to, 219; C. arizonensis (Ashm.), n. 
comb., 220. 

Chrysomelidae, new species of, 44. 

Cistalia explanata, n. sp., 88. 

Crawford, J. C., articles by, 35; 109. 

Culicidae, new, Brazilian, 1. 

Cyphononyx cameroni, n. sp., 237. 

Dameolus laciniatus americanus, n. subsp., 12. 

Dendrosoter, genus in the United States, 281; 
D. sulcatus, n. sp. 284; scaber, n. sp., 285; 
integer, n. sp., 286. 

Dinagenia satyrus, n. sp., 239. 

Disonycha darlingtoni, n. sp., 50. 

Dolophilus strotus, n. sp., 118. 

Donahoe, Heber C., article by, 15. 

Empoasca vastitatus, n. sp., 136; E. vermis- 
pina, n. sp., 137; neaspersa, n. sp., 138; 
indenta, n. sp., 139; calyxa, n. sp.; sinuata, 
n. sp.; amblacantha, n. sp., 140; pelecana, 
n. sp.; varaspina, n. sp.; spiculata, n. sp., 
141; ensiformis, n. sp.; exerophila, n. sp., 
142; fuscoviridis, n. sp., 147. 

Entomological Society of Washington, minutes 
of 487th meeting, 22; 488th meeting, 56; 
489th meeting, 111; 490th meeting, 114; 
491st meeting, 131; 492nd meeting, 173; 
493rd meeting, 207; 494th meeting, 251; 
495th meeting, 287. 

Eremobelba leporosus leporoides, n. subsp., 
11; E. 1. flagellaris, n. subsp., 12. 

Ewing, H. E., Treasurer, report of, 22; articles 
by, 93; 180; 197. 


Ferreola bakeri, n. sp., 249. 

Fisher, W. S., article by, 43. 

Gahan, A. B., article by, 236. 

Galerucella immaculata, n. sp., 48. 

Gnophothrips piniphilus, n. sp., 39. 

Gurney, Ashley B., articles by, 52, 57. 

Haemogogus tropicalis, n. sp., 1; H. meso- 
dentatus, n. sp., 253; anastasionis Dyar, 
description of larva, 259. 

Hall, Maurice Crowther, obituary, 147. 

Hallock, Harding C., article by, 95. 

Haplothrips (Xylothrips) subterraneus, n. 
sp., 41. 

Hemilactia fasciata, n. sp., 50. 

Hemiptera, hypopharnx of, 228. 

Heinrich, Carl, article by, 249. 

Heteroschema rugosopuncta (Ashmead) n. 
comb.; H. punctata (Ashm.) n. comb., 223. 

Homoplectra, n. gen., 119; H. alseae, n. sp., 120. 

Honey bee, sex determination of, 105. 

Hydropsyche amblis, n. sp.; H. protis, n. sp., 
120; orris, n. n., 121. 

Insects, senses of, 25. 

Jacot, Arthur Paul, article by, 10. 

Komp, W. H. W., article by, 260; same with 
Kumm,H. W.,253. 

Bees, leaf cutting, 15. 

Leafhoppers, North American, 133. 

Limnephilus aretto, n. sp., 121. 

Macrocentrus, synonymy of genus; M. gravi- 
tarsis, n. sp., 170; infumatuus, n. sp., 172. 

McIndoo, N. E., article by, 25. 

Mecoptera, from China, 267. 

Meragenia semirufa, n. sp., 246. 

Metroppia serrata atlantica, n. subsp., 13. 

Meyrick, Edward, obituary, 177. 

Micrasema bactro, n. sp., 122. 

Micropsylloides, n. gen., 93. 

Microzetes auxiliaris appalachicola, n. subsp., 

Monodontonyx plutonis, n. sp., 237. 

Moss mites, new from Carolina, 30. 

Muesf.beck, C. F., articles by, 89, 170, 201. 

Mulberry insect, important, 249. 

Myobia claparedei Poppe, type, n. gen. 
Protomyobia, 183; M. ensifera, type n. 
gen., Radfordia, 185; M. elongata Poppe, 
type amorphacarus, n. gen., 191; M. longa, 
n. sp., 195; simplex, n. sp., 196. 

Myrmeleonidae, new, 125. 

Nefoncerus, n. gen., 101; N. convergens, n. 
sp., 102. 

Neogastrallus, n. gen., 43; n. librinocens, n. 
sp., 44. 

Neopanorpa claripennis, n. sp., 273; n. nigritis, 
n. sp.; chelata, n. sp., 274; banksi, n. sp., 
275. 

Nolan, W. J., article by, 105. 

Oman, P. W. & Wheeler, Nancy, article bv. 
133. 

Oncerinae, revision of, 99. 

Oppia minus simplex, n. subsp.; O. elongata, 
n. sp.; quadricarinata' ferrumequina, n. 
subsp., 11. 

Oribata pectopediosa, n. sp., 10. 

Panorpa flavipennis, n. sp., 268; P. curva, n. 
sp.; difficilis, n. sp., 269; tjederi, n. n., 271; 
grahami, n. sp., 272; synonymy of genus, 

Parapsyche almata, n. sp.: P. cardis, n. sp., 119. 

Paratriatoma, n. gen.; P. hirsuta, n. sp , 104. 

Paratrikona, n. sp., 51. 

Phyllophaga stohleri, n. sp., 130. 


289 



290 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 40, NO. 9, DEC., 1938 


Pikonema, nearctic species of, with key, 17; 
P. alaskensis (Rohwer) n. comb., 18; 
ruralis (Cresson) n. comb., 19. 

Pecaroecus, n. gen., 197; P. javilii, n. sp., 199. 

Platynothrus bicarinatus, n. sp., 10. 

Protomyobia, n. gen., 183. 

Psammocharidae, new, 236. 

Pseudagenia calosoma, n. sp., 242; P. moesta, 
n. sp., 243. 

Radfordia, n. gen., 185; r. subuliger, n. sp.; 
floridensis, n. sp. 187; inaequalis, n. sp., 
189. 

Rhyacophila gemona, n. sp.; r. norcuta, n. sp., 
117; pellisa, n. sp., 118. 

Ross, Herbert, articles by, 17, 117. 

Rhadinopsylla jaonis Jordan, genotype of 
Micropsylloides, 94. 

Roztrozetes foveolatus appalachicola, n. 
subsp., 13. 

Sarcophaga montanensis, n. sp., 98. 

Sawflies, spruce, 17. 

Saylor, Lawrence W., articles by, 99, 129. 


Scolytidae, new, 204. 

Sericothrips waiter!, n. sp., 36. 

Siphonaptera, new, 93. 

Smith, Marion R., article by, 157. 

Snodgrass, R. E., article by, 228. 

Stantonia lamprosemae, n. sp., 89; S. car- 
pocapsiae, n. sp., 90. 

Stenophylax indiana, n. sp., 121. 

Suctobelba grandis obtusa, n. subsp., 12. 

Treasurer, report of, 1937, 21. 

Triatominae, new, 104. 

Trichopsyllcides, n. gen.; T. oregonensis, n. 
sp., 94. 

Trichoptera, new, 117. 

Tritneptis, N. American, key to, 213; T. klugii 
(Ratz.) n. comb., 214; diprionis, n. sp., 
217; koebelei, n. sp., 218. 

Zoraptera, synopsis of, 57. 

Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, biology of, 57; 
Z. shannoni, n. sp., 66; cramptoni, n. sp., 
69; barberi, n. sp., 70; philippinensis, n. 
sp., 72. 












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CONTENTS 


CARPENTER, F. M.—MECOPTERA FROM CHINA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW 

SPECIES. 267 

KOMP, W. H. W. AND KUMM, H. W.—A NEW SPECIES OF HAEMAGOGUS, MESO- 
DENTATUS, FROM COSTA RICA, AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE LARVA OF 
HAEMAGOGUS ANASTASIONIS DYAR (DIPTERA, CULICIDAe). 253 

KOMP, W. H. W.—AEDES LEUCOTAENIATUS, A NEW SPECIES OF AEDES 
ALLIED TO A. LEUCOCELAENUS D. & S.; AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE 
MALE AND LARVA OF A. LEUCOCELAENUS D. & S. (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE . . 260 

MUESEBECK, C. F. W.—THE GENUS DENDROSOTER WESMAEL IN THE UNITED 

STATES (hymenoptera: braconidae). 281 




















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